Industrial and Civil Engineering
Today the building industry is very active in all countries throughout the world. Within a short time, towns and industrial plants have been created on land where there were quiet forests and small villages but a few years a go. Modern life of the twentieth century has set its stamp on the methods of building as well.
Apart from blocks of flats and imposing buildings for governments and parliaments, also hospitals, schools and universities, sport installation and other large-scale structures are required.
Just as enormous, however, are the buildings required for new industrial power stations, machine-factories, rolling mils etc.
In our day, it is no longer possible to meet the ever increasing demand for new buildings by employing the conventional working methods of the buildings by trades used by masons and carpenters in the days of old. New, time-and material-saving processes had, therefore, to be found in order to build an ever increasing rate.
This great construction has become possible due to the application of industrial housing techniques and the use of standard projects. Over the past few years thousands of construction sites have developed into assembly grounds. Here buildings and other structures are assembled with the use of various machines.
All the prefabricated ferro-concrete structural units and parts for these buildings are manufactured at house-building plants and are delivered to the construction site ready for assembly.
The basic trend of industrial housing construction at present is large-panel construction and it is expected to become the predominating construction method in the near future.
Another interesting trend, which is a great achievement of industrial technique of housing construction, is the use of block units. This method saves even more lime in construction than the above-mentioned one. Thus a 5-story block of flats was built in Noviye Cheryomushki district in Moscow and turned over to its new occupants in five days.
The general trend of big-panel construction has brought into being a new industry. Thousands of plants and factories making structural elements for apartment houses are already functioning or are to be opened in various parts of our country. As a rule these plants have full technological cycle, which goes all the way from the manufacture of structural elements to their assembly at the building site.
The house-building plants have a very encouraging future. Let's speak of one of such plants. All the processes are mechanized and automated. On the TV screens, the man at the control desk watches the structural elements, walls, supports, foundations, floorings, etc., moving along the conveyors in the huge shops. At the flick of a knob the liquid concrete is poured into huge moulds where it sets into required shapes. Sometimes these are big panels with walls already complete with windows and cornices, whole floorings and staircases, complete with landings, The walls are gaily papered, the flooring is of synthetic ‘‘parquet’’, the windows are glazed; the heating fitments are already in place and there are built-in cupboards. The basic design unit is either a two-room block of kitchen-plus-staircase elements blocks, each block being a complete finished product, ready for transportation. The whole block is loaded onto a trailer and towed off to the building site to be assembled.
While the building components are being made in the factory the site for the building is leveled and reinforced concrete piles are driven by a vibro-hammer and topped with prefabricated base units. On arrival the prefabricated flats ace picked up by a 35 ton portal crane, placed in position and joined together by welding.
As we can see today, the modern building site has been turned into an industrial plant where complicated machinery centuples the labour power of man.
Architecture is the art of building according to principles determined not only by the purposes the structure is to serve, but also by considerations of beauty and harmony.
The task of an architect is to design beautiful and comfortable apartment houses, public buildings and industrial enterprises. It is an important and honourable task
The word "architecture" comes from a Greek word "architecon" which meant the chief builder. It is the architect who is the first person to plan any building. He chooses the style and determines the size of the structure, its layout and architectural appearance suitable for the purpose.
The architect must coordinate the work of a big group of specialists concerned with the construction of a building (a sanitary engineer, a construction engineer, a planning expert and many others). Very often the skill and talent of the architect decide the success of the whole work.
The architectural speciality of Ural State Technical University trains not only painters who are able to create monuments, memorial parks and interiors of important big public buildings but engineers who can successfully solve different practical problems of construction and architecture.
The graduates of the chair of architecture work in various towns and cities of our country and abroad. Some of them are head architects of designing offices, and whole towns while the others are the authors of many civil and industrial construction designs.
The basis of the architectural speciality is architectural designing which helps students to acquire practical knowledge of architecture from the very first year of their studies here such as volume and space, architectural elements of buildings and their shapes, proportions, tectonic structure and harmony as well as elements of architectural drawing. The would-be architects design first rather simple and further on more and more complicated structures.
Great attention is paid to the knowledge of monuments of classical architecture, the architecture of Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, the Renaissance as well as various modern styles both in our country and abroad.
In addition to special architectural subjects some general construction engineering disciplines are absolutely necessary for a future architect. These are:
1. Building materials.
2. Construction technology.
3. Footings and foundations.
4. Theory and designing of reinforced concrete, steel and timber units.
5. Various elements of buildings such as:
a) precast and monolithic foundations;
b) bearing and curtain walls;
c) floors, stairs, windows, stained-glass panels, lanterns, roofs and so on.
The university gives the fundamentals of all these disciplines. The instruction is given by specialists highly qualified in the field of civil and industrial architecture and all branches of construction engineering. The knowledge obtained at the institute will form a solid basis for the future practical work of the architect, for his fruitful creative work.
The engineer dealing with town planning and construction is confronted with a great variety of engineering problems. A railway engineer must know principally about railways; an electrical engineer must know about lightning, heating and power, a sanitary engineer must know water purification and about sewerage; but a city engineer should know about these and many other branches of engineering. Certain principles of city planning are now generally accepted and every town should have a comprehensible plan comprising all information concerning streets, parks and public buildings; all public services, such as transportation, lighting, heating and water supply; distribution of population and industries; the housing of people, sizes and type of houses, size of yards, distances to parks and so on. All this comes within the scope of activities of a city engineer.
Не нашли то, что искали? Воспользуйтесь поиском гугл на сайте: