Условные предложения трех типов
Обстоятельственные придаточные предложения условия вводятся союзами:
if - если (бы)
in case - в случае
provided, providing - при условии
unless - если не
but for - если бы не
Условные предложения делятся на три типа:
а)Предложение первого типа выражает реальное (выполнимое) условие, может относиться к любому времени и переводится изъявительным наклонением.
If somebody wants to design a car of advanced type, he must take into account the properties of some of the materials.
Если кто-нибудь хочет сконструировать автомобиль новой конструкции, он должен принять во внимание свойства некоторых новых материалов.
б) Предложения второго типа употребляются для выражения нереального или маловероятного предположения, относящегося к настоящему или будущему времени, переводятся сослагательным наклонением (с частицей бы)
If we reduced material expenditutes in production of just one per cent, we should get extra five thousand million roubles in national income.
Если бы мы сократили материальные затраты производства хотя бы на один процент, мы бы получили свыше 5 млн. руб. национального дохода.
в) Предложения третьего типа употребляются для выражения нереального (невыполняемого) предположения, т.к. относится к прошедшему времени. Переводятся сослагательным наклонением.
If we have tested this material, we should have used it in our construction.
Если бы мы испытали этот материал, мы бы использовали его на нашей стройке.
В условных предложениях 2-го и 3-го типов могут употребляться глаголы might, could и переводиться возможно, вероятно, мог бы. Глаголы should, would- не переводятся. Во всех 3-х типах условных предложений союзы могут быть опущены, если в придаточных предложениях есть глаголы had, were, could, might, should. В случае отсутствия союза предложение начинается с одного из этих глаголов, перевод начинается с союза «если бы».
Were there no atmosphere, the surface of the Earth would become too hot by day and too cold by night.
Если бы не было атмосферы, то на земле было бы очень жарко днем и очень холодно ночью.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territory of the Russian Federation stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, from the Arctik Ocean in the north to the Sea of Asov in the south. It occupies the northen part of Asia and the eastern part of Europe.
Russia borders on many countries. Due to the large territory, the climate and nature are of various types in our country.
Russia is a country of thick forests and wide valleys, of high mountains and bare deserts. The largest rivers are the Volga, the Ob, the Yenisey, the Lena. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources. There are deposits of oil, gas, coal, gold, iron and many others.
The main industrial centers of Russia are: Vladivostok, Voronezh, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Novgorod,Saratov, Khabarovsk, St. Petersburg and others.
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. Moscow is a political, economical and cultural center of the country. Our capital is rich in monuments, museums, art galleries, stadiums, cinemas, concert halls, theatres. The Kremlin Museum, the Battle of Borodino Panorama Museum, the Tretyakov Art Gallery and others are well-known sights.
Russia is a Presidential Republic. The head of the state is President elected for four years. The legislative power in the country is in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers: the Upper Chamber is the Counsil of Federation and the Lower Chamber is the State Duma. The President forms the Government and appoints the Prime Minister.
The State symbol of Russia is a three - coloured flag. It has three horisontal stripes: white, blue and red. White colour represents “peace”, blue colour represents “loyalty” and red colour stands for “valour”.
The state emblem of Russia is a double-headed eagle, the most ancient symbol going back to the dynasty of the Riuricovichies.
The population of Russia is now about 150 million people.
The United Kingdom
The United Kindom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) consists of four main countries which are: England, Scotland, Wales and Nothern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast.
The UK is an island state: it is composed of some 5 500 islands, large and small. The two main islands are Great Britain (in which are England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland. They are separeted by the Irish Sea.
The UK is one of the world’s smaller countries. It’s situated off the northwest coast of European continent and is washed by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover.
English is the official language. But it is not the only language which people use in the UK. Some people speak Scottish, Welsh and Irish.
The population of the United Kingdom is over 57 million people.
The climate in the UK is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The weather is so changeable that the English say that they have no climate but only weather. It is never too hot or too cold. It rains very often. Snow may come, but it melts very quickly. The thick fog is the worst feature of the British climate.
The formal name of the British national flag is Union Flag know as the ‘‘Union Jack’’ (it combines the St. George’s cross of England, St. Andrew’s cross of Ireland).
The red rose is the nation emblem of England, the thistle is the Scots national emblem, the daffodil is the Welsh emblem, the little shamrock is the national emblem of the Irish. One can see two animals on British royal coat of arms. One of them is the lion. The “king of beast” has been used as a symbol of national strength and of the British monarchy for many centuries. The other one is the unicorn. is the mystical animal, that looks like horse with a long straight horn growing from the forehead, and is a symbol of purity.
The UK is a very highly developed industrial country. The major industrial cities are London, Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpol, Bristol, Glasgow. London is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people. It is a big port and most important comercial, manufacturing and cultural center (there is little heavy industry in London, but there is a whole range of light industry in Greater London). The City is the heart of London. It is the financial center of the UK with many banks, offices and the Stock Exchange.
The United Kingdom is the constitutional monarchy. The monarch (a king or a queen) is the Head of State, but his power is limited by the Parliament.
The Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords and the queen as its head. The British parliamentary system depends on political parties. The party which wins the majority of seats forms the Government and the leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The main political parties are Conservative and Labour and the Party of Liberal Democrats. Once the British Empire included a large number of countries all over the world ruled by Britain. An association of former members of the British Empire and Britain was founded in 1949. It is called the Commonwealth. The Queen of Great Britain is also the Head of the Commonwealth. In Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents.
Heat Power Engineering
My future speciality is heat-engineering. We use heat to do a lot of useful things to heat our homes, to transport us from one place to another and so on. Scientists and specialists of our country made great contribution to the development of this branch of energetics.
The present thermal power stations are not ecologically pure. So scientists try to replace the conventional fuel (gas, oil, coal) with adequate one such as tidal energy, wind energy, solar energy which have no environmental pollution effect. It is planned to construct an experimental thermal power station powered by hot subterranean water. The hot subterranean water is now being used for heating blocks of flats and hothouses and for medical purposes in Kamchatka, for instance.
The time is not far off when this cheap thermal energy will be widely used in the economy making possible to employ such valuable raw materials as coal, oil, gas mainly in the chemical industry.
The main task facing heat power engineers is to increase many times the capacity of the thermal power plants and to equip them with high-capacity heat-engineering units.
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