UNIT IV. CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
International Civil Aviation Organization is the most authoritative and representative Organization in the sphere of civil aviation which operates within the framework of the UNO. It was founded in 1944 in Chicago. The main objective of the Organization is stated in its main document Chicago Convention adopted in Chicago on the 7th of December 1944 by 52 contracting states. It is to ensure safe and orderly development of international civil aviation, sound and economical operation of international air transport.
Permanent headquarters of ICAO is in Montreal, Canada.
ICAO has a Sovereign body, the Assembly, and agoverning body, the Council. The Assembly meets once every 3 years. All contracting states participate in the work of the Assembly Session. They enjoy equal rights and each has one vote. The Assembly introduces changes and amendments to the Chicago Convention, decides upon financial help to member countries, elects its Executive body -the Council. So the Council is a permanently operating body which does the whole work in between Assembly sessions and which is responsible to the Assembly. The Council elects its President for the term of 3 years. He may be reelected. The whole work is carried out by the Council through Committees and Commissions. The Council elects and defines the duties of the following Committees: Air Navigation Commission, Air Transport Committee, Legal Committee, Finance Committee and Economic Commission, the Committee on Unlawful Interference. Air Navigation Committee deals with the problems of regularity and safety of flights. It works out Standards and Recommended Practice. They are issued in the form of annexes to the Chicago Convention. Air Transport Committee is concerned with the efficiency of international air transportation. Legal Committee works out recommendations oh the issues of international air law. Finance Committee controls financial activities of IСАО. The main objective of Economic Commission is technical assistance to developing countries.
14. INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS( Individual work)
It is known that the pioneers of aviation were men of different nationalities and of many countries: Deadalus and Leonardo de Vinci, Lilienthal and Bleriot, Mozhaiski and the Wright brothers and others. So the aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and efforts. A peculiarity of air transport made it clear from the start that the development of aviation was impossible without international agreement. That's why the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created. It happened in 1944 at a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago. At present there are about 200 member States in ICAO. Its headquarters is in Canada, Montreal. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. Russia has been the member of ICAO since 1970 .
It is very difficult to describe all of ICAO's activities. ICAO solves many problems on the international level. ICAO has a coordination agency. One of its purposes is to gather knowledge widely scattered among nations and to standardize the equipment and operational techniques used in air navigation in and over the territories of its member-states. The main task of ICAO is the flight safety. The aims of the Organization are spelt out in Article 44 of the Chicago Convention. These are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation, to plan and develop international air transport; to encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; to encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation, and so on.
To ensure the safe and efficient worldwide aviation operation ICAO has developed technical specifications forming the basis for uniform rules and procedures. Standardization affects the air-worthiness of aircraft, facilities and services required for aircraft operations elsewhere. These include: aerodromes, communications, navigational aids, meteorology, air traffic services, .search and rescue, information services. ICAO is doing much to make the air more clear. There are special standards to reduce noise by designing new quieter aircraft. ICAO has set up standards for air crew and controllers as well. IСAO is also doing much to prepare and train aviation specialists.
The second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation is IATA - International Air Transport Association founded in 1945. It is one of the international civil aviation organizations uniting world airlines. IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. Its main objective is to contribute to safe and regular development of civil aviation and to cooperation of world airlines. Its Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc. All IATA members report the data on flying, taxiing and other ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Flight safety experts, aviation specialists and scientists of the member States investigate these accidents to prevent them in future. Russia is a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA's standards, procedures and documents which is of great importance for studying and solving the problems which IATA deals with.
International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association (IFATCA) was founded in 1961 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving international aviation.
Euro control is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. Some European countries have signed the agreement of cooperation for the safety of air navigation and organized common air traffic services in the upper airspace.
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. What is ICAO ?
2. When and where was ICAO created ?
3. How many member States are there in ICAO ?
4. Is Russia a member State of ICAO ?
5. How long has Russia been the member of ICAO ?
6. Where is the ICAO's headquarters ?
7. What are the working languages of ICAO ?
8. What is the main task of ICAO ?
9. Where are the main aims of ICAO spelt out ?
10. How does ICAO ensure the safe and efficient aviation operation ?
11. What for are the uniform rules and procedures required ?
12. What other international Civil Aviation Organizations do you know ?
13. What is IATA ? IFATCA ? Euro control ?
II. Перекладіть :
different – difference – differently
difficult – difficulty
active – activity
standard – standardize – standardization
equip – equipment
facility – facilitate
efficient – efficiency – efficiently
require – requirement
reduce – reduction
control – controller
investigate – investigation – investigator
prevent – prevention – preventive
III. Знайдіть у тексті еквіваленти:
воздушный транспорт, безопасность полета, конструкция самолета, навигационные средства, правила воздушного движения, авиационные специалисты, проблема безопасности, информационная служба, мировые авиакомпании, воздушная навигация, полет самолета.
1. Ясно, что невозможно обеспечить безопасный полет без международного сотрудничества.
2. ИКАО была создана в 1944 г. на Конференции 52 наций в Чикаго.
3. Штаб-квартира ИКАО находится в Канаде, в Монреале.
4. В настоящее время в ИКАО около 200 стран – членов ИКАО.
5. Россия не была членом ИКАО до 1970 г.
6. ИКАО решает много проблем, но главная из них - безопасность полетов.
7. Основная задача ИКАО – стандартизировать оборудование и технику, используемые в воздушной навигации над территориями ее стран – участников.
8. Существуют общие правила полета и процедуры, которые все страны – участники должны соблюдать.
9. Постоянный орган ИКАО - Совет.
10. Первым президентом ИКАО был Эдвард Вона.
11. Все авиационные проблемы выражены (даны) в 18 Приложениях к Конвенции.
12. ИКАО много делает для подготовки и тренировки авиационных специалистов, как пилотов, так и диспетчеров.
13. Имеется несколько других международных авиационных организаций гражданской авиации.
14. Члены ИАТА сообщают данные о катастрофах, которые произошли в их стране.
15. Эксперты ИАТА расследуют эти катастрофы, чтобы предотвратить их в будущем.
16. ИФАТКА помогает всем диспетчерам, обслуживающим международную авиацию, лучше понимать друг друга.
17. Евроконтроль был создан для лучшего обслуживания европейского воздушного пространства.
15. THE COUNCIL( Individual work)
The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. It shall be composed of 27 Contracting States elected by the Assembly. An election shall be held at the first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every three years, and the members of the Council so elected shall hold office until the next following election. In electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall give adequate representation to: 1) the States of chief importance in air transport; 2) the States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation; 3) the States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major geographic areas of the world are represented on the Council. Any vacancy on the Council shall be filled by the Assembly as soon as possible; any Contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired portion of its predecessor's term of office.
The Council shall elect its President for a term of three years. He may be reelected. He shall have no vote. The Council shall elect from among its members one or more Vice Presidents who shall retain their right to vote when serving as acting President. The President need not be selected from among the representatives of the members of the Council, but, if a representative is elected, his seat shall be deemed vacant and it shall be filled by the State which he represented. The duties of the President shall be to:
- convene meetings of the Council, the Air Transport Committee, and the Air Navigation Commission;
- serve as representative of the Council;
- carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him.
(Chicago Convention; Chapter IX;Articles 50, 51)
16. some civil aviation organizations( Individual work)
1. IATA - International Air Transport Association is the second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation. It was founded in 1945 and is uniting world airlines. The main objective of this organization is to provide safe and regular development of civil aviation and cooperation of world airlines. The IATA Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc.
2. International Civil Airports Association (ICAA) is the major international airports association. It is an organization permitting a constant exchange of experience, information and documentation among airports as well as contacts between airport managements. Founded in 1962 ICAA is doing much to help countries in developing both domestic and international airports providing specialists and equipment.
3. International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA) was founded in 1963 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving the international aviation.
4. Eurocontrol is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. The increase of fast flying civil transport aircraft brought a number of difficulties and resulted in the necessity of new operating methods and use of advanced technology. Some European countries signed an agreement to organize common air traffic control in the upper airspace.
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