Упражнение 1. Работа в парах. Спросите товарища, что он (она) будут делать завтра. Меняйтесь ролями.
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Упражнение 1. Работа в парах. Спросите товарища, что он (она) будут делать завтра. Меняйтесь ролями.





Урок V

Expressing Future Time

Future Simple / to be going to

Present Simple for the future

Present Continuous for the future

Будущее время в придаточных предложениях времени и условия

Будущее время выражается с помощью вспомогательного глагола willи первой формы глагола (глагол shall практически не употребляется в современном английском языке) и оборота to be going to. Эти формы означают практически одно и то же, но есть и различия.

Future withwill Future withto be going to
1. спонтанно принятое решение: 1. намерение:
I think I will leavefor Moscow tomorrow. I am going to leave for Moscow tomorrow.
2. прогноз, основанный на нашем предположении: 2. прогноз, вытекающий из объ-ективно существующей реальности:
I suppose he will comenext Tuesday. The birds are flying low. It is going to rain.

Кроме того, будущее время может выражаться с помощью времен Present Simpleи Present Continuous.

Present Simplefor the future Present Continuous for the future
При наличии жёстких сроков и большей степени уверенности в совершении действия: Для выражения ближайших планов и при меньшей степени уверенности (субъективно):
The train arrivesin two hours. I am going toParis in two weeks.
The conference openson the 5th of May. I am makinga presentation at the next conference.

Упражнение 1. Работа в парах. Спросите товарища, что он (она) будут делать завтра. Меняйтесь ролями.

Образец: A: Are you going to get up before 8 o’clock tomorrow?

B: Yes, I am. I’m going to get up before 8 o’clock tomorrow.

или: No, I am not. I’m not going to get up before 8 o’clock tomorrow.

1. come to class 8. go to bed late
2. stay home all day 9. get up early
3. eat lunch 10. walk to school
4. eat lunch (with someone) 11. take a bus
5. watch TV in the evening 12. study grammar
6. do something interesting 13. eat dinner
7. stay home all day 14. eat dinner alone
  15. listen to music after dinner

Упражнение 2. В следующих предложениях употребите оборот to be going to для выражения будущего времени и одно из данных под чертой выражений по смыслу:



Образец: I need to buy a book. I am going to go to the bookshop.

1. It’s midnight tonight. I’m sleepy. I … .

2. Susan is hungry. She … .

3. My clothes are dirty. I … .

4. I have a toothache. My tooth hurts. I … .

5. I’m writing a composition. I don’t know how to spell a word. I … .

6. George has to post a package. He … .

7. Jane and I want to go swimming. We … .

8. I have a headache. I … .

9. It’s late at night. I hear a burglar! I … .

10. I want to be a psychologist. When I go to the university, I … .

11. I feel terrible. I think I’m getting the flu. I … .

12. Ivan and Natasha want to go out to eat. They … .

13. It’s a nice day today. Mary and I … .

____________________________________________________________________________

call the police / get something to eat / go to the beach / go to bed / *go to the bookshop / go to an Italian restauraunt / lie down and rest for a while / look it up in my dictionary / major in psychology / see a dentist / stay in bed today / take a long walk in the park / take it to the post office / take them to the laundromat

Future Time. Наречия времени

Tomorrow (tomorrow morning / afternoon / evening / night (без предлога)  
  Next week (next month / year / weekend / spring / autumn / winter / summer / Monday…
  In … minutes / hours / days / weeks / months / years / (from now) – через 10 минут, …
     

Упражнение 3. Употребите словаyesterday, last, tomorrow,next, in, или ago в зависимости от контекста.

Образец: I went to the zoo lastweek.

1. Anita went to the zoo ….

2. Peter Nelson is going to go to the zoo … Saturday.

3. We are going to go to the zoo … two more days.

4. The children went to the zoo … morning.

5. My cousin is going to the zoo … afternoon.

6. I’m going to take a vacation on the Black Sea coast … summer.

7. We’re going to invite them for dinner … night.

8. We invited them for dinner three days ….

9. We’re going to have dinner at our friends’ … two days.

10. … evening we’re going to go to a concert.

11. … Friday I went to a party.

12. … morning the students took a rest.

13. My brother graduated from the university … spring.

14. I took a test two days ….

Упражнение 4. В следующих предложениях употребите глагол (в сокращенной форме) для выражения будущего времени.

Предложения a) Mike will goto the library tomorrow и b) Mike is going to go to the library tomorrow имеют практически одинаковое значение. Как правило, и в устной, и в письменной речи употребляется сокращённая форма глагола will‘ll с личными местои-мениями: I’ll come, You'll come, She'll come, He'll come,It'll come, We'll come, They'll come.

Сокращённая форма в отрицательном предложении will+not = = won’t:

Bob will not be here tomorrow. – Bob won’t be here tomorrow.

Образец: I’m going to arrive around six tomorrow. – I’ll arrivearound six tomorrow.

1. Fred isn’t going to come to our party.

2. He’s going to be out of town next week.

3. Tanya is going to be in class tomorrow.

4. She has a cold, but she isn’t going to stay home.

5. Jack and Peggy are going to meet us at the cinema.

6. They’re going to be there at 7.15.

7. Tina is going to stay at home and watch TV tonight.

8. This is an important letter. I’m going to send this letter by express mail.

9. Hurry up, or we’re going to be late for the concert.

10. I’m not going to be at home this evening.

11. My parents are going to stay at my grandparents’ for a few days.

Вопросы с "Will"

Question word + will+ Subject + MAIN VERB
Will Tom cometomorrow? – Yes, he will. / No, he won’t.
When will Ann arrive? – Next Saturday.

Упражнение 5. Задайте вопросы и дайте краткие ответы в зависимости от информации в скобках:

Образец: 1. A: Will you be at home tomorrow night?

B:Yes, I will.(I’ll be at home tomorrow night.)

2. A: Will Ann be at class tomorrow?

B: No, she won’t.(Ann won’t be in class tomorrow.)

3. A: When will you see Ann?

B: Tomorrow afternoon. (I’ll see Ann tomorrow afternoon.)

1. A: …

B: Yes, … . (The plane will be on time.)

2. A: …

B: Yes, …. (Dinner will be ready in a few minutes.)

3. A: …

B: No, … . (Jane and Mark won’t be at the party.)

4. A: …

B: Yes, … . (Mike will arrive in Perm next week.)

5. A: …

B: In Perm. … . (Mike will be in Perm next week.)

6. A: …

B: No, … . (I won’t be at home early tonight).

7. A: …

В.: In a few minutes. (The teacher will be back in a few minutes).

Упражнение 11. В колонке В найдите соответствия словам в колонке А.

Образец: when – когда

A B
1. when 1. пока не
2. as soon as 2. после того, как
3. before 3. если не
4. after 4. в случае, если
5. until 5. как только
6. if 6. до того, как
7. unless 7. если
8. in case 8. когда

Revision

Задание 1. Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в правильной форме в зависимости от обстоятельств.

Образец: A:What (you, do) do you doevery Friday?

B: I (come) cometo class.

1. A: What (you, do) … last Friday?

B: I (come) … to class.

2. A: What (you, do) … next Friday?

B: I (come) … to class.

3. A: What (you, do) … yesterday evening?

B: I (watch) … TV.

4. A: A: What (you, do) … tomorrow evening?

B: I (watch) … TV.

5. A: What (you, do) … right now?

B: I (do) … an exercise.

6. A: What (Maria do, do) … every morning?

B: She (go) … to work.

7. A: What (the students, do) … right now?

B: They (work) … on this exercise.

8. A: What (they, do) in class tomorrow?

B: They (take) … a test.

9. А. What (Boris, do) … last night)?

B: He (go) … to the movie.

10. A: What (the teacher, do) … every day at the beginning of class?

B: She (put) … her books on her desk, (look) … at the class, and (say) …"Good morning"’.

Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа в зависимости от обстоятельств.

1.They’ll be late for the train unless they … right now.

a) will leave c) won’t leave
b) don’t leave d) leave

2. It’s a nice day today. Mary and I … to take a long walk in the park.

a) will c) are going
b) won’t d) are

3. … he … to London tomorrow? Give him a call.

a) is … going c) will …be going
b) does … go d) shall… go

4. Please, hurry up! The London train … at 4.45.

a) will arrive c) is going to arrive
b) is arriving d) arrives

5. Don’t stand up. I … the door.

a) 'll open c) will have opened
b) am going to open d) is open

6. If it … tomorrow we’ll stay at home.

a) will rain c) rains
b) rained d) will be raining

7. When I … home, I’ll give you a call immediately.

a) came c) will come
b) come d) 'll come

8. Oh! The suitcase is very heavy. Nick … it for you.

a) is going to carry c) carries
b) is carrying d) will carry

Total: 20


Урок VI

Making comparisons

Степени сравнения прилагательных
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная
(односложные)    
old older (than) the oldest (of all)
big bigger (than) the biggest (of all)
(с окончанием -y)    
pretty prettier (than) the prettiest (of all)
easy easier (than) the easiest (of all)
(многосложные)    
expensive more expensive (than) the most expensive (of all)
  less expensive (than) the least expensive (of all)
important more important (than) the most important (of all)
  less important (than) the least important (of all)
(нестандартные)    
good better the best
bad worse the worst
much more the most
little less the least
far farther / further the farthest / furthest

Задание 2. Найдите и исправьте ошибки.

1. My brother is the same tall as my cousin.

2. A blue whale is more large from an elephant.

3. A dog is less small as a wolf.

4. Your handwriting is more better than mine.

5. Robert and Mary aren’t same age. Robert is more young than Mary.

6. A lake isn’t as deep than an ocean.

7. Maria and Rita come from same country.

8. Dogs are similar with wolves.

9. Cats are different to tigers.

10. Our ballpoint pens are like.

Total: 25.

Урок VII

Adjectives and Adverbs

Имя прилагательное (adjective)обозначает признак предмета и выполняет функцию определения существительного, тогда как Наречие (adverb) указывает на признак действия или на различные обстоятельства, при которых протекает действие. Наречие относится к глаголу и показывает как, где, когда и т. п. совершается действие.

  Adjective Adverb
а) Ann is a carefuldriver careful carefully
b) Ann drives carefully. slow slowly
  quick quickly
  easy easily

В а) прилагательноеcareful характеризует существительное driver; в b ) наречие carefullyхарактеризует действие глагола drives. Большинство наречий образуются с помощью суффикса -ly. Однако некоторые наречия совпадают по форме с прилагательными.

  Adjective Adverb
John is a fast driver. fast fast
John drives fast. hard hard
  early early
  late late
Но: good well

Упражнение 1. В следующих предложениях выберите правильный вариант.

Образец:1. quiet, quietly : My hometown is small and quiet.

2. quiet, quietly: I didn’t hear Mr. Wilson. He spoke

Quietly.

1. clear, clearly: Anna pronounces every word ….

2. clear, clearly: We like to go boating in … weather.

3. careless, carelessly: Boris makes a lot of mistakes when he writes. He’s a … writer.

4. careless, carelessly: Boris writes … .

5. easy, easily: I answered the teacher’s question … .

6. easy, easily: The teacher asked an … question.

7. good, well: You speak English very … .

8. good, well: Your English is very … .

Упражнение 2. Употребите слова, данные слева, в правильной форме (прилагательного или наречия):

1. correct: Lena gave the … answer to the question.

2. correct: She answered the question … .

3. fast: Mike is a … reader.

4. quick: Mike reads … .

5. fast: Mike reads … .

6. hard: I study … .

7. hard: The students took a … test.

8. slow: Jenny and Phil walked through the park … .

9. careless: I made some … mistakes in my last test.

10. early: Last night we had dinner … because we had to leave for the theatre at 6 p.m.

11. early: We had an …– dinner last night.

12. good: Jake has bad eyesight. He can’t see … without his glasses.

13. good: David is kind, generous and thoughtful. He is a … person.

14. easy: This is an … exercise.

15. late: I paid my telephone bill ….

Revision

Задание. Заполните пропуски словами справа в правильной форме.

Some scientists think the greenhouse effect will make the world (1 – …). Areas near the coasts will be (2 (1 – hot). (2 – cloudy) (3 – wet) (4 – much)
– …) and (3 – …). There will be (4 – …) storms.
Inland areas will have a little (5 – …) rain, but
because the temperature will be (6 – …), they will be (7 – …). Sea levels will rise. They have already risen by 15 cm since 1880. Maybe they will rise another 30 cm before 2030. But clouds reflect sunlight back into space, and maybe more clouds will make the earth (8 – …) again. Is the world’s (climate (9 – …)? We (10 – …). (5 – much) (6 – high) (7 – dry) (8 – cool) (9 – change) (10 – know, not)

Total: 10


Урок VIII

The Present Perfect

Present Perfectупотребляется для выражения
1) действия, которое произошло (или не произошло) к моменту речи (before now) в неопределенное время в прошлом. Jim hasalreadyeaten lunch. Ann hasn’t eatenlunch yet. Haveyou ever eaten at that restaurant? I’venever eatenthere.
2) действий, которые повторялись несколько или много раз в прошлом. Точное вре-мя не определено. Pete has eatenat that restaurant many times. I’ve beento that theatre five or six times. I’ve hadthree tests so far this week.
3) действий, которые начались в прошлом и продолжаются до сих пор. В этом случае употребляются союзы since(c, с тех пор) или for (в течение – указывает на продолжительность времени). Jane has lived in this city since 1989. I have knownBen for ten years. We’ve beenfriends since we were at university.
Сочетание этих двух элементов (законченность действия, его результативность, подведение итога иточка зрениясегодня-шнего дня того лица, которое пользуется глаголом в Present Perfect) надо всё время иметь в виду.

Continuous

Present Perfect
Rita has talkedto John on the phone many times. Действие происходило неоднократно в прошлом, и это имеет какое-то значение сейчас, в настоящем.
Present Perfect Continuous
Rita has been talkingto John on the phone for twenty minutes. Действие началось 20 минут назад и всё ещё продолжается, подчёркивается длительность действия.

 

С некоторыми глаголами (live, work, teach) длительность действия может быть выражена той или другой формой, при этом значение не меняется:
а) I have livedhere for two years. (более акцентируется факт)
b) I have been livinghere for two years. (акцентируется процесс)
S + have has + been + I ing

I have been studyingEnglish at this school since September.

Peter has been sleepingfor two hours.

Continuous

Present Continuous
I am sittingin class right now – действие происходит непосредственно в данный момент
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been sittingin class since 9 o’clock / for 45 minutes.  

Упражнение 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную форму в зависимости от обстоятельств.

1. Mark isn’t studying right now. He (watch) … TV. He (watch) …TV since 7 p.m.

2. Kate is standing at the corner. She (wait) … for the bus. She (wait) … for the bus for 20 minutes.

3. The post office isn’t far from here. I (walk) … there many times.

4. Right now we’re in class. We (do) … an exercise. We (do) … this exercise for an hour.

5. I’m tired. We (walk) … for more than an hour. Let’s stop and rest for a while.

6. I (read) … this chapter in my chemistry book three times, and I still don’t understand it!

7. А.: You look busy right now. What (you, do) … ?

В.: I (work) … on my physics experiment. It’s a long and difficult experiment.

А.: How long (you, work) … on it?

В.: I started planning it last January. I (work) … on it since then.

8. My eyes are getting tired. I (read) … for two hours.

9. I (write) … my parents at least a dozen times since I left home and came here.

10. Debbie is writing a letter to her boyfriend. She (write) … it since she got home from class. It’s going to be a long letter!

Упражнение 5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы. Употребитеsinceилиfor:

1. How long have you been studying English?

2. How long have you been living in Perm?

3. How long have you been studying at this school?

4. We are doing an exercise. How long have you been doing this exercise?

5. How long have you been sitting in class?

6. How long have you been wearing glasses?

7. I began to work at this school in… How long have I been working here?

Упражнение 6. В каждом фрагменте одно слово лишнее. Найдите его и выпишите.

Alice Hyde is 97. In 1911 she was became the very first Miss World. She was invited to Hollywood, but, instead, in 1912 she has married Charlie Hyde. They had five children. (1) (2) (3)
When Charlie retired, they moved to the Spain and lived there until Charlie died. Alice came back to England and bought a shop. She is said: "I’ve had a wonderful life. I’ve (4) (5) (6)
travelled. I’ve never been to Hollywood but I don’t have regret it. I’ve known true love. My Charlie was in the best husband in the world! I’m still healthy and active. I feel much younger than as 97. (7) (8) (9) (10)
I’ve just done my exercises and I’m will going to Spain for my summer holiday." (11) (12)

Total: 8

Урок IX

Урок V

Expressing Future Time

Future Simple / to be going to

Present Simple for the future

Present Continuous for the future

Будущее время в придаточных предложениях времени и условия

Будущее время выражается с помощью вспомогательного глагола willи первой формы глагола (глагол shall практически не употребляется в современном английском языке) и оборота to be going to. Эти формы означают практически одно и то же, но есть и различия.

Future withwill Future withto be going to
1. спонтанно принятое решение: 1. намерение:
I think I will leavefor Moscow tomorrow. I am going to leave for Moscow tomorrow.
2. прогноз, основанный на нашем предположении: 2. прогноз, вытекающий из объ-ективно существующей реальности:
I suppose he will comenext Tuesday. The birds are flying low. It is going to rain.

Кроме того, будущее время может выражаться с помощью времен Present Simpleи Present Continuous.

Present Simplefor the future Present Continuous for the future
При наличии жёстких сроков и большей степени уверенности в совершении действия: Для выражения ближайших планов и при меньшей степени уверенности (субъективно):
The train arrivesin two hours. I am going toParis in two weeks.
The conference openson the 5th of May. I am makinga presentation at the next conference.

Упражнение 1. Работа в парах. Спросите товарища, что он (она) будут делать завтра. Меняйтесь ролями.









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