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Ex. 1. Point out objective predicative constructions with the infinitive in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. He felt his work to be directionless, merely "copy". (F. F.) 2. She felt the wind blow cold on her back. (F. F.), 3. He watched her turn from him and run to the door. (Rob.) 4. I never saw a man pick up this work so fast. (F. F.) 5. I don't even think they heard us come in. (J. Sal.) 6. I have watched you paint a picture. (White) 7. Fanny watched Frank push away his plate. (White) 8. I never before heard him speak so much. (S. M.) 9. He had seen tigresses in the Zoo walk just like that. (S. M.) 10. With my mind's eye I saw Strickland throw his hat on a table... (S. M.) 11. I can watch your heart beat. (White) 12. Katina watched the slow smoke rise from white houses. (White) 13. "Well, what's the matter?" She broke out finally. "Do you expect me to jump up and sing?" (F. F.) 14. He had married Judy Jones and seen her fade away before his eyes. (F. F.) 15. She heard the boots squeak among the trees. (White) 16. He can make anyone talk who needs help. (Maltz) 17. I saw one of the three men start for him and I saw this man's face. (E. H.)

Ex. 2. Define the structure of objective predicative constructions with the infinitive in the following sentences.

1. She made her come down to the front. (The Pocket Book) 2. Nick's father ordered some water to be put on the stove. (E. H.) 3. He never wants anyone to carry anything. (E. H.) 4. Paul suppressed a shiver, and forced himself to ask the question uppermost in his mind. (Cron.) 5. ...everyone knew him to be feeling fine. (Sill.) 6. He dressed well and he liked his clothes to be properly looked after. (S. M.) 7. I told him everything except where I believed the papers to be hidden. (A. Chr.) 8. She caused a telegram to be sent to him. (Galsw.) 9. I thought the English were stiff, but it's wonderful the way you make me feel at home. (Galsw.) 10. He wanted them all three to walk down the street. (E. H.) 11. He saw the girl leave her chair and trip swiftly across the floor to the newcomer. (J. L.) 12. After a ten-minute wait I watched the train pull out. (J. Ch.) 13. Perhaps his wordless gaze had caused her to break silence. (Cron.) 14. Jennie was intensely sorry. She had never heard Lester complain before. (Dr.) 15. How can you expect anyone to think well of us when such things are written about us? (B. Sh.) 16. Her smile was friendly and she made you feel, that she was really pleased to see you. (Cus.)

Ex. 3. Define the meaning of the verb with which objective predicative constructions with the infinitive are used.

1. Next day, though I pressed him to remain, Stroeve left me. (S. M.) 2. 1 never heard him speak of those whose work had a certain analogy with his own. (S. M.) 3. Rusty was so busy he didn't notice her come in. (J. Ch.) 4. I am not at all sure that in her own interests I shan't require her to return to me. (Galsw.) 5. I tried to induce your father to give him the authority he desired. (A. Chr.) 6. ...he was good at court games, had a number of big game fishing records and had just shown himself to be a coward. (E. H.) 7. Your wife says that nothing you can do will ever induce her to divorce you. (S. M.) 8. She was known very soon to be the perfect parlour-maid. (S. M.) 9. I didn't mean you to hear, or that old person. (Galsw.) 10. Short of actually beating his wife, he perceived nothing to be done. (Galsw.) 11. Soames, glanced at her (Mrs. James) beneath his eyelids, nodded, and he saw Irene steal at him one of her unfathomable looks. (Galsw.) 12. So I think I'd like you to know that it's just well to be prepared, so that if she did go suddenly it wouldn't be any shock to you. (A. Chr.) 13. ...as we walked out into the snowy yard we saw the tail light of a car turn the corner at the end of the black alley. (F. F.) 14. She wanted him to see Ede with the other children — to see how dignified and polite she was. (F. F.) 1.5. Paul watched him destroy the sheet. (Cron.) 16. You could hardly have expected me to go to the garage. (P. W.)

Ex. 4. Insert the particle "to" in objective predicative constructions with the infinitive where necessary.

1. The room made him ... feel embarrassed. (The Pocket Book) 2. They want me ... run out. (Cart.) 3. When I heard him ... go downstairs I went down after him. (The Pocket Book) 4. She could not bring herself ... tell him about Vesta. (Dr.) 5. Paul felt his heart ... melt. (Cron.) 6. Suddenly he saw her ... rise and ... turn away. (Galsw.) 7. At first he had believed them ... be married. (Dr.) 8. The colonel ordered everyone ... wear a gas mask. (R. Aid.) 9. My feelings as a father and a husband compel me ... ask you yet again whether you will not reconsider your decision. (R. Aid.) 10. I forced him ... eat, and after luncheon I induced him ... lie down, but he couldn't sleep. (S. M.) 11. I told the driver ... take me to the hospital fast. (J. Ch.) 12. I never knew him ... stand and ... look at that beautiful, calm face. (Vickers) 13. She let her eyes ... rest on Jan`s scarcely touched tray. (Cus.) 14. She made George ... acknowledge that it was no use to throw away all the beautiful things. (S. M.) 15. And, returning with the packet in her hand, she suddenly observed Richard ... emerge from the drawing-room. (Cron.) 16. Did you see Miss Perbmarch ... enter or ... leave the house? (A. Chr.) 17. ... middle age and pressure of business forced him ... give up hunting. (S. M.) 18. She persuaded him ... see a doctor. (Dr.)

Ex. 5. Form objective predicative constructions with the infinitive out of the elements in brackets.

1. I don't wish (you, to understand) me. (Cron.) 2. When he came in he wanted to call you, but I persuaded (he, to wait) until morning. (Dr.) 3. I cannot allow (you, to throw) away an enormous property like this. (B. Sh.) 4. Soames must have been pressing (she, to go) back to him again, with public opinion and the law on his side, too! (Galsw.) 5. Then she turned to the window and asked (me, to open) it. (Galsw.) 6. Now, can I trouble (you, to come) in here? (The Clocks) 7. I saw (my mother, to pause) and (to put) her hand to her forehead. 8. He controlled himself, and clenching his teeth, set (oneself, to read). (Cron.) 9. She laughed and I heard (she, to strike) a match. (Gr. Gr.) 10. Old Jolyon watching from his corner saw (his brother's face, to change). (Galsw.) 11. Maybe I could get (he, to pay) her seventy-five a week. (J. Ch.) 12. He was well set up too, a good figure, blemished only by an accident at football which caused (he, to turn) in his right foot slightly when he walked. (Cron.) 13. The daughter turned uneasily not because it irritated her to work, but because she hated (people, to guess) at the poverty that made it necessary. (Dr.) 14. He flushed indignantly but forced (oneself, to answer)... (Cron.) 15. He could trust his cook to send in a meal that his guests would take pleasure in eating and desired (his parlour-maid, to wait) with neatness and dispatch. (S. M.) 16. I felt they expected (I, to say) clever things, and I never could think of any till after the party was over. (S. M.) 17. It was a serene, quiet, satisfied smile — and again Renisent felt (a tide of revolt, to rise) in her. (A. Chr.) 18. That at all events she understood, and then she heard (he, to bolt) the door. (S. M.) 19. From now on I'll have (you, to know) this is my business. (Cus.) 20. That's the way I meant (it, to be). (E. H.)

Ex. 6. Recast the following sentences so as to use objective predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. I still consider we were right to resist them. 2. They required that I should arrive at 8 a.m. 3. The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 4. I believe they are very good in physics and other pure sciences... 5. He... did what he could, though considered he got little thanks for^ it from his wife and five kids. 6. And she saw that the lower part of her face was twisted out of shape. 7. He gazed across! at Grace... watching her as she dealt with the marmalade. cheerfully and happily. 8. He felt that she was unreasonable and unjust. 9. He knew he was a bad leader. 10. I think his father is one of the heads in Universal Stores. 11. He thought I was just a kid to be ordered. 12. I don't expect you'll think of me. 13. I think both of you are too simple to be dishonest.

Ex. 7. Complete the following so as to use objective predicative construction» with the infinitive.

1. She saw two of the girls... . 2. I have never heard... . 3. She felt the wind... . 4. Andrew Manson considered his work... . 5. They had no money, no experience, nothing but a desire to make a dream... . 6. He watched and suddenly he saw her... . 7. He liked to see people... . 8. Well, I let them... . 9. The window was open, and he could hear somebody... . 10. She was asleep when we returned from the market, but at once got up when she heard us... . 11. Will you come over and watch me.. . 12. You will then allow me... . 13. I say that certain things are to be done, but I don't order anybody... . 14. He was right, but something warned me.... 15. Obviously, he was not so strong as she had thought him... 16. I am sorry but my experience compels me... . 17. She had been almost afraid to ask him and when she forced herself... . 18. When you get this, I want you not... . 19. There was a shock and he felt himself... .

Ex. 8. Point out subjective predicative constructions with the infinitive in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. But I don't happen to know anything. (J. Sal.) 2. The tomb appeared to be that of the king. (A. Chr.) 3. You would never be likely to fall in love with me. (A. Chr.) 4. It doesn't seem to do her any harm, that's the cheeriest thing about it. (A. Chr.) 5. We are working now and we'll be sure to pay you Saturday. (Dr.) 6. I was not sure how a reporter was supposed to behave on occasions like this. (M. D.) 7. Blanch Stroeve loved working about the studio she happened to be living in and took pride in keeping it in apple-pie order. (S. M.) 8. It's thrilling to watch the blossoming of a young girl, particularly when she happens to be one's daughter. (White) 9. He thinks she's a stenographer but she turns out to be a writer. (F. F.) 10. She would be sure to throw her arms round his neck and say, "Oh, Jo, how I make you suffer!" (Galsw.) 11. A motor containing two foreigners is quite likely to have been noticed. (A. Chr.) 12. ...the pot was raised higher and higher and its contents appeared to be getting less and less. (S. M.) 13. We have not been required to undertake any work. (M. S.) 14. I don't happen to see any difference between them. (J. Sal.) 15. That is supposed to be a rose. (White)

Ex. 9. Define the structure of subjective infinitive constructions with the infinitive in the following sentences.

1. "I'm not going to stand it," he is declared to have said. (S. M.) 2. He seemed to be turning it over in his mind. (P. W.) 3. Old Thomas, the groom, had been taken with jaundice and Andrew was compelled to make his rounds on foot. (Cron.) 4. The changes are likely to be announced in the April Budget. (M. S.) 5. Recent attack of typhoid, from which he was thought to be recovering proves fatal. (Dr.) 6. The old man seemed to have lived a life on the roads. (F. C.) 7. The picture is supposed to be the passage of the Red Sea. (Cain) 8. Kilimanjaro is a snow covered mountain and is said to be the highest mountain in Africa. (E. H.) 9. The company was reported to be paying starvation wages to its black workers. (M. S.) 10. Yet now few will be found to deny his greatness. (S. M.) 11. He was known to have refused office in the interests of his profession. 12. He was compelled to write his weekly review. (R. Aid.) 13. At the end of ten minutes he appeared to have solved his troubles with the machine. (Ward) 14. ...he was known to be one of the best shots in England. (S. M.) 15. The two have been observed to meet daily during the past week in Richmond Park. (Galsw.) 16. He was forced to give up work last December because of chronic arthritis. (M. S.) 17. I am thought to have so much influence in the getting of offices. (The Best Plays) 18. Saddle, as you know, did turn to be a star. 19. Some members of the action committee are believed to have spoken yesterday. (M. S.)

Ex. 10. Define the meaning of the verb and word groups with which subjective infinitive constructions with the infinitive are used.

1. He could be made to fight easily enough. (Dr.) 2. I was known to be nearsighted. (Satire.) 3. Your lungs appear to be all right. (P. W.) 4. ...on the following afternoon Jame chanced to be a witness of some resulting actions. (Ward) 5. Children appear to go through definite stages as they develop. (M. S.) 6. He seemed to be wondering whether much anxiety of mind had affected his eyesight. (P. W.) 7. I have often thought, Lester, if mamma had not been compelled to worry so much she might be alive today. (Dr.) 8. The past I looked at seemed to have its reality. (S. M.) 9. They were seen to just touch each other's hands. (Galsw.) 10. After that Tommy was forced to admit the prospect looked dreary. (A. Chr.) 11. But he was expected to go down to keep up his father's prestige. (Lind.) 12. She seemed to know most of the Blackstable news. (S. M.) 13. Before Krebs went away to the war he had never been allowed to drive the family motor-car. (E. H.) 14. But perhaps her father could be induced to remain silent. (Dr.) 15. They've been known to chap holes in the roof. (Cain) 16. Jennie was finally compelled to tell Vesta that Lester's fortune had been dependent on his leaving her. (Dr.) 17. ...the two sides are expected to meet again next week. (M. S.) 18. So he was found to be unfit for active service... (R. Aid.) 19. ...when he was brought to Charing Cross Hospital life was found to be extinct. (S. M.)

Ex. 11. Recast the following sentences so as to use subjective predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. It seems that he is not in the habit of coming in time. 2. They say that he is honest. 3. A group of people at the gangway saw that the boat came into harbour. 4. It appeared that he had done it well. 5. It was not likely that he was going to be drawn into an argument. 6. The man had read his papers, it seemed. 7. It is very unlikely they would allow her to see visitors at this time of night. 8. It was felt that she was perfectly capable of taking care of herself. 9. It is believed that his advice was ignored. 10. It appeared that Betty was delighted. 11. It is pretty unlikely that they would approve of it. 12. It appears that they have some difficulties with the car.

Ex. 12. Recast the following sentences with subjective predicative constructions with the infinitive so as to use complex sentences.

1. David seemed rather at a loss for the moment. 2. Everything that evening seemed to be ironical. 3. But to Aunt Ann they seemed all Forsytes. 4. He had a patriarchal look and in spite of lean cheeks seemed master of perennial youth. 5. I happened to be staying for a long weekend not far from Tercanbury. 6. Now and again her glance rested on him for a moment and I seemed to see in her expression not only7 love but fondness. 7. You two seem to be having such a wonderful time together. 8. ...he appeared to be fast asleep. 9. She seemed to know all that was going on there. 10. I'm not supposed to have seen him for two years. 11. ...active members of the party were simply permitted to speak for themselves. 12. On Friday letters might be expected to arrive at his rooms. 13. She must be made to understand. 14. Something stronger than myself seemed to be holding me back and urging me not to enter.

Ex. 13. Choose any sentence and use it in your own situation.

1. Then we came nearer, and I seemed to recognize it. 2. She seemed to see nothing. 3. She seemed to be making very lame excuses. 4. The newcomer seemed to feel that he ought to enter the spirit of this long-distance conversation. 5. He seemed scarcely to see her. 6. She seemed to speak every language with ease. 7. By the way, I seem to know the name. 8. She seemed to be much more at home there. 9. She seemed to have been out for a moment.

Ex. 14. Paraphrase the following using subjective predicative constructions with the infinitive.

Model: He was taken aback (to seem). He seemed to be taken aback.

1. She is busy today (to seem). 2. The situation has changed a lot (to appear). 3. The Crimea was visited by numerous hikers last summer (to know). 4. He didn't have any money with him (to happen). 5. This path is used quite often nowadays (to appear). 6. Nobody knew the way, so I had to return (to happen). 7. His plan is rather unrealistic (to appear). 8. She wasn't properly dressed (to happen). 9. Amy Driffield would never speak to me again (unlikely). 10. He was in high spirits when he got out of the train (to seem). 11. He lived with an uncle and aunt on the outskirts of a little Kentish town by the sea (to be known). 12. He got a scholarship to Wadham. 13. We filled in Driffield's study; it was a large room on the other side of the house (to appear).

Ex. 15. Complete the following so as to use subjective predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. The girl seems... . 2. The weather appears... . 3. You are supposed... . 4. Our friends are sure... . 5. It is wonderful how everything seems... . 6. He said somebody was supposed... . 7. Everything that morning seemed... . 8. Several thousand people are expected... . 9. Your home during the last few years seems... . 10. I will not deny that several times I was tempted... .11. None will accompany me, and I am forced... . 12. It's hard for us to understand how such a thing is permitted... . 13. As a result, when they were told..., they did it. 14. She was sure that he should be made... . 15. I admit he seemed... . 16. What time are you supposed...? 17. The train was seen... . 18. This was supposed... . 19. They might be made... .

Ex. 16. Define the function of the f or-to-infinitive construction.

1. Theodora Goodman sat in the hall near the reception desk and waited for somebody to come. (White). 2. My friend motioned for him to come in. (E. H.) 3. Well, seventy was the outside limit, it was then time, George said, for them to go and leave their money to their children. (Galsw.) 4. ...in their shrill laughter he found a terrible dissonance that made him pray for the twilight to come. (F. F.) 5, "You should ask your Violet Adams to Merve," said mother, waiting for father to bring round the horses. (White) 6. "It's not for me to disagree there," said Jolyon, "but that's all quite beside the mark." (Galsw.) 7. She waited for Violet to say something. (White) 8. "When will you marry me?" "Are you ready for me to marry you?" (F. F.) 9. ...it was good experience for me to see it to its completed form. (M. D.) 10. "This question of company," he said, "is something for me to decide." (White) 11. The lady was speaking too fast for me to catch what she said. (A. Chr.) 12. It would not be possible for a human and intelligent person to invent a rational excuse for slavery. (M. T.) 13. They told him to be a good boy and wait for them to come home in the evening. (W. S.) 14. It was instinctive now for him to take her into his confidence. (Cron.) 15. Theodora sat down. Confident her intuition would identify, she waited for Lieselotte to appear. (White) 16. ...they thought it was better for me to live in a place like this. (A. Chr.)

Ex. 17. Point out the for-to-infinitive construction in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1.So now she waited for Frank to speak. (White) 2. Theodora waited many days for something to happen, but it did not. (White) 3. Theodora sat and waited for Violet to speak. (White) 4. "We have a number of interesting personalities I shall be glad for you to meet," said Elsie. (White) 5. You waited for the red moon to crash like a thunderous gong. (White) 6. I have arranged for Sister Marie to board with her. (A. Chr.) 7. I should have thought it would be much easier for you to stand that. (A. Chr.) 8. "That's easy for you to say," began Gordon, his eyes narrowing. (F. F.) 9. You all used to be so sweet and loving to each other, it was a joy for me to see you. (J. Sal.) 10. Theodora waited for the clear glaze of morning to split. (White) 11. It was impossible for me to persuade myself that this urgent desire of his was disinterested. (S. M.) 12. In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. (S. M.) 13. They were grouped about the mother, waiting for something to happen. (White.) 14. She decided that she would wait for Holstius to come.

Ex. 18. Form for-to-infinitive constructions using the words in brackets in the appropriate form.

1. Although it was a busy section, it would be hard for (I, to name) the business that comprised its activity. (F. F.) 2. I am going to ring the bell for (the visitors, to go). (A. Chr.) 3. ...it's a bit technical here and there for (I, to follow). (A. Chr.) 4. My friend motioned for (he, to come) in. (E. H.) 5. It is not necessary for (I, to explain) that we are twins. (White) 6. Waiting for (the hymn, to stop) she watched the light blaze. (White) 7. Theodora waited for (she, to go). (White) 8. It was easy enough for (the drivers, to get) in that way. (A. Chr.) 9. It is so unusual for (a man, to bring) home a thing like this. (A. Chr.) 10. It's no easv thing for (I, to get hold) of it. (F. F.) 11. He didn't answer and I waited for some time for (he, to speak). (S. M.) 12. She waited for (some act) that still had (to perform). (White) 13. Often enough Theodora wondered whether it was time for (she, to go). (White) 14. Now I longed for (they, to return) to me. (White) 15. Theodora looked for (some other object, to concentrate). (White) 16. It would be fine for (her folks, to have her back home) after so much travelling around. (White) 17. He listened to her with what looked like polite interest, putting in now and then a remark in a voice too low for (I, to catch). (S. M.)

Ex. 19. Respond to the following questions using for-to-infinitive constructions.

Model: Whom is she waiting for?—> She is waiting for her daughter to come from school.

1. Why is it necessary for her to translate this article? 2. What is it for her to decide? 3. Why is it good experience for me to read books in the original? 4. Who told him to wait for them to return? 5. What do you think will be more sensible for him to do? 6. Why are you sure it'll be better for you to live in the country this summer? 7. What does she seem to be waiting for? 8. Why is it impossible for me to join them? 9. What have you arranged for her to do? 10. Wouldn't it be better for us to learn more about each other? 11. Why was it difficult for you to persuade him to come to see us? 12. When is it time for me to ring the bell? 13. Why was it not easy for the drivers to ride the cars that day? 14. Why does she long for them to return home? 15. Would it be easy for you to go there?

Ex. 20. Complete the following so as to use for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. The best thing for you... . 2. I am very anxious for ... . 3. I have arranged for... . 4. It took a moment for... . 5. It would be much easier for... . 6. She was sitting and waiting for someone... . 7. It's not for her... . 8. It was bad experience for me... . 9. It's something for her... . 10. It would be more sensible for... . 11. It would be better for... . 12. There will be many interesting people for you... . 13. It would be possible for... . 14. She has arranged everything for... . 15. It took ten minutes for... . 16. It is a joy for him... . 17. It would be hard for her... . 18. It was easy enough for... . 19. It is unusual for a person... . 20. It's time for me....

Ex. 21. Translate info Russian paying attention to infinitive constructions.

1. We walked to the door and I saw her go in and down the hall. (E. H.) 2. Lawyers just know the law; they don't seem to have any kind of natural sense. (A. Chr.) 3. There was no one in Washington for him to see — but he was watching Jonquil narrowly... (F. F.) 4. I want you to answer my one question. Is he going to be on this train? (F. F.) 5. She saw two of the girls exchange glances. (F. F.) 6. I don't suppose that it would be likely to happen in any case. (A. Chr.) 7. I've got him here now" for you to see. (A. Chr.) 8. She appeared not to have read anything since she left school. (M. D.) 9. I've never heard her say anything to a boy except that it's hot or the floor's crowded. (F. F.) 10. "Where on earth did you get hold of him, Ellen?" "On the train," she answered. Immediately she seemed to regret this admission. (F. F.) 11.1 believe he had a sister living at Exeter and I think I have heard him mention a nephew or nephews. (A. Chr.) 12. "Hello, George. I didn't see you come in." (F. F.) 13. I heard her come in the bedroom and hid the score under my pillows (Cain) 14. She will expect you to marry, a doctor ought to marry. (B. Sh.) 15. She could not allow the poor fellow7 to go about in a dirty shirt. (S. M.) 16. I heard her put a tray down on the end of the bed. (Gr. Gr.) 17. She made me translate what she could only express in her own tongue. (S. M.) 18. I never heard him say he was satisfied yet. (B. Sh.) 19. He expected her to walk to the main road. (Sill.)

Ex. 22. Translate into English using subjective predicative constructions.

1. Говорят, что он живет где-то на Крайнем Севере. 2. Считали, что она прекрасно играет в теннис. 3. Известно, что в Советском Союзе книги издаются на многих языках. 4. Было известно, что он принимал участие в этой экспедиции. 5. Можно считать, что этот вопрос уже решен. 6. Вряд ли игра закончится вничью. 7. Она оказалась хорошим преподавателем. 8. Я уверена, что вам понравится этот спектакль. 9. Новая картина молодого художника, выставленная в музее, оказалась интересной. 10. Похоже на то, что она приняла его предложение. 11. Как оказалось, вечер прошел успешно. 12. Как оказалось, вопрос был не по существу. 13. Вероятно, вам придется некоторое время подождать. 14. Говорят, что его старшая сестра занимается художественной гимнастикой уже три года. 15. Я, кажется, знаю этого человека. В юности он был отличным бегуном, а теперь, говорят, он тренирует молодых спортсменов. 16. Известно, что первые Олимпийские игры состоялись в 1896 году в Афинах. 17. Кажется, этот пассажир не выходит из каюты уже 2 дня. С ним что-нибудь случилось?—Да, он страдает морской болезнью. 18. Известно, что в 1900 году в Олимпийских играх впервые принимали участие женщины.

Ex. 23. Translate into English using objective predicative constructions.

1. Мы видели, что студенты разговаривали с деканом. 2. Она видела, что он взял эту книгу. 3. Я не хочу, чтобы вы приходили так рано. 4. Вы заметили, как она ушла? 5. Я ожидаю, что она вернется около пяти. 6. Он видел, что она сидела в кресле и просматривала журналы. 7. Он не слышал, как его дочь вошла в комнату. 8. Вы слышали, как он говорит по-английски? 9. Когда я вошла в комнату, я увидела, что она писала письма. 10. Его мать хочет, чтобы он стал врачом. 11. Я не спала и слышала, как она вышла из комнаты. 12. Я не ожидала, что они вернутся так скоро. 13. Я не могу понять, что заставило его отказаться от этой поездки. 14. Она не ожидала, что мы примем участие в этой конференции. 15. Я надеюсь, это заставит вас подумать, как найти выход из этого положения. 16. Она пропустила много занятий по болезни. Но мы предполагаем, что она быстро догонит группу. 17. Все считают ее умной и трудолюбивой. 18. Мы любим, когда он нам рассказывает интересные истории о своих путешествиях.

Ex. 24. Translate into English using predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. Этот дом, вероятно, будет построен в следующем месяце. 2. Предполагается, что на собрании выступит декан факультета. 3. Ее, кажется, очень хорошо обучили английскому языку. 4. Известно, что футбол — наиболее популярный вид спорта в Англии. 5. Вряд ли его спросят об этом. 6. Известно, что Московский университет был основан более 200 лет тому назад. 7. Она, наверное, напишет ему письмо. 8. Этот роман, кажется, переведен с французского. 9. Маловероятно, что они смогут достать билеты на этот спектакль. 10. Я слышала, что они спорили в соседней комнате, но когда я вошла туда, они замолчали. 11. Вряд ли они знают мой адрес. Они случайно заходили ко мне как-то с моим братом. Что заставляет вас думать, что они знают мой адрес? 12. Он наблюдал, как они торопливо шли по мосту по направлению к почте. 13. Всегда считалось, что русские леса богаты редкими породами пушных зверей. 14. Известно, что когда-то Британские острова были частью материка Европы. 15. Говорят, что они работают на Крайнем Севере с 1970 года. 16. Я слышала, как ребята шумели, когда их оставили одних в комнате. 17. Кажется, он очень пополнел за последнее время. Ему бы лучше соблюдать диету. 18. Вы, вероятно, придете проводить своего друга на станцию и помахать ему на прощание. Он будет рад вас видеть.


Ex. 1. State the form of the infinitive.

1. They could hardly have been hidden on board. (A. Chr.) 2. I found that he didn't seem to be taking in what I was saying. (A. Chr.) 3. I don't want to seem always to be criticizing your methods. (P. W.) 4. I tried to imagine what had happened to drive the poor creature to that step. (S. M.) 5. The most elderly member of the party threw up his arms in what appeared to be a defensive gesture. (F. F.) 6. Soames was reserved about his affairs, but he must be getting a very warm man. (Galsw.) 7. "Well, I must be going," he said after a short pause. (Galsw.) 8. It is most unlikely, I must have made a mistake. (A. Chr.) 9. "There is something to be done, but what," she said. (White) 10. Even though he never seemed to have nickel to his name, he managed better than the others. (W. S.) 11. He had brought his way through to knowing — what peoples' motives are and what means they are likely to resort to in order to attain their goals. (F. F.) 12. I should have liked to say something final but I could not think of anything, I just said that I must be getting along and with a curt nod left him. (S. M.) 13. She has written over thirty novels and her works are beginning to be adapted for television and film. (M. D.) 14. You seem to have had a rotten time in Paris. (S. M.) 15. She was supposed to be a nice girl. (M. D.) 16. It had been put there to be washed. (White) 17. I didn't expect my novel to sell more than twenty thousand copies. (F. F.)

Ex. 2. Define the function of the infinitive.

1. I do not think it is necessary to insult Miss Elsa Hard's intelligence by telling her. (A. Chr.) 2. He made a supreme effort to break it. (Galsw.) 3. To say that I had not resented this foul deed which seemed to me deserving the title of the crime of the century, would be paltering the truth. (P. W.) 4. He wished to give her every chance. (Galsw.) 5. To tell it is to live through it all again. (0. W.) 6. Hers was not a face to command instant attention or recognition. (A. Chr.) 7. To have taken the field openly against his rival, would have been madness. (W. I.) 8. I'm not running a cafeteria here you know, whatever some people seem to think. (M. D.) 9. You're supposed to play without ceasing. (J. Sal.) 10. She had seen two men start toward her from opposite sides. (F. F.) 11. But though danger had been there for some time it was never likely to get acute. (A. Chr.) 12. You're all supposed to be intelligent. (J. Sal.) 13. The big problems of life seemed to solve themselves. (F. F.) 14. He hadn't expected Strickland to take him up on the sport and make his preparations to go there and then. (S. M.) 15. He took time to get his cigarette lighted. (J. Sal.) 16. I saw him take forcible possession of her hand. (Steve.) 17. The boys downstairs were supposed to wait until we gave it to them. (M. D.)

Ex. 3. Point out and define the type of infinitive constructions in the following sentences.

1. I just don't seem to care about it any more. (A. Chr.) 2. Then, as he turned up the street that led to the residence district, Judy began to cry quietly to herself. He had never seen her cry before. (F. F.) 3. "Do you expect me never to go anywhere?" Jonquil demanded, leaning back against the sofa-pillows until she seemed to look at him from many miles away. (F. F.) 4. He was forced several times to sit down on a bench, when crossing the park. (Cron.) 5. It's wonderful how everything seems to turn out right for me. (A. Chr.) 6. A young man was reported to be... completely under the thumb of his mother. (A. Chr.) 7. I watched the engine come nearer. (E. H.) 8. The lady turned out to be nice, and the chrysanthemums were enormous and extraordinary beautiful. (F. F.) 9. I feel therefore, that the time has come for me to set down all I know of the affair in black and white. (A. Chr.) 10. It was the first time I had ever heard her laugh. (E. H.) 11. Mr. Renauld declared that he was not likely to use the car. (A. Chr.) 12. The question of our agreeing or not agreeing to her plan did not seem to occur to her mind. (A. Chr.) 13. A young Minnesotan who seemed to have had nothing to do with his generation did a heroic thing. (F. F.) 14. Is that a likely thing to happen? (A. Chr.) 15. They appeared to be wealthy people with a passion for everything connected with the stage. (A. Chr.) 16. When the time had come for him to wear good clothes, he had known who were the best tailors in America. (F. F.) 17. Bosinney didn't seem to hear. (Galsw.) 18. But best of all, take them along and then you're sure to be on the safe side. (A. Chr.)

Ex. 4. Insert the particle "to" where required.

1. You would hardly ... believe it. (A. Chr.) 2. The inspector very kindly allowed me ... accompany him to the Three Anchors. (A. Chr.) 3. He'd better not ... let me ... catch sight of him. (S. M.) 4. I can't ... tell you how I hate it when I go out and I can't ... give satisfaction, so ... speak. (A. Chr.) 5. I didn't see anyone, but I did hear the front-door bell ... ring once or twice. (P. W.) 6. My friend motioned for him ... come in. (E. H.) 7. "You should better ... shut up the shop," she said. (K. Man.) 8. I better ... go in first. I mean we wouldn't want ... come in. (F. F.) 9. I want you ... go away because I have let myself ... get fond of you. (A. Chr.) 10. But after all, that's life, and Jeremy had better ... find it out. (White) 11. Andrew dared not... meet his wife's eyes. (Cron.) 12. "You shouldn't have let him ... get away with that," she said. (F. F.) 13. She has made him ... play first fiddle to that woman. (F. F.) 14. What did I expect ... happen? 15. Only Mr. Pellet was supposed ... fill in the initials, because he liked ... be sure where everybody was. (M. D.) 16. She seemed ... be making very lame excuses and James did not look at her. (Galsw.) 17. Pat caught Leam's eye but Learn happened ... look away at the moment. (F. F.) 18. I watched; the shore... come closer. (E. H.)

Ex. 5. Translate into Russian paying attention to the function of the infinitive and predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. This dog seems to have taken a fancy to you. (Galsw.) 2. He made up his mind to have another talk with Margot, and meanwhile he put the matter out of his head. (Cart.) 3. ...he would go there at once, and take very good care that he didn't have to go again on the same errand. (Galsw.) 4. It seems to be a very funny hobby for an elderly woman, doesn't it? (A. Chr.) 5. "I reckon people are about the same," he said, "wherever they happen to be." (White) 6. Mentally he appeared to exist on political abstractions. (White) 7. Mrs. Morel watched the sun sink from the glistening sky, leaving a soft flower-blue overhead. (Law.) 8. The vase was put in the cupboard to be shown to the curious until its wonder was forgotten. (White) 9. She appeared to be in high spirits and no one could have guessed that she had gone through a harassing experience. (S. M.) 10. To have approved his son's conduct in that crash was impossible. (Galsw.) 11. With his disinterested passion for art he had a real desire to pay-attention to a talent. (S. M.) 12. It is my duty to warn you that you run a great risk. (S. M.) 13. The new vicar had come from the East End and he couldn't be expected to fall in all at once. (S. M.) 14. ...they had a longing to get away from this painfulness, to get away quickly and go about their business and forget. (Galsw7.) 15. She brought her knees together firmly, as if to make herself a smaller unit. (J. Sal.) 16. Our host seems to be enjoying himself. (Rob.)

Ex. 6. Recast the following sentences so as to use subordinate clauses instead of constructions with the infinitive.

1. He saw a little elderly woman come towards him. 2. She suddenly observed Richard emerge from the drawing-room. 3. I hear the front door slam. 4. I believe him to have done nothing but harm. 5. "You seem to forget," she said, "that I am in a hurry." 6. Well, I can't seem to: find out exactly what happened... but I'm going to write about it as if it was ten times funnier than anything you've said. 7. She saw them build a fire. 8. ...yet her friends knew that she expected them to ask him to dinner at least once a year. 9. To our great surprise our visitor proved to be Mr. Green. 10. During the interminable moment she thought she heard loud voices downstairs—but she seemed to be indifferent. 11. It was supposed to be the only house left standing by the Spaniards when they shelled the place in fifteen hundred and something.

Ex. 7. Complete the following so as to use predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1. He appeared... . 2. Do you expect me... . 3. The teacher brought the article for... . 4. The translation proved too difficult for... . 5. When she went out with me she was supposed... . 6. "I absolutely agree," he was heard... . 7. It wasn't the sort of place he was likely... . 8. Have you got anything for me... ? 9. His novels happen... . 10. But a fewmoments later there was something for her... . 11. I'm sure you don't want him... . 12. He sat down quietly and allowed... . 13. I shall never forget the tactful patience with which he persuaded her... . 14. When we came back I made her... . 15. He would not permit me... . 16. Many highly trained workers are expected... . 17. No one must be allowed... . 18. There w'-as a dinner later and she was compelled... .

Ex. 8. Translate into English using predicative constructions with the infinitive.

1, Боссини сидел погруженный в свои печальные мысли и не заметил, что молодой Джолион смотрел на него. 2. Джо сделал вид, что он погружен в чтение газеты, когда увидел, что Амелия и Ребекка вошли в комнату. 3. Вполне вероятно, что она унаследовала характер своего отца. Она такая же добрая и отзывчивая. 4. Считается, что читать в оригинале романы Диккенса трудно. Только люди, владеющие английским языком, могут их оценить. 5. Дориан думал, что ничто не заставит его нарушить обещание, данное Сибилле Вейн. 6. Если он займется наукой, то, наверняка, станет хорошим ученым. 7. Если вам случится быть там снова, наведите справки. 8. Он не хочет, чтобы его приглашали туда. 9. Она не любит, когда ей задают вопросы. 10. Я хотел бы, чтобы меня спросили об этом.

Ex. 9. Read the following dialogue and point out predicative constructions with the infinitive in it. Make up your own dialogues using, predicative constructions with the infinitive.


Nora: Robert, I'd like you to do something for me.

Robert: (Irritably) Oh, 'what is it. Mum?

Nora: I want you to make up the stove for my bath.

Robert: But I'm busy. I'm doing my homework.

Nora: Do you think I haven't got any work to do? Look at all these clothes I've got to iron.

Robert: Yes, but do you expect me to stop in the middle of what I'm writing?

Nora: I can't make you help me if you don't want to; but I've seldom know you take so much interest in your homework. I only asked you to help me for a minute. I don't like my boys to be disagreeable.

Harry: Robert, do I understand you to say you refuse to help your mother? You oughtn't even to wait for her to ask you. I've been watching you "do your work", as you call it. Looking out of the window half the time! Let me tell you, young man, you need some real work to do. Never mind, Nora, let me help you.

Nora: Thank you, Harry. I'd just like the stove to be made up for me to have a bath. I haven't got used to this kind of stove yet — you understand it better. Harry: Oh yes. I'll soon get the water to boil. Where's the coal? (He shovels some coal into the stove) ... There, my boy, that didn't take me long to do, did it?

Robert: No, Dad, but I advise you to have another look inside the stove before you sit down again, I think the fire was out.

Harry: (Opening front of stove) Good heavens, so it was. Well, you're jolly well going to relight it, Robert. I refuse to.

Dual-Channel Exercises to Meet the Parkers, Tartu, 1965

Ex. 10.Translate into English using the required form of the infinitive.

1.Строить планы на лето – приятное занятие. Я хочу, чтобы моя семья провела отпуск на Кавказе, на берегу Черного моря. Несомненно, нам это очень понравится. 2. Ей ничего не оставалось сделать, как рассказать нам правду. 3. Кажется, они ничего не сделали, чтобы изменить ситуацию. 4. Вряд ли он написал эту контрольную хорошо. Говорят, что он пропустил много занятий. Хотя я считаю его способным студентом, эта тема слишком трудна, чтобы овладеть ею без достаточной тренировки. 5. Известно, что этот красивый мост был построен еще в середине прошлого века. 6. На нее приятно смотреть, когда она играет с детьми. 7. Ничто не могло его заставить изменить точку зрения, если он считал, что он прав. 8. Вам бы лучше принять это лекарство от насморка. 9. Он почувствовал, как его сердце забилось от радости. Он так давно хотел приобрести эту книгу. 10. Он первым сыграл эту роль в театре, и все нашли, что его игра превосходна. 11. Главное, что мы должны сделать – это не забыть спросить их мнение об этой поездке. 12. Он оказался большим знатоком оперного искусства. 13. Почему бы не попытаться попасть на этот спектакль? Вероятно, у входа будут продаваться лишние билеты. 14. Мы рады, что познакомились с достопримечательностями этого города. Нам было очень интересно узнать его историю. 15. Вот физические упражнения, которые помогут вам похудеть. 16. Я это говорю, чтобы вы правильно поняли мое поведение вчера. 17. У меня нет времени, чтобы пойти в парикмахерскую уложить волосы. 18. Этот рассказ слишком труден, чтобы он смог перевести его на немецкий без словаря.

Ex. 11.Translate into English using the required form of the infinitive.

1. Кажется, он отказался от плохой привычки читать во время еды. 2. Вам необходимо придерживаться диеты. Если вы хотите похудеть. 3. Видели, как шофер остановил машину около нашего дома. Но никто не видел, как Майкл сел в машину и уехал. 4. Девушка заставила их подать друг другу руки и обещать забыть ссору. 5. Я рад, что победил в шахматном чемпионате нашего института. 6.Единственный выход из этого положения – это регулярно заниматься спортом. Иначе ваш ребенок будет болеть постоянно. 7. Аня первой догадалась, что нужно делать в данной обстановке, если мы хотим добиться успеха. 8. Он не тот спортсмен, кто мог бы победить в мировом чемпионате. 9. Мы ожидали, что в этом озере много рыбы, и надеялись, что у нас будет хорошая рыбалка. 10. Я не настолько хорошо его знаю, чтобы просить у него совета. 11. Они слишком заняты на конференции сейчас, чтобы поехать на экскурсию. Нам надо бы согласовать время этой поездки заранее. 12. Его словам трудно поверить. 13. Известно, что многие люди поправили свое здоровье на этом курорте. Почему бы не поехать туда? 14. Почему бы не купить эту картину? Кажется, она стоит 200 рублей. 15. Говорят, что в этой библиотеке богатый выбор различных книг. 16. Тебе бы лучше держаться подальше от этого человека: он кажется очень хитрым и неискренним. 17. Вряд ли последняя книга этого писателя привлекла внимание читателей. Никто не знал даже, что она переведена на русский язык. 18. Она была удивлена, что не застала сестру дома. Вряд ли она забыла, что пригласила Джоан именно в это время. Должно быть произошло что-нибудь неожиданное. 19. Мне нечего вам сказать в свою защиту. Да, я действительно отказался выполнять эту работу, так как считал ее пустой тратой времени. 20. Нам бы лучше узнать друг друга поближе. 21. Если вам случится посетить этот город, обязательно сходите в картинную галерею. Вам несомненно понравятся картины, которые выставлены там.


Ttansitive verbs have four forms of the gerund:


Indefinite Passive

writing being written

Perfect Perfect Passive

having written having been written

Intransitive verbs have no passive forms:

Indefinite Passive

standing ----------

Perfect Perfect Passive

having stood ----------

* She is tired of asking questions.

* She is tired of having asked too many questions.

* She is tired of being asked many questions.

* She is tired of having been asked too many questions.


The Indefinite form expresses simultaneous or posterior actions with regard to the finite form of the verb.


* He tells

told me of his writing a report.

will tell


The Perfect form expresses prior actions which took place in the past.


* I am surprized at his having put so much weight.


However a prior action is not always expressed by the perfect form of the Gerund , in some cases we find the indefinite form of the Gerund instead of the perfect form though the action refers to the past.

It occurs after the verbs:

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