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Ex. 1. Point out predicative constructions with the gerund in the following sentences and define their functions.

1. I hate the idea of Larry making such a mess of his life. (S. M.) 2. Later, in the night, I was awakened by the sound of someone moving softly about the room. (A. Chr.) 3. Do you think there is much chance of one seeing him again? (A. Chr.) 4. Well, it was the same fellow. And do you remember me saying that I was sure I had seen him somewhere before? (P. W.) 5. "Will you pav anv attention if I forbid you to go?" "No, darling," I said, "none." Then she said, "That's what I imagined. In that case there doesn't seem to be much point in my forbidding it." (S. M.) 6. What can be the possible use of Larry's learning dead languages? (S. M.) 7. Jane bit her lip till the blood came, and walked back to her seat without another word, but she couldn't help the tears of rage rolling down her face. (Galsw.) 8. "Well," he said, "I couldn't help Irene's having no money." (Galsw) 9. He had called there three times now without her being able to see him. (Galsw.) 10. His having come home so late has caused her much anxiety. (Cus.) 11. I'm afraid just at first he'll be rather lonely and I shall feel more comfortable if I can count on your keeping an eye on him. (S. M.) 12. I shan't mind its coming out a hundred or so over the, mark. (Galsw.)

Ex. 2. Define the structure of predicative constructions with the gerund in the following sentences.

1. The blood returned to Michael's heart. Curious how he had dreaded its having anything to do with her. (Galsw.) 2. Arthur was proud of his unselfishness, and Miriam added to her family duties the job of trying to prevent her mother imping more than necessary on her husband's ordered life. (M. D.) 3. Nothing keeps me going but the sight of other people spending money. (Galsw.) 4. Fancy her wanting to know what was troubling him! (Galsw.) 5. I shall want you lying on your face just here with your elbows on the ground and your head up. (Galsw.) 6. The entrance of the manager was marked by Sir Lawrence's monocle dropping on to his coat-button with a tinkle. (Galsw.) 7. Whatever she thought about his being at the station with her mother, and Louise could not help wondering what she thought, she did not show it. (M. D.) 8. "It's due to the pancreas, they say. That's a thing that lays under your stomach like a fish under a stone." He cleared his throat, looked at Louise and added, "If you'll excuse my mentioning it." (M. D.) 9. What reason is there to suppose that our bumps of benevolence will increase in time to stop our using these great new toys of destruction, Michael! (Galsw.) 10. ...the ordinary public will take your Marquesan seriously, and resent your making him superior to themselves. (Galsw.) 11. The sight of her mother dabbing gently with a mop annoyed Miriam... (M. D.) 12. He did not recollect such a thing having happened to him before. (Galsw.)

Ex. 3. Use the gerund in the required form as the second part of the predicative constructions with the gerund.

1. He had declared that his stepfather would not hear of his (to marry) a penniless girl. (A. Chr.) 2. I remember your father, Mr. James, (to come) into the office the morning the Franco-Prussian war was declared — quite in his prime then, hardly more than sixty, I should say. (Galsw.) 3. The whole place is in a bustle, and the chances of one particular person (to notice) telephoning or getting into the express are very small indeed. (A. Chr.) 4. There was no point, however, in Eva (to discuss) the play with her, since Louise thought it a sordid and unreal concoction and could not see what all the fuss was about. (M. D.) 5. My friend, Doctor Sheppard, said something of the butler (to suspect)? (A. Chr.) 6. He had a superstitious fear that if even one day passed without his (to add) to the book he would lose himself again in that drab labyrinth of un-doing. (Banks) 7. There's no sense in your (to agonize) over me. I'm all right, do you hear? I just want to be left alone to run my own life without the family (to butt) in all the time. (M. D.) 8. I had reached this point in my meditations, when I was aroused by the sound of the door (to open). (P. W.) 9. Ann did not mind her (to come) to see the baby, but she would not let her help with it. (M. D.) 10. They told me all about his (to be) there, and the questions he had asked. (A. Chr.) 11.1 must beg, that in the case of my (to be able) to contribute something to the solution of the mystery, my name may not be mentioned. (A. Chr.) 12. I'm tired of people (to have) to be kind to me. (M. D.) 13. I'm eight years older than you are—oh! I don't mind M. Poirot (to know) that — ! (A. Chr.) 14. Louise had been going to say something diplomatic about women (to like) fat men, but was glad she did not... . (M. D.) 15. "I never dreamed of her (to be) the thief," I expostulated. (A. Chr.)

Ex. 4. Form predicative constructions with the gerund out of the elements in brackets.

1. They might, she always felt, disapprove of (women, to smoke) in public halls. (Galsw.) 2. ...I did ask her why she could not sleep and what kept (she, to think) so much as she listened to the nightingale. (Bates) 3. "It's not much good (me, to spend) half an hour writing to your uncle if he changes his mind the next letter he gets from you," said the headmaster irritably. (S. M.) 4. Kate smiled at (Anthony, to shift) on his chair. (Gr. Gr.) 5. "I couldn't stop (she, to come here)." He spread his hands helplessly. (M. D.) 6. If you don't object to (me, to accompany) you as far as the door, sir...? (A. Chr.) 7. Louise did not mind staying there, although she was always glad to get away to a bath with hot water, and a meal without (dogs, to clamour) round the table. (M. D.) 8. No one would dream of (he, to be) so near at hand. (A. Chr.) 9. Slipping into the room like a ghost, she crept into her grandmother's bed, and finished (she, to cry) unchided until she fell asleep. (M. D.) 10. "You must not mind our (to be surprised)," she said. (A. Chr.) 11. After all I'm partly to blame for (you, to miss) the train so the least I can do is to help you out of a jam. (Cus.) 12. ...there was still a chance of (Bart, to come). (Cus.) 13. Naturally, I realise that this pleurisy will put her back a bit, but I suppose it won't prevent (she, to be) out by the end of October? (Cus.)

Ex. 5. Recast the following sentences with predicative constructions with the gerund so as to use complex sentences.

1. "You must forgive my acting without consulting you, Philip," she said. 2. Everyone was surprised at their being late. 3. I insist on your apologizing to them, you are very rude. 4. It was hard to keep your mind off illness with Doris and Edith talking about it all the time. 5. "What's the use of Caroline and me filling ourselves with streptomycin day and night," thought Jan. 6. "If I was engaged to you," said Dick, "there wouldn't be any fuss about my paying for you at the hospital." 7. He went up the road with fear and anger fighting in him. 8. The thought of Helen being alone and waiting for him made Dan run the block. 9. He had never thought of Jean meeting his people before. 10. I hadn't thought of crops failing—not this one at any rate! 11. Is there any objection to my seeing her? 12. Mr. Barker consoled himself with the thought that there's no chance of Diana and Gerald getting married for years. 13. Dorothy had to agree, although she did not approve of Laura going to the cinema so often. 14. I don't like your going off so soon. 15. I don't like to think of you going there alone. 16. Who suggested their going to the country with us?

Ex. 6. Recast the following sentences so as to use predicative constructions with the gerund. Use prepositions where required.

1. Presently I became aware that someone was moving softly about this room. 2. I was about to suggest that you should lunch with me. 3. For my part I had never before suspected that Kate had a deep vein of superstition in her nature. 4. I cut short his lamentations, by suggesting that we should start for the camp at once. 5. I like you so much because you are such a good cook. 6. I boasted that my father was different; he would understand that I was an artist. 7. She took a peculiar delight in the fact that he was Peter's son..8. He felt proud of the fact that he had been able to win a woman whom everybody admired. 9. She gave no sign that she heard that he had slammed the door. 10. She insisted that he should drop his voice. 11. He was clever, no one had ever denied that he was clever.

Ex. 7. Complete the following so as to use predicative constructions with the gerund.

1. You don't seem to mind their... . 2. What is the reason of his... ? 1 don't understand what prevents her... . 3. There's no sense in your... . 4. She finished her... . 5. He dropped the subject without my... . 6. Louise didn't like to run the risk of her... . 7. He liked the idea of their... . 8. They saved time by Tom's... . 9. There was no excuse for Isabel's... . 10. There was no possibility of David's... .11.1 was awakened by the sound of someone... . 12. I sat there listening to Arthur... . 13. I don't like her ... . 14. He was right in his... . 15. There is no point in my... . 16. Bobby gave no sign of his... . 17. There was an absolute proof of his... . 18. Forgive my... . 19. It was the only excuse for her... .

Ex. 8. Translate into Russian paying attention to the predicative constructions with the gerund.

1. She did it because she couldn't bear to see you selling those balloons. (Galsw). 2. I don't mean it's queer your getting him the cigarette box —why shouldn't you? But it's queer your never mentioning it. (J. Pr.) 3. Doesn't like it? How can she not like someone doing the dishes for her? (M.D.) 4. Louise could not imagine him not being nice about children. (M. D.) 5. What his new enterprise was, Louise barely knew, except that it was something to do with shares and companies, and necessitated his having lunches with mysterious sounding men in places like the Savoy, which Louise did not think they could afford. (M. D.) 6. He disapproved, he didn't believe in girls drinking, he was full of the conceptions of a generation older than himself. (Gr. Gr.) 7..It wasa great mistake, my being born a man, I would have been much more successful as a sea-gull or a fish. (B. Sh.) 8. Monna Caterina told me it was no good my waiting, she gave me another drink of wine and sent me away. (S. M.) 9. "It's no good your carrying on, mother," said Sally in her quiet way. "I'm not going to marry him." (S. M.) 10. The distressing commotion in the bedroom was ended by Arthur taking the picture away and saying that he would burn it. (M. D.) 11. He rubbed his hair crossly. "It's no good your scratching your head," she said. (A. Chr.) 12. He's never there when you want him. He just takes advantage of you being so soft. (M.D.) 13. "Miss Tomson, don't mind my asking you a question?" "No." (Denleavy) 14. "Would you have any objection to our examining the package, Mr. Pulling?" "I most certainly would." (Gr. Gr.)


Ex. 1. State the form of the gerund.

1. I was bewildered, but I knew that it was no good asking him to explain. (A. Chr.) 2. In a low voice, in answer to Mr. Philips' questions, he denied having ordered anything from Parkson's in June. (A. Chr.) 3. ...people got annoyed at being sent to a place that had, perhaps, been let some time. (A. Chr.) 4. After being invalided out of the Army I had been given a recruiting job... (Ar. Chr.) 5. Poirot was busy mopping a grey suit with a minute sponge. (A. Chr.) 6. Her remarks at being dragged out of bed at that hour of a Sunday morning were expressed frankly and unprofessionally... (Cus.) 7. It was useless arguing with Jan when she looked like that. (Cus.) 8. He is matron's dog but he insists on being introduced to all the new patients. (Cus.) 9. The old man did not remember him, but he asked the doctor a number of questions without paying attention to the replies. (S. M.) 10. If the Captain comes off the bridge I want you to thank him for having looked after your wife so beautifully. (K. Man.) 11. At first, as I told you, I was inclined to suspect her of being concerned in the crime. (A. Chr.) 12. A dish of coffee and milk was respectfully submitted to the cat, who drank it contemptuously and then retired to her box of shavings with an air of having sustained an insult. (Banks) 13. ... but before long it was obvious that our other arms, stuck out as they were, were in imminent danger of being torn away. (Banks) 14. His voice gave the effect, somehow, of being forced through a narrow tube. (Bates) 15. ...I did not like to run the risk of being seen with people whom they would not at all approve of. (S. M.)

Ex. 2. Define the function of the gerund.

1. Reginald took a deep breath of his cigarette. "It's ghastly, this idea of going back," he said. (K. Man.) 2. He is said to pride himself on keeping his word. (S. M.) 3. At last he finished writing and put the cap on his pen. (Bates) 4. After pausing a few minutes respectfully, so as not to spoil his effect, I gave him Lawrence's message. (A. Chr.) 5. I remembered coming home in the train and listening to the wheels saying 'I can do anything — I can do anything — (Banks) 6. Toby started off by holding me in the conventional way, with only one arm round me... (Banks) 7. Moira was asleep. Sleeping was her latest discovery. (K. Man.) 8. Madame Daubreuil was in the habit of visiting him here in the evenings. (A. Chr.) 9. That evening I went to a film and got to bed early and read for a while before going to sleep. (Banks) 10. She couldn't go out of the room without saying something to him. (K. Man.) 11. Mildly I said, "I'm sorry you object to my bringing in a few of my own things..." (Banks) 12. Do you mind following me into the drawing-room, Constancia? I've something of great importance to discuss with you. (K. Man) 13. When she went on looking blank, I made my point a little clearer adding, "You won't be able to cast it." (Banks) 14. I'm getting on, you know. Dolly, it's no good denying it. (S. M.) 15. All I'm interested in is getting you better, see? (Cus.) 16. It's no good your flying in a temper. You've just got to listen. (S. M.)

Ex. 3. Translate into Russian paying attention to the function of the gerund predicative constructions.

1. I've enjoyed working for you very much. (Banks) 2. I thought of telling her, but rejected the idea without knowing quite why. (Banks) 3. In the drawing-room Meg, Jose and good little Hans had at last succeeded in moving the piano. (K. Man.) 4. And didn't you like handing the new loaves to the customers? (K. Man.) 5. He smiled a little, with-out altering the sad expression. (Banks) 6. I remembered I'd had nothing to eat or drink before leaving the house. (Banks) 7. Although she knew he took these attentions so lightly she could not help feeling angry and jealous. (S. M.) 8. ...I insist on your being educated, like a gentleman. (S. M.) 9. Are you satisfied to go on playing those sort of parts for ever? (S. M.) 10. He loved acting, but his physique prevented him from playing any but a few parts, which was fortunate, for he was a bad actor. (S. M.) 11. He was carefully engaged in brushing his coat before putting it on, and seemed wholly engrossed in the task. (A. Chr.) 12. You remember my speaking of my friend Poirot?... He has been a most famous detective. (A. Chr.) 13. She liked the idea of having to make a parcel of such a curious shape that no one could possibly guess what it was. (K.Man.) 14. I went upstairs uneasily and knocked on his door. Instead of opening it, he called out after a moment: "Who there?" (Banks)

Ex. 4. Use the gerund or the infinitive of the verb in brackets. Insert prepositions where necessary.

1. He had begun (to retrace) his steps when he at last caught sight of Bosinney. (Galsw.) 2. Jan began (to walk) slowly down, her arm through Doreen's. (Cus.) 3. It began (to get) dark. (Un. Is.) 4. Then she began (to tremble), not that she was afraid, but at the thought of the people she would meet. (White) 5. He finally refused (to eat) anything but boiled eggs. (A. Chr.) 6. The sun had begun (to sink) towards the high rim of the hills. (Cron.) 7. They began (to drive) across the island. (White) 8. She began (to walk) up and down angrily. (A. Chr.) 9. The game begins (to be) dangerous. (Galsw.) 10. I really begin (to believe) she was Blenkisop. (A. Chr.) 11. Jane continued (to discuss) her problem with no appreciation of his presence. (A. Chr.) 12. He stopped (to chat) with Joe from the scenario department. (F. F.) 13. Please, tell her it is necessary (to keep) the patient under morphia. (A. Chr.) 14. Tired? Do you want (to stop)? (A. Chr.) 15. Then, he went on (to give) me details. (A. Chr.) 16. Mr. Tower paused (to take) breath. (S. M.)

Ex. 5. Recast the following sentences so as to use clauses instead of predicative constructions with the gerund.

1. When they'd had tea he'd probably suggest their going to the pictures. 2. It's my fault, I ought to have insisted on your taking a holiday long ago. 3. I don't remember my mother ever trying to contradict me. 4. He didn't believe in people living beyond seventy. 5.1 insist on your paying what is due to him. 6. The doctor didn't mind my being sent to the Crimea. 7. Mrs. Joice insisted on her husband having a bath every day, though he was not used to it. 8. As she had foreseen, I even regretted having prevented her telling me the whole truth. 9. She did not approve of Louise going there. 10. Again Michael... was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. 11. She disapproved of her mother being so excited in public.

Ex. 6. Recast the following sentences so as to use predicative costructions with the gerund instead of subordinate clauses.

1. Do you mind if 1 take your dictionary. 2. Do you think father would mind if we go to the park now? 3. She insisted we should put off our conference. 4. Linda was surprised. She had no idea that he was good at mathematics. 5. I w-'as annoyed because they shouted so loud. 6. "He's a dear little man," said she. "I'd no idea you knew him." 7. As we drove away he suggested that we should return by train. 8. Laura remembered she had left that umbrella standing in the corner. 9. She suggested that Philip should pass himself off as her brother. 10. A miner insisted that I should stay at his home. 11. Michael suggested that she should go to the Crimea to be near her mother. 12. Harold insisted that we wait for you. 13. He suggested that she should sit down. 14. She remembered that Charles had once said to her that the origin of poetry was emotion. 15. Julia suggested that they should go down.

Ex. 7. Translate into English using the gerund or predicative constructions with the gerund.

1. Я не настаиваю на том, чтобы заняться этим вопросом немедленно. 2. Нельзя было не заметить ее радости. 3. Друзья начали расхваливать голос Хэриса, и в конце концов, он согласился спеть. 4. Все зависит от того, примете ли вы необходимые меры. 5. Он не мог уйти, не спросив разрешения. 6. Когда дядя Поджер принимался что-нибудь делать, он вовлекал в работу всю семью и все больше и больше волновался, но у него никогда не хватало духа самому что-либо делать. 7. Это очень разумный совет, им стоит воспользоваться. 8. Вместо того чтобы посылать ему телеграмму, я свяжусь с ним по телефону. 9. Никто не возражал против того, чтобы Франк представлял фирму на выставке. 10. Это выражение часто встречается, его стоит выучить.

Ex. 8. Read the following dialogue. Make up your own dialogues using the gerund.


Harry: Nora! Nora!

Nora: (Coming into the room) Yes, what it is now. Harry?

Harry: Oh, there you are. Look here, Nora, I'm tired of lying here on my back with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.

Nora: Don't be silly, Harry. You've got a temperature, and staying in bed is the only sensible thing to do. Now just be quiet, and stop preventing me from doing my housework.

Harry: No, seriously, Nora, I can't bear it. Lying flat on my back!

Nora: Well then, try lying on your stomach for a change!

Harry: Stop being funny. I'm going to get up. There! Look, I'm standing up. I'm quite all right. What's the use of staying in bed?

Nora: I think you're being very silly. You'll only make your temperature go up again.

Harry: It's no use talking, Nora — being ill doesn't suit me.

Nora: No — and trying to nurse you doesn't suit me!

Harry: Now don't be bitter about it. You know I'm grateful to you for looking after me. But you mustn't try to keep me in bed like a naughty boy.

Nora: Well, you began it, by behaving like a naughty boy.

Harry: I'm all against this staying in bed for no reason.

Nora: Harry, being ill is a reason... Now don't stand by that window and catch another cold... Let me see, half past eleven —

Harry: Why do you keep looking at the clock?

Nora: I'm expecting Mother — she's coming over for the day.

Harry: Good heavens! I didn't know that. Nora: Yes, I think she has something she wants to talk to

you about.

Harry: Oh heavens! Has she? (groans) ... You know, Nora I do feel a bit ill; perhaps I had better get back to bed.

Nora: (Disingenuously) Oh, what a pity! I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her.

Harry: (To himself) That's the very reason I'm getting back into bed!

Nora: What did you say?

Harry: Oh, er — nothing.

Meet the Parkers

Ex. 9.Translate into English using the required form of the gerund.

1. Он продолжал переминаться с ноги на ногу, не говоря ни слова. 2. Бесполезно было привозить рекомендательное письмо. Оно едва стоит бумаги, на которой написано. 3. Он настаивал на том, чтобы мы осмотрели достопримечательности Британского музея в Лондоне. 4.Он хвастался, что дела в институте идут хорошо. Но вымученная улыбка на его лице заставила нас не поверить его словам. 5. Соблюдение диеты помогает людям не полнеть. 6. Я не люблю пересаживаться с поезда на пароход, а потом на другой поезд. Я предпочитаю путешествовать самолетом. 7. Я не могу не признать, что путешествие пешком экономит плату за проезд по железной дороге. 8. Он не привык зря тратить время в поездках. Ему удавалось много прочитать и продумать. 9. Море было бурным. Я не удивилась тому, что он не выходил из своей каюты. 10. Хотя был сезон отпусков, нам удалось купить билеты на поезд прямого сообщения. 11.Не думайте заставить его рассказать об этом событии. Он очень необщительный. С ним трудно иметь дело. 12. Я с нетерпением жду, когда он расскажет нам все и прольет свет на это загадочное происшествие. 13. То, что она так поправилась и совершенно изменилась, очень удивило меня. Я не видела ее лишь год. 14. Вы не возражаете, если мы положим вещи на багажную полку? 15. Дождь идет с утра, и наша машина стала такой грязной, что ее нужно помыть, прежде чем мы продолжим свое путешествие. 16. Почему вы возражаете против того, чтобы Елене дали эту роль? Я думаю, у нее достаточно опыта в исполнении именно таких ролей. 17. Проводив поезд взглядом, он обернулся и увидел меня.

Ex.10. Translate into English using the required form of the gerund.

1.Я помню, что видел этого актера в какой-то другой пьесе. 2. Я настаиваю, чтобы меня выслушали. 3. Странно, почему она избегает говорить на эту тему. 4. Она боялась испортить первое впечатление, посмотрев этот фильм снова. 5. Она перестала отвечать на мои письма. 6.Извините меня за то, что я причинил вам столько беспокойства. 7. Он предложил сойти на берег и осмотреть порт. 8.То, что он был помолвлен с Джун, помешало мне поговорить с ним об этом деле откровенно. 9. Бесполезно звонить ему. В это время его никогда не бывает дома. 10. Спорить с ним – это только напрасно терять время. 11. Дождь пошел с того времени, когда мы выходили из дома. 12. Он возражал против того, чтобы его сын принимал участие в этой работе. 13. Я был очень разочарован, что не застал его дома. 14. Мои ботинки нужно починить. 15. Он не возражает против того, чтобы его послали туда. 16.Встретили ли вы какие-нибудь затруднения в разрешении этой проблемы? 17. Я не мог не выразить восхищение при виде этой картины. 18. Они предложили, чтобы мы обсудили все вопросы до того, как принять окончательное решение. 19. Он был горд, что его назначили на эту должность. 20. Помимо того, что он умен, он очень трудолюбив. 21. Постояв минут пять у моего стола, он повернулся и ушел, не сказав ни слова. 22. Она отрицала, что брала мои книги. 23.Почему она подозревает меня, что я ходил туда, не сказав ей об этом?




The Participle is a non - finite form which has certain verbal features and the syntactical functions of adjectival or adverbial character.

There are two participles in English - Participle I and Participle II. They are also called the present and the past participles.


Transitive verbs have four forms of Participle I.

Active Passive


Indefinite writing being written

Perfect having written having been written


Intransitive verbs have only two forms of Participle I.

Active Passive


Indefinite standing -------

Perfect having stood -------


Participle I Indefinite shows that the action named by the participle took place at the same time with that of the finite verb. These forms denote simultaneousness in the present, past or future.

* Do you see that child waving a flag?

* They stayed at home watching TV.

* In a few minutes the guests will be arriving wearing smiles.


Participle I Perfect shows that the action named by the participle preceeded that of the finite verb. These forms denote priority to a present, past or future action.

* Having said that I want to leave now.

* Having said “a” he proceeded to saying “b” without loss of time.

* Having settled this point you will feel satisfaction.



Participle II has only one form – written.


Most intransitive verbs have no forms of paticiple II outside the analytical forms of the verb – have walked.


Participle II in most cases denotes priority.

* She pulled the long forgotten letter out of its hiding place.

Participle II sometimes have a meaning of simultaneousness.

* The dog carried by the boy gave a sharp yelp.


Participle I may take a direct object.

* Holding the child ...

* Having written the last word

Participle I and II may be modified by adverbs.

* Watching me steadily ...

* Deeply hurt ...


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