Lecture 8. The functional state of organs and systems of a healthy newborn. Transition states.
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Lecture 8. The functional state of organs and systems of a healthy newborn. Transition states.





Objective: familiarization with the functional state of organs and systems of a healthy newborn

Plan:

1. Healthy newborn

2. Transition states.

The birth of a child is accompanied by pain, the influence of Earth's gravity forces, rapid changes in temperature and humidity of the environment, the influence of audio, visual and tactile stimuli. The baby is under stress, but immediately after birth and during the early neonatal period in the body of the child reactions occur, the end result of which is the opportunity to live in new conditions extrauterine. These reactions are called transitional, because they represent the transition from fetal to adult living conditions, transient - because all these states are themselves, physiological - because they are normal and necessary in the development of the newborn; border they are called, because these states are moving in the pathological under adverse conditions.

The process of the birth of the baby to the body is an absolute stress associated with the restructuring of the body and heavy physical activity. Immediately after birth the baby habitat conditions change dramatically, the newborn gets to him unusual for environment. The temperature here is much lower than that to which he was accustomed to in the womb, there is gravity, new sensations coming from the senses - visual images, sounds, touch. A newborn new type of breathing for him - a new type of pulmonary and digestive. These restructuring and experiences related to changes in all organs and systems. It is in these rearrangements are transient causes, or transient, conditions. They appear after birth and after some time pass without a trace. Under certain transient conditions, the physiological state can go in and cause pathological diseases. I believe that parents need to know the symptoms of the transition states and the limits beyond which the rate is converted into a pathology that requires treatment by a qualified technician.

The transition state of the newborn a lot, because all organ systems are changing. Some children do not all have visible signs, but laboratory they can identify each child.

1. Weight loss

Physiological weight loss occurs in all infants, regardless of birth weight. This process is because, first, during the birth stress triggered the mechanism of enhanced metabolism and the child is born with a very active energy expenditure of the process, and secondly, after the stress the body usually takes a certain amount of liquid, and a source of sufficient fill it until not, as there is a sufficiently large amount of colostrum and milk.

In the first day or two the baby spends "buffer stocks", which are prepared in the form of in utero accumulation of fat in certain parts of the body. The rate of weight loss - 6-7% of birth weight. A full-term baby on the 10th day after birth, and preterm - 14 minutes, weighs the same as at birth. I have to say that adequate thermal conditions in weight for the normal functioning of organs and gain needed, which will mention later.



If there is no physiologic neonatal weight loss, one can speak of water retention associated most likely with urinary systems disorders. This situation requires urgent treatment to the doctor.

2. Transient violation heat exchange (Transient fever)

The child may slightly increase body temperature because thermoregulation processes in his immature. Normal baby's body temperature - up to 37 degrees. The measurement is best done in the groin, a mercury thermometer.

Kids can not keep a constant body temperature and are very sensitive to changes in ambient temperature. The instability of the thermoregulatory center leads to a slight attack of hypothermia or overheating. This is due to the peculiarities of the skin, sweat glands poor and rich in blood vessels. It is important to observe the normal temperature in the baby room: 22 degrees for full-term infants and 24 degrees for premature and low birthweight. This is only an indicative figure. There are individual characteristics kid reaction to temperature changes. So often a comfortable temperature must be chosen, focusing on the child's preferences.

3. The sexual crisis

The sexual crisis is caused by exposure to maternal hormones in the ORGAN "target" baby. This phenomenon is most often observed in girls. It is expressed in the fact that the genitals increase in size and increase swell breasts, nipple can be allocated colostrum drops. This situation can be observed in girls and boys. Upon detection of this condition can not be trying to squeeze colostrum - this is painful. The difference from a pathological process - mastitis newborn - is the absence of high temperature and pain when you touch the chest baby.

Girls 2-3 days of life can be observed similar to menstruation vaginal discharge. The volume of released blood can be approximately one teaspoon. To continue such isolation as regular monthly - 3-5 days.

The girls also found transient desquamative vulvovaginitis - abundant mucous discharge from the genital tract. It may take up to 3-4 weeks. Selections do not cause trouble, the vagina is not red.

Any manifestations of sexual crisis go away and do not require intervention.

4. Transient dyspepsia

This situation is associated with the settlement of hitherto sterile intestinal flora that baby receives during and immediately after birth from the mother, as well as from people who care for them. Not always the settlement is uniform and only "correct" flora. "Fight for territory" is a variety of processes in the intestine. In a healthy baby at the normal flora of the maternal everything ends happily. When "bad" flora of the mother, where many pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microbes, such a state can develop into infection. Most often it happens in premature, immature, small babies.

Also in the first week of life there is frustration of a chair. This is due to the fact that with the beginning of the power for the first time included in the work of digestive enzymes, digestive gland, gall bladder. A newborn all these processes do not always happen smoothly and consistently. The first chair of the child - is meconium, a dark green, paste-like. Then begins to form a transitional chair - patchy, green and yellow, with lumps, it is sometimes possible to find out a little mucus. By the end of the first week of the chair set.

5. Urine acid infarction

This is a transient state of the urinary organs, associated with adaptation changes in metabolism, a decrease in urine volume. As a consequence, it increases the concentration of urine in the renal pelvis deposited crystals of uric acid salts. Urine becomes more turbid, from yellow to brick red, possible crystallization of salts on the diaper. They look like a stain, these crystals rich brick red. If the situation lasts for more than 12-18 hours - it is an occasion additional dome baby water from a spoon.

6. Transient immunodeficiency

The newborn is very vulnerable to infections. A child is born sterile. He's immature skin barrier properties, not formed the protective mechanisms of the mucous. After the birth of all cavities (pharynx, upper respiratory tract, intestines, genitals) colonized by bacterial flora. The massive impact of the "new" Flora and immaturity of the protection of the organism in the first week of life explain the transient immune deficiency. Therefore, the risk of infection from a newborn human patient or "healthy" carrier pathogenic microbes and viruses are significantly higher than that of an infant.

It is necessary to mention the physiological wound for a newborn - the umbilical. Under certain circumstances, or in the absence of proper care of the skin of the child and mother's umbilical wound becomes excellent gateway for any infection. Any redness of the wound or the area around it, oozing or discharge from it - a reason for seeking medical attention.

7. Transient skin condition

Leather - very important for a child's body. It performs the function of protecting against infections, is the organ allocation, organ thermoregulation. The skin of newborn and infant can tell a lot about what is going on in the kid's life. It will show properly nourished mother, well if you pick up clothes for the baby, whether the water is suitable for bathing your home. Many pathological processes in the body of the child, can be "read" on the skin. The following events are considered to be the normal state of newborn skin.

Simple erythema - a reddening of the skin. It can be seen after 6-12 hours after birth. By the end of the first week of life must undergo excessive redness. This flushing is due primarily to skin addiction contact with air.

Peeling of the skin. It occurs more often in post-term babies born after 42 weeks of pregnancy. A week and a half peeling passes. I recommend to smear folds held by the hands and feet of almond oil, because the folds dry skin can crack, delivering the baby discomfort.

Toxic erythema - spot the size of a penny, with grayish-yellow seal in the center. Usually they are placed on the legs, around the joints and chest. They appear 1 day after birth, usually disappear within 2-3 days. The state of health of the child is not broken. However, these patches can itch, so clothing should be tight and not fit tightly to these elements on the skin.

Milian - so called white nodules on the nose wings, nose and forehead. It clogged the narrow sebaceous ducts. They uncork their own within 1-2 weeks of life.

Mongolian spots. They have color from blue to pale gray and resemble bruises. Such spots are found on the back and buttocks, and sometimes - in the legs and shoulders, with nine out of ten children whose parents belong to the black, Asian, or Native American race. These barely visible spot is also quite common in children of the Mediterranean region, but very rarely - the light-skinned, blue-eyed babies.

"Spot stork" .These orange-pink spots may appear on the forehead, eyelids, at the back they found the place for which the storks carry babies, which explains its popular name of "spot the stork." They brighten in the first two years of life and become visible only when the baby is crying or severely strained.

8. neonatal jaundice

Jaundice called staining mucous membranes, sclera, skin yellow. In newborns it can occur as a transient physiological state, and the manifestation of any disease. If the physiological jaundice does not require surgery and is fast and completely, the pathological jaundice often requires immediate action to prevent the serious complications of the nervous system.

All kinds of jaundice united by a common feature - girperbilirubinemiey (increased content of bile pigments in the blood). The availability of this pigment in the blood and skin coloration depends brightness - from pale lemon yellow to orange. Staining can also be olive green and yellow.

Bilirubin is produced by the decay of the hemoglobin of red blood cells destroyed.

The longevity of adult red blood cell is 80-120 days. In infants, this period is 5-7 days. This is due to the fact that hemoglobin of the fetus during the first two weeks of life is replaced by "adult" hemoglobin.

End-red blood cells break down, releasing bilirubin in the blood. Liver cells are actively involved in the processing and excretion of bilirubin from the body. That's why when liver immaturity and we have prolonged or severe jaundice, and this is a reason for seeking medical attention.

Bilirubin is a toxin to central nervous system. Its toxic effect appears at a certain concentration in the blood. For each child he often different - it depends on the date of birth, maturity, and comorbidities.

Yellowing of the baby begins with the face and head, then icteric staining "slide" down the body of the baby. To determine the intensity of jaundice better in daylight near the window. Fluorescent lamps and other electrical lighting can greatly distort the visual assessment of color.

Here are the main characteristics of physiological jaundice:

-it occurs in the 2-3 th day of baby's life;

-It reaches a maximum at 4-5 days;

-disappeared by the 10th day in mature infants have immature can keep for 2-3 weeks;

-at physiological jaundice does not suffer from the general condition of the child;

-bilirubin concentration in the blood does not exceed 180 mol / l;

-it does not require treatment.

Causes of physiological jaundice:

-The massive destruction of red blood cells caused by the physiological response of fetal hemoglobin shift to "adult".

-The physiological immaturity of the liver, where it can not cope with enzymes arriving bilirubin.

Pathological jaundice

Determining that the purpose of this article is not a detailed statement of the reasons and methods for treating pathological conditions. Therefore, I will not describe in detail all the problems which are accompanied by pathological jaundice.

I will single out the features that will distinguish normal from pathological. For the differential diagnosis will need only one of the following attributes. The reason for the reference to the doctor will be jaundice:

which appear up to 2 full days of baby's life and, consequently, jaundice, found during inspection of the newly born child;

longer than 10-14 days;

with a significant increase of bilirubin in the biochemical analysis of blood (above 180 mmol / l);

when icteric staining affects the lower leg;

when icteric staining covers the hands and feet, you need to seek help without delay;

When jaundice is accompanied by a change in the general condition of the baby (the bad and poor sucking, long deep sleep, loud, high-pitched crying, scanty stool, swelling, hoarseness, strong tremor);

the appearance of discolored stools;

with great anxiety during or after a meal, up to refusal to eat with obvious signs of hunger.

 

Questions:

1. The need for the development of the newborn vitamins.

2. Features of hematopoietic and thermoregulation mechanism, the development and function of the endocrine glands.

3. Physiological transient state, depending on changes in environmental conditions, coming after a birth.

 

Lecture 9. Psychomotor development of the child in ontogenesis: the period of breast childhood (from 28 days to 12 months), pre-preschool (nursery senior) period (from 1 year to 3 years), pre-school (3 to 7 years);

Objective: familiarization with the psychomotor development of the child in ontogenesis

Plan:

1. Features of psychomotor development of the period of breast childhood (from 28 days to 12 months)

2. Features of psychomotor development of pre-preschool (nursery senior) period (from 1 year to 3 years

3. Features of psychomotor development of pre-school child (3 to 7 years);

 

Psychomotor development of the child's first year of life

The first year of life is crucial in the mental development of the child. The brain develops most fast pace. The child at first helpless, to the end of the first year of life seizes pryamostoyaniem, walking, subject-manipulative activities, the initial understanding of reverse speech. During this period begins the formation of speech as a means of communication, ie. E. Formed purely human function, on which development in the evolution of millions of years have gone.

The psychomotor development of the child's first year of life emit several periods, each of which there is progressive complication preverbal forms of communication, form the basis for the development of speech and thinking.

Already in the first period - the neonatal period (. 0-1 months), along with a set of innate adaptive reactions, which play a major role in the life of the organism, can be 3-4 weeks of age to identify the initial conditions so-called communicative behavior: in response to the call to child caressing voice or smile begins to appear oral attention-child dies, his lips slightly stretched forward, as if he "listens" to his lips. Following this reaction smile appears. Already in the neonatal period may be noted that the child responds to voice faster than sounding toy.

In the second period (. 1-3 months) the child along with the intensive development of responses to visual and auditory stimuli were more clearly manifested emotional responses to communicate with an adult: stabilized "smile, and by the end of the period there is laughter to 3 months the child begins to develop. severe emotional reaction to the appearance of an adult -. "complex revitalization" Trying to come into contact with the baby is 10-12 weeks of his joyful excitement, yelps, vskidyvaniem pens, shuffling feet, vocal reaction to this age stage complex revitalization occurs at the sight of a friend. and an unknown person.

The timely appearance and well-marked revitalization of the complex show the normal mental development of the child.

In children, which further demonstrate marked deviations in mental development, revitalization and other complex emotional facial and vocal response to all the surrounding stimuli are absent. Underdevelopment of the individual components of the complex revitalization, such as movements of the hands or feet (bilateral or unilateral), may indicate a failure of the motor sphere; weakness or absence of vocal reactions or nasal tone of voice characteristic of speech-motor muscle lesions, which may further lead to speech disorders.

The absence of complex revitalization or paradoxical, such as the appearance of fear, screaming, and other negative emotions, characteristic of children with emotional disorders, early childhood autism early childhood nervousness and other disorders. Since the revival of the complex is formed in close connection with the development of vision and hearing, when these defects analyzers it may be absent or appear in rudimentary form. In congenital blindness or deafness, and especially in the combination of these complex defects revival at this stage there is no age.

When expressed mild central nervous system in children who had birth trauma, asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, as well as premature and immature complex revitalization appears at a later date. He may also be absent in children who are brought up in the conditions of emotional deprivation.

In the third period (3-6 months). The reaction comprising a set of recovery, more and more differentiated. A child older than 4 months at the approach to it and an adult when you try to enter into contact with him closely scrutinizes the face of an adult, wide open eyes and mouth, slows down the overall movement. Thus he appears tentative reaction, which in some cases turns into a joyful excitement, while others replaced by fear and screaming. It should be noted that the fear response in this age stage does not appear in all children. It depends on the individual child, as well as the conditions of his upbringing and environment. Over-expression of the fear response in this age stage is characteristic of children with increased nervous excitability, early infantile autism. It may be the first sign of congenital children's nervousness, mild brain dysfunction, increased intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus. It is also typical for children with cerebral palsy.

Lack of differentiation revitalization complex. at this age stage is characteristic of psychomotor retardation, including due to the lack of communication of adults with a child. Differentiation of complex revitalization earlier the children being cared for at home rather than in children who are in institutions.

By the end of this age stage the child begins to recognize his mother. However, this reaction is still very unstable and its appearance depends on many conditions, so its absence has no independent diagnostic value. However, if a child learns his mother, it indicates good mental development of the child.

To assess the mental development at this age stage it is important to see how the child responds to the toy. The leading form of activity in this age becomes a toy manipulation. The child is not only long-term fixes gaze on toys and traces of their movements, but directs them: hand grasps them, pulls in his mouth. This is followed by expressive emotional reactions: he is smiling, then frowning.

By the end of mutating nature of visual tracking. If you have previously followed the subject of children not taking his eyes and let out a subject from the field of view, did not return to it, after 5 months of a child, watching the object, as it were, "feels" his gaze; if this switch his attention to another subject (adult person), then a second later he could return to the active viewing toys. The manifestation of this function is very important indicator of normal neuropsychological development.

During this period intensively developed vocal reactions that begin to acquire some independence. Along with the sing-song Gulen to the end of the period there babbling and selective differentiation and responses to sound and the ability to localize sound in space.

In the development of hand movements leading role is played by the visual analyzer: the end of the period, the child quickly and accurately directs the arm to the toy, located in his field of vision.

In the next stage of development (6-9 months). When dealing with an adult child had clearly seen the orientation reaction, which is replaced by the joyful reaction of recovery in the familiar faces and the reaction of fear for strangers. In some cases, you can see how the orientation reaction proceeds in cognitive interest, bypassing the fear response.

A distinctive feature of the mental development of the child at this age stage is his willingness to joint manipulation with the adult toy. In addition, by the end of this stage the child begins the initial elements of the communication with an adult using gestures. He holds out his hands to an adult, showing that wants to hand or hand stretches to the distant object, if he wants to get it.

Deviations from normal age-related development at this stage are: indifference to communicating with adults (mental retardation, severe mental retardation, autism); a common set of revitalization and imitative smile instead of orienting reaction and manipulation of the game (mental retardation); excessive severity and duration of the fear response, turning in protest, and the reaction barrier to communication (congenital children's nervousness, autism, hyperexcitability).

For the diagnosis of abnormalities in this age stage it is important to estimate the child's reaction to the request it. In normal development, by the end of this phase, the child should be the initial situational understanding of reverse speech, responding effect on verbal instructions. For example, he raises his head and eyes to the lamp to the question.. "Where light", pressed her cheek to his mother at the request of "kiss my mother," etc. By the end of the period, he also learned to play in the "Okay", looking for the hidden in his the eyes of the toy.

A natural at this age is the emergence of babbling. When communicating with an adult after being overcome by fear and orientation reaction, the child begins to pronounce syllables chain ba-ba-ba, ma-ma-ma. If an adult begins to respond in kind, voice activity baby grows, there is a joyful revival and the baby will try to imitate adults and yourself. By 9 months observed flourishing babble, it is enriched with new sounds, intonations and becomes a permanent answer to the voice of the adult treatment.

When mental retardation, with cerebral palsy, autism, deafness, identified further serious disturbances of speech or babbling is not manifested in a rudimentary form.

The fifth period of the age of the child the first year of life (9-12 mo.) Is characterized primarily by the emergence of a new type of communication with an adult, and it is a subject-effective. Contact with the child is established and maintained with the help of colorful objects and toys that the child actively manipulates. At the same time he begins to show a selective attitude toward different subjects, but it is always clearly expressed reaction to novelty. A characteristic feature of this stage of development is estimated that the active research activity of the child begins to suppress the fear response to new stimuli.

Complex recovery in this age with normal mental development naturally fades. Therefore, its severity, even in premature and weakened child is one of the signs of delayed mental development.

For the diagnosis of mental development of the child at this age stage is important comprehensive assessment of emotional reactions. When lag in mental development of the child is not an adequate response to a stranger, there is no interest in toys, not expressed reaction to novelty, no cognitive and differentiated emotions. Facial expressions such children monotonous smile is imitative in nature and occurs in response to any smiling face of an adult, they can be observed undifferentiated complex revitalization and automatic visual tracking.

 

Age Attainments
3 years He names 4 basic colors. Step over the obstacle height of 10-15 cm. In a speech uses compound sentences. Frequently asks question as "why?", "When?", "Why?". Appear elements of role-playing game - "Mothers and Daughters", "teacher", and others. Uses the story construction in the game. Pencil drawings represent objects, when modeling simple shapes from clay. Self-dresses, uses a napkin and handkerchief.
4 years Motor skills: free, coordinated movements of hands, throwing the ball with two hands, catches it without clutching, jumping from a height and a length of 15-20 cm, the signal inhibits movement, loves to climb, gets the key mechanical toy, knows how to keep pencil, draw a horizontal and vertical lines. Sensory development: know 6 basic colors, pick up objects by color and shade, knows and selects the "circle", "square", "triangle", is able to compare the length, width, height, properly oriented in space, he learns to touch the objects. Mental development: count to 5, he knows the time of year, time of day. Asks questions "what", "why?", "Why?", Listens and paraphrases, allocates a significant link in the fairy tale, the story refers to paintings, it phrase, grammatical form. Fun activities. There are plot-role-playing games with other children, the duration of the game to 40 minutes, there are your favorite games, like to play with building blocks. Engaged in designing, building beats - "garage", "home". Behavior. Carefully listening to the adults, adults calls by name, patronymic. Observe the rules of behavior in society, formed the basic hygiene skills: cleanliness, washing, washing hands after using the toilet. Skills: self-dresses, eats properly holding a spoon, know how to use a fork, washes alone.
5 years Motor skills. Formed correct posture, well coordinated movements of hands and feet when walking, is able to walk and run in a circle, without fear of jumping from a height, can walk on the bar 30 cm high and 20 cm wide. Throws the ball, catches it, clearly coordinating finger movements in the design good draw horizontal and vertical lines. Sensory development. Knows 8 colors when painting uses not only color, but also their shades can arrange the items in ascending and descending order, is guided in the parts of his body. Mental development. Count to 5, it forms a generalized concepts such as "furniture", "fruit" and so on. D. This Phrase with good pronunciation. Nervous activity. Is your favorite games, the world is reflected in the game. Behavior. Comply with the rules of conduct. Skills: everything is able to do on their own.
6 years Motor development. Movement acquire lightness and elegance, enthusiastically jumping from upswing in height and length, catches the ball with one hand, can walk on the bar height of 30 cm and a width of 20 cm, can handle the ball, catches it, hits the ground, clearly coordinating finger movements in the design well draws pencil and paints, scissors cuts the simple forms. Sensory development. Can explore the visual and tactile objects can be called a rhombus and oval calls shades of colors - blue, pink, purple, gray. Mental development: count to 10, adds the unit has the concept of division into equal parts, called the order of the days of the week, times of the year; He called components of generalized concepts, making successive 2-3 pictures. We are with the correct construction of sentences. Fun activities: have your favorite games and role. Behavior. Next to it that other kids follow the rules of conduct. Skills: all can do. Independently maintains cleanliness in the house, free use scissors.
7years Motor skills: agile while driving, keep in alignment with the column, the line, circle. It may perform the movements in the specified tempo. It can ski, skate, scooter, three-wheeled bicycle. It can swim, play badminton, tennis, works well with different materials - paper, cardboard, cloth. Thread a needle, sew on buttons, can use a saw and hammer. Sensory development: the right calls simple and complex geometric shapes, correctly points to major differences of geometric forms. When drawing uses not only color, but also their shades. Mental development. He speaks directly and countdown to 10, solve simple problems involving addition and subtraction, differentiates amount regardless of the form, clearly establishes a causal connection, highlights the essential link. It owns a large vocabulary, speech grammatically framed, knows the letters, reading syllables. Fun activities. Creates new games, prefers to group games, compile and analyze its activities, the group prefers games. Behavior. Performs individual orders, cleans the room, takes care of the flowers. Able to critically analyze traits. Skills: self-dresses, eats properly holding a spoon, know how to use a fork, washes alone.

 

Questions:

1. Features of the first year of life.

2. The development of motor skills in the first year of life.

3. The development of mental and motor skills with 3 years.

4 Features of the development of sensory, intellectual and physical development of preschool age children.

 

 

Lecture 10. Psychomotor development of the child in ontogenesis: the physical and mental development of children of primary school age (7 to 11 years); senior school (puberty) period (from 11 to 20 years), the onset of puberty

 

Objective: familiarization with the psychomotor development of the child in ontogenesis

Plan:

1. The physical and mental development of children of primary school age (7 to 11 years);

2. Psychomotor development of the child in ontogenesis: senior school (puberty) period (from 11 to 20 years), the onset of puberty

Starting primary school age is determined by the child's entry point in the school. In recent years, in connection with the transition to training from 6 years and the introduction of a four-year primary school age lower boundary of the phase shifted, and many children are students, not since the age of 7, as before, but with 6 years. Accordingly, the boundaries of primary school age, coinciding with the period of primary school, established at the present time from 6-7 to 9-10 years.

During this period, there is a further physical and psycho-physiological development of the child, providing the possibility of systematic training in the school. First of all, improving brain function and the nervous system. According to physiologists, to 7 years in the cerebral cortex it is already largely mature. However, the most important, specifically human parts of the brain responsible for the programming, regulation and control of complex shapes psihicheskoydeyatelnosti in children of this age have not yet completed their formation (the development of the frontal parts of the brain ends only to 12 years), thereby regulating and inhibitory effect of the cortex on subcortical structures is insufficient. Imperfection regulatory cortex function is manifested in peculiar to children of this age peculiarities of behavior, organization and emotional sphere: junior high school students are easily distracted, incapable of prolonged concentration, excitable, emotional.

Home schooling is practically coincides with the period of the second physiological crisis attributable to the age of 7 years (in the body of the child is a sharp shift in the endocrine, accompanied by the rapid growth of the body, increasing the internal organs, the autonomic rearrangement). This means that a fundamental change in the system of social relations and the activities of the child coincides with the period of restructuring of all systems and functions of the body, which requires great effort and mobilization of its reserves.

However, despite the celebrated at this time certain complications that accompany the restructuring of the physiological (fatigue, neuro-psychological vulnerability of the child), physiological crisis is not so much a burden, how much, on the contrary, contributes to a child's successful adaptation to the new conditions.

Junior school age is a period of intensive development and qualitative transformation of cognitive processes: they begin to acquire mediated character and become conscious and arbitrary. The child gradually takes possession of his mental processes, learning to manage the perception, attention, memory.

According to LS Vygotsky, with the beginning of school thinking extends to the center of the conscious activity of the child, it becomes the dominant feature. In the course of systematic training aimed at mastering scientific knowledge, is the development of verbal and logical, conceptual thinking, leading to the restructuring and all other cognitive processes' memory at this age becomes a thinking, thinking and perception. "1 Assimilation in the educational activity the foundations of theoretical consciousness and thinking leads to the emergence and development of new high-quality education, as a reflection, analysis, internal plan of action.

During this period, the ability to qualitatively change any regulation of behavior. What is happening in this age, "the loss of childish" (Vygotsky) represents a new level of development of motivation-tionally-need sphere that allows the child to act indirectly, guided by conscious goals, elaborated social norms, rules of conduct and manners.

For primary school age starts to develop a new type of relationship with other people. Unconditional adult authority being lost, increasing the value of a child beginning to acquire peers, the role of children's community.

Thus, the central tumors of primary school age are:

- A qualitatively new level of development of voluntary regulation of behavior and activity;

- Reflection, analysis, internal plan of action;

- The development of new cognitive relation to reality;

- Focus on the peer group.

Profound changes in the psychological make-junior student show wide possibilities of development of the child at this age stage. During this period, to a qualitatively new level realized the potential development of the child as an active subject, learn about the world and himself, acquiring their own experience of acting in this world.

Junior school age is the sensitive to:

- The formation of motives for learning, sustainable development of cognitive needs and interests;

- The development of productive techniques and skills training activities, the ability to learn;

- Disclosure of individual characteristics and abilities;

- The development of skills of self-control, self-organization and self-regulation;

- The formation of an adequate self-esteem, development of criticality in relation to themselves and others;

- Assimilation of social norms, moral development;

- The development of communication skills with peers, build strong friendly contacts.

The most important tumors occur in all areas of mental development: converted intelligence, personality, social relations. The leading role of training activities in the process does not exclude the fact that the younger the student is actively engaged in other activities (game elements work, sports, art, etc.), In which improved and reinforced the new achievements of the child.

Younger school age - a period of positive change and transformation. It is therefore important level of achievement, the implementation of each child at this age stage. If at this age the child does not feel the joy of learning, acquires the ability to learn, not learn to make friends, not to acquire confidence in themselves, their abilities and opportunities to do so in the future (beyond sensitive periods) will be much more difficult and will require immeasurably higher mental and physical costs.

However, looking ahead, we can say that most of these positive developments (primarily those koto-rye with particular care cultivated by adults in children of this age: their organization, self-interested attitude to learning, etc.) In appearance may be lost a baby in the peak of the global restructuring of adolescence. But without them, she would wear this restructuring qualitatively different, since it would not have the necessary bases. The more positive acquisitions will be in primary school children, the easier it is to cope with the upcoming challenges of adolescence.

Younger school age child is called the vertex [9. S. 251]. The modern periodization of mental development covers the period from 6-7 to 9-11 years.

 

At this age, there is an image and a lifestyle change, new requirements, new social role of the student, a completely new type of activity - training activity. In school, he acquires not only knowledge and skills, but also a certain social status. Changing the perception of its place in the system of relations. I am interested in the value of the child, his whole way of life.

The child is on the border of the new age period.

From a physiological point of view - this time the physical growth when children are quickly drawn up, there is disharmony in physical development, it is ahead of the psychological development of the child, which affects the temporary weakening of the nervous system. Manifested by increased fatigue, anxiety, increased need for movement.

The social situation in the early school years:

1. The training activity is the dominant activity.

2. completes the transition from visual-figurative to verbal and logical thinking.

3. Clearly visible the social meaning of the doctrine (the ratio of the small school to marks).

4. Motivation of achievement becomes dominant.

5. There is a change in the reference group.

6. There is a change in the daily routine.

7. Strengthen new internal position.

8. Changes the system child relationships with other people.

Leading activity

The leading activity in primary school age - learning activity. Its characteristics: efficiency, commitment, arbitrariness.

Basics of educational activity was laid in the early years of education. Educational activities should be, on the one hand, to build age-appropriate opportunities for children, and on the other - must ensure that they are necessary for the further development of the amount of knowledge.

The components of educational activity (in El'konin):

1. Motivation.

2. The training task.

3. The training operation.

4. Monitoring and evaluation.

Motives of the doctrine:

• educational (aimed at the acquisition of knowledge, ways of learning, methods of independent work, the acquisition of additional knowledge, self-improvement programs);

• social (responsibility, understanding the social significance of the doctrine, the desire to take a stand in relation to others, get their approval);

• uzkolichnye - get a good mark, deserve praise (for Sapogova EE).

Schooling is not only a special social significance of the child's activities, but also mediating the relationship with older samples and estimates, by following the rules, common to all, the acquisition of scientific concepts.

As a result of learning activities occur mental neoplasms: the arbitrariness mental processes, reflection (personal, intellectual), an internal plan of action (planning in mind, the ability to analyze).

speech

Increases vocabulary to 7 thousand. Words. Exhibits own active position to the language. When nauchenii easily masters the sound analysis of words. The child listens to the sound of the word. The need for a dialogue of younger schoolboys determines the development of speech. Contextual speech - an indicator of the level of development of the child.

In writing distinguish correct spelling (the correct spelling of words), grammar (sentence structure, the formation of morphological forms) and punctuation (the alignment of punctuation marks).

Thinking

Thinking in the early school years becomes the dominant feature completes the incipient in the preschool transition from visual-figurative to verbal and logical thinking.

By the end of primary school age are shown individual differences in thinking (theorists, thinkers, artists).

The scientific concepts (bases of theoretical thinking) are formed during training.

Memory

Memory is developing in two directions - the arbitrariness and meaningfulness.

The training activities are developing all kinds of memory: long-term, short-term and operational.

The development of memory associated with the need to memorize the course material. Actively formed voluntary memorization.

Attention

Children are able to concentrate, but they still dominated by involuntary attention.

The arbitrariness of cognitive processes occur at the peak of volitional effort (especially organizing themselves under the influence of requirements). Attention is activated but not yet stable. Hold focus is possible thanks to the efforts of a strong-willed and highly motivated.

Perception

Perception is also characterized by involuntary, although elements of arbitrary perceptions occur as early as the preschool years.

Perceptions differ poor differentiation (confused objects, their properties).

In the primary school age is increasing focus on the sensory standards of form, color, time.

Imagination

Imagination in its development has two stages: in the first - to recreate the (reproductive), the second - productive. In the first class of the imagination based on specific subjects, but with age in the first place speaks a word, giving space fantasy.

7-8 years - sensitive period for the assimilation of moral norms (the child is psychologically ready to understand the meaning of the rules and regulations in their daily execution).

consciousness

Intensively developing self-awareness. Becoming a junior student self-esteem depends on the performance and features of dialogue of the teacher with the class. Of great importance is the style of family education received in the family values. In standouts and some well-achieving children develops high self-esteem. We are extremely weak and underachieving students systematic failures and reduce the level of low self-confidence in their capabilities. Do they have a compensatory motivation. Children begin to be approved in another area - in sports, in music.

Value orientations are becoming the norm in the name of life. It is important that the child received another type of treatment for him - by name. This provides the child's self-esteem, self-confidence.

The need for self-affirmation. Of great importance is the authority of adults. Considerable importance is the place occupied by the child in the family.

The general development of motor skills in primary school age is flowing in the direction of the permanent acquisition coordination opportunities that were created at the child as a result of the final anatomical maturation of the motor sphere. In the younger child, little by little come into operation kartikalnye higher levels is progressively being established and precise power movement (there is accuracy in throwing, climbing, athletics, dance movements). However, the wealth of the motor age is only when the free movements. It is necessary to force the child to make precise movements, he immediately begins to sweat and strive to escape to the games where free movement. The inability of the accuracy depends on the underdevelopment of cortical brain mechanisms and a lack of development of the movement of the formulas.

Thus, in this age dominated by expressive, fine motor skills and everyday. Apparent motor does not fatigue the child is related to the fact that it does not produce productive working activities requiring precision and overcome the resistance, and hence the high energy costs. In common usage, and even more so when the expressive and visual movements, almost unrelated to the resistance movement is, of course, that start, run and end respectively physiological and mechanical properties of the skeletal system in an appropriate pace and rhythm, with smooth, soft transitions from a reduction of certain muscle groups to their relaxation and back. From graceful movements of children. In particular, the pace, the rhythm is already well developed at this age, but the power of movements is quite small.

Total motor development of younger schoolboys sent to the gradual mastery of those coordinating the opportunities that were created at the child as a result of final maturation anatomical motoriuma. The researchers note that "together with the improvement of locomotor system slightly reduced the wealth of movements, but small precise movements are adjusted subsequently the gradual development of the cortical components."

However, there may occur among children of primary school age are very different relative degree of development of the individual levels of coordination. There are children differ much grace and harmony of movements, whose hands, at the same time extremely helpless and do not know how to cope with the most primitive tasks by writing. Others have exceptional precision small movements (when writing letters rounded, smooth, do not get out of the line), however, these children may be baggy, clumsy, stumble on a level floor, dropping chairs.

The existence of such individual differences and quality for a long time and is well known as the fact that, in direct correlation with the proportion of the cash of the individual sides and motor skills is the ability of learning new motor skills of a different quality. One child is very easy and well learns fine and accurate work, but very tight mastering the exercises of rhythmic gymnastics, for example. Another easy dance moves are very difficult, for example, playing the piano. Of course, the selected motor and constitutional profiles correlate with each other. It is therefore appropriate to raise the question about the choice of adjustment methods and those and others that contribute to their further development and training.

Development of motor skills and abilities is not a passive "giving of" influences coming from outside and active psychomotor activity forming and exterior design and the very essence of motor exercises. Formation of motor skills is a whole chain of the successive phases of different meaning and qualitatively different mechanisms.

Among the many developing motor functions in primary school age occupy a special place function movement of the fingers.

The motor function of the fingers have a tremendous impact on the development of all the higher nervous activity of the child.

Actions with child objects have a great influence on the development of brain function.

"All the infinite variety of external manifestations of brain activity is reduced finally to only one phenomenon - muscular movement", - wrote IM Section. Strengthening the motor component of the effector link gaming, food and other basic reflex reactions strengthens. The construction of each movement is determined by the nature of the signal that caused it, and performed as a process of coordination of the elements of the movement. N.A.Bronshteyn and AV Zaporozhets believe that coordination of any motor act - from the most elementary to the complex such as writing and articulation - defined by the image or view the expected result action. The concept of action, N.A.Bronshteyn says, is "the leading invariant", which determines the course of the restructuring program of the motor act.

In the scientific literature, psychology, physiology, pedagogy to distinguish between two basic types of movements: voluntary and involuntary. Of course, both types are peculiar to children of primary school age.

Involuntary, simpler, fully reproduce the innate motor responses. Arbitrary, complex movements, once formed as a learned, they are a lot of life experience acquired on the skills, abilities. The complex motor acts elements of voluntary and involuntary movements are intertwined very closely and very difficult to differentiate them. In the case of multiple repetition of these components are transformed into "secondary arrangements" (ie, the study of dance movement, playing a musical instrument) and are beginning to be implemented without the active participation of the cerebral cortex.

In psychology, studies point to three main features of arbitrary action: 1) they are free from external stimuli; 2) are aimed at achieving some - any purpose; 3) anticipate the future (since the goal is to be achieved in the future). That is why psychologists have come to the conclusion that voluntary movements are not determined by external influences and driving force behind their development is the human decision making.

"Involuntary can be arbitrary, but this is achieved by means of the second signal system", - said Pavlov. LS Vygotsky wrote that the higher forms of regulation of human movements are born in the social communication of people. Individual development of voluntary movement begins with the fact that the child learns to subordinate his motion verbally formulated by adult standards.

Getting acquainted with the surrounding world, the child learns to distinguish between a plurality of objects and phenomena, their spatial, temporal and causal relationships. The information received by it from analizatorskih systems, including from the motor is subjected to sorting, analyzing, association, feeling different modalities merge into images of objects. This process is called IMSechenov objective thinking. The development of objective thinking in children aged 6-7 years is largely due to the development of its propulsion motor. The works of Sechenov draws attention to the fact that each reflex movement contains: eye movement control muscle movement in the arms and legs, etc. Hence, the process of allocating the corresponding reflexes in the brain and their subsequent integration into a complete image of the object implies participation of the motor analyzer.

This age is characterized by increased growth, reorganization of the endocrine system. There is a rapid puberty, and before it begins in girls, and then - in boys. This period is often marked functional disturbances caused by the rapid growth of the whole body, individual organs, as well as the instability of the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems.

In this age of fully formed character. This period is considered to be a difficult period of psychological development.

Each child is peculiar to its own path of development, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism, the external environment and other factors.

The main features are its child growth and development.

Physical development of children - is a complex of morphological and functional characteristics of the organism. To control the physical development necessary to evaluate changes in body size, physique, muscle strength and other factors.

In accordance with the periods marked unevenness childhood growth of certain parameters. After birth, there is a constant decline in the growth of individual indicators.

In an age dominated by the processes of growth, and the other - the processes of development of various organs. Adolescence or senior school during child development, age - from 12 to 17-18 years. It coincides with puberty. For quite a short period of time at the young men and women reproductive system matures, its morphological and functional state reaches that of the adults to 17-18 years.

In adolescence there is an intense sexual differentiation, due to the activities of the endocrine glands. Increased activity of the pituitary-gonadal and adrenal-pituitary relationships governing the development and formation of the sexual sphere. On the organization of the brain activity affects not only the maturation of its own structures, but also endocrine changes.

This period is characterized by a rapid increase in body size, a sharp change in the endocrine glands function. Prior to the onset of puberty gonadotropin in the blood of girls and boys low. Period of 1 year before the first signs of puberty are regarded as sexual infantilism stage. However, a slight and gradual increase in the secretion of pituitary hormones, and sex glands - the indirect evidence of maturation diencephalic structures.

The concentration of testosterone in the blood of boys aged 7-13 years is low, but increases significantly, since 15 years, with the stabilization of the hormone concentration to 20 years. In parallel with the pubertal development of the larynx occurs votes mutation - an important sign, indicating the degree of maturity of youth. In the ovaries of mature germ cells, the synthesis of many hormones (estrogen, androgen, progesterone).

Already in the 10-12 years against the background of a low content of estrogen on certain days celebrate its increase by 2-3 times. The closer menarche, the more often watch such a short-term increase in the excretion of estrogen. The average age of menarche - 12-13 years. In 16-17 years, most of the girls have a right ovarian menstrual-cycle.

Increasing the length of the body it is especially pronounced at puberty, so in 12-14 years old girls often outperform boys in physical development. During the "sprout jump", aged about 12 years, girls grow by about 8 cm per year. In boys, a "jump" happens later - about 14 years, when they grow by an average of 10 cm per year.

Significantly increase muscle strength and performance. Increasing motor and neuro-psychic activity, the intensive growth of the mass and length of the body require hard work of the endocrine glands, nervous system, and the high intensity of metabolic processes, which necessitates the introduction of additional nutrients. Accelerated physical and sexual maturity does not always go in parallel with the development of intellectual, physical maturation is faster and ends earlier.

Particular attention should be drawn to the heart with a variety of morphological variants of its development, the lability of heart rate, imperfection neurovegetative control. During this period, often meet the functional disorders of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems ("youthful heart," "Youth hypertension" dyscirculatory disorder).

Widely distributed as eating disorders (obesity, degeneration) and gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcer disease). With the onset of puberty reveal defects of the genital apparatus (dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, etc.), May worsen infectious and allergic diseases, and tuberculosis.

Due to hormonal changes may be deviations in the functioning of the endocrine system (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, etc.). Imbalance of hormonal influences, a temporary reduction of immune properties of the skin, enhancing the function of the sebaceous glands as in boys and girls is often accompanied by pustular diseases of the skin, especially on the face. This is a difficult period of psychological development, the desire for self-affirmation, often with a dramatic revision of the whole system of life values, attitude towards themselves, their parents and peers.

To determine the biological age using signs reflecting the process of biological maturation.

In adolescence, often choose a profession, it's time for self-determination and personal development, time of the adoption of gender and development of a sense of sexual satisfaction. Thinking becomes more independent, active and creative. Appears capacity for self-sacrifice, loyalty, trust.

It must be emphasized that each child is an individual characteristic of the biological pace of development, with its biological age can be to a certain extent different from his age peers.

 

Questions

1. The physical and mental development of children of primary school age (7 to 11 years);

2. In what is the specificity of mental development in the early school years?

3. What are the potential development opportunities in these times?

 

 









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