Сдам Сам

ПОЛЕЗНОЕ


КАТЕГОРИИ







Упр. 1. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.





АРТИКЛЬ

Запомните следующие правила.

Перед каждым нарицательным существитель­ным должен стоять артикль.

Если вы не употребляете перед существитель­ным артикль, вы должны уметь объяснить, по­чему.

Артикль не употребляется, если перед существи­тельным стоит притяжательное или указатель­ное местоимение, другое существительное в притяжательном падеже, количественное числи­тельное или отрицание "по" (не "not").

Упр. 1. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... book. It is my ... book. 2. Is this your ... pencil? — No, it isn't my ... pencil, it is ray sister's ... pencil. 3. I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... engineer. My sister's ... husband is ... doctor. 4. I have no ... handbag. 5. Is this ... watch? — No, it isn't ... watch, it's ... pen. 6. This ... pen is good, and that ... pen is bad. 7. I can see ... pencil on your ... table, but I can see no ... paper. 8. Give me ... chair, please. 9. They have ... dog and two ... cats. 10. I have ... spoon in my ... plate, but I have no ... soup in it.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем пе­ред ним неопределенный артикль а(аn).Упоми­ная этотже предмет вторично, мы ставим пе­ред ним определенный артикль the.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

Упр. 2. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... tree. ... tree is green. 2. I can see three ... boys. ... boys are playing. 3. I have ... bicycle. ... bicycle is black. My ... friend has no ... bicycle. 4. Our ... room is large. 5. We wrote ... dictation yesterday. ... dictation was long. 6. She has two ... daughters and one ... son. Her ... son is ... pupil. 7. My ... brother's ... friend has no ... dog. 8. This ... pencil is broken. Give me that ... pencil, please. 9. She has ... ball. ... ball is ... big. 10. I got ... letter from my ... friend yesterday. ... letter was interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употреб­ляться только с исчисляемыми существитель­ными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или суще­ствительными во множественном числе неопре­деленный артикль опускается. Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.



E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

исчисляемое в единственном числе

This is S meat. The meat is fresh.

неисчисляемое

These are S books. The books are good.

множественное число

Упр. 3. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... pen. ... pen is red. 2. These are pencils. ... pencils are black. 3. This is ... soup. ... soup is tasty. 4. In the morning I eat ... sandwich and drink ... tea. 5. She gave me ... coffee and ... cake. ... coffee was hot. ... cake was tasty. 6. Do you like ... ice-cream? 7. I see ... book in your ... hand. Is ... book interesting? 8. She bought... meat, ... butter and ... potatoes yesterday. She also bought ... cake. ... cake was very ... tasty. We ate ... cake with ... tea. 9. This is my ... table. On ... table I have ... book, two ... pencils, ... pen and ... paper. 10. This is ... bag. ... bag is brown. It is my sis­ter's ... bag. And this is my ... bag. It is ... yellow.

Запомните следующие словосочетания, в кото­рых артикль не употребляется:

at S school at S home at S work

Упр. 4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I have two ... sisters. My ... sisters are ... students. 2. We are at ... home. 3. My ... brother is not at ... home, he is at ... school. 4. My ... mother is at ... work. She is ... doctor. 5. I am not ... doctor. 6. I have no'... sister. 7. He is not ... pilot. 8. I have thirty-two ... teeth. 9. He has ... child. 10. She has two ... children. Her children are at ... school. 11. Is your father at ... home? — No, he is at ... work. 12. Where is your ... broth­er? — He is at ... home.

Если перед существительным употребляется прилагательное, оно стоит между артиклем и су­ществительным.

E.g. This is a book. This is a good book.

Упр 5. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. We have ... large ... family. 2. My granny often tells us ... long ... interesting .. stories. 3. My ... father is ... engineer. He works at ... factory. ... factory is large. 4. My ... mother is ... doctor. She works at ... large ... hospital. She is at ... work now. 5. My ... aunt is ... teacher. She works at ... school. ... school is good. My ... aunt is not at ... school now. She is at ... home. She is drinking ... tea and eating ... jam. ... jam is sweet. I am at ... home, too. I am drinking ... tea and eating ... sandwich. ... sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at ... school. She is ... pupil. 7. My cousin has ... big ... black ... cat. My cousin's ... cat has two ... kittens. ... milk, too. cat likes ... milk. ... kittens like

Упр. 6. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I am ... engineer. 2. My ... son is ... pupil. 3. He is ... good ... pupil. 4. This is ... house. 5. This is my ... pencil. 6. You have some ... pen­cils, but I have no ... pencil. Give me ... pencil, please. 7. I like your ... beautiful ... flower. Give me ... flower, please. 8. My ... mother is at ... home. She is reading ... interesting ... book. 9. My ... father is not at ... home. He is at ... work. He is ... doctor. He is ... good ... doctor. He works at ... hospital. ... hospital is large.

Часто, даже упоминая предмет впервые, мы тем j не менее употребляем перед ним определенный артикль:

а) если упоминаемый предмет является един­ственным в мире

E.g. The sun is shining brightly.

в) если этот предмет является определенным по ситуации

E.g. Put the book on the table.

Упр. 7. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. What's ... weather like today? — ... weather is fine. 2. ... sun is yellow. 3. ... sky is grey today. 4. ... earth is ... planet. 5. We had ... English lesson yesterday. ... teacher asked me many ... questions. ... questions were difficult.

4. Where is your ... brother? — He is at ... home. He is in his ... room. He is sitting at ... table. He is doing his ... homework. ... homework is difficult. 5. Our ... cat is sitting on ... sofa. 6. It is very dark in ... room. Turn on ... light, please. 7. Nick went into ... bathroom, turned on ... water and washed his ... hands.

Упр. 8. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... good ... book. Take ... book from ... table. Put this ... book into ... bookcase. 2. ... weath­er is fine today. ... sky is blue. ... sun is shining brightly in ... blue ... sky. 3. This is ... boy. ... boy is at... school. He is ... pupil. This ... boy is my ... brother's ... friend. He has ... cat, but he has no ... dog. He likes his ... cat. He gives ... cat ... milk every day. 4. Yesterday I received ... letter from my ... friend. ... letter was interesting. 5. We live in... big house. I like ... house very much. 6. Are you ... worker? — No, I am ... student.

Кроме того существует огромное количество так называемых "застывших словосочетаний," в ко­торых артикль употребляется или отсутствует традиционно. Эти словосочетания приходится заучивать наизусть.

Запомните следующие конструкции.

There is a ... Where is the ... ?

Запомните также следующие предложения:

The (book) is on the (table). Ho: The (book) is on a little (table)1

Упр. 9. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. Where is ... cat? —.. cat is on ... sofa. 2. Where is ... book? — .. book is on ... shelf. 3. Where are ... flowers? — ... flowers are in ...beautiful vase. 4. Where is.. vase? — ... vase is on ... little table near ... window. 5. Open ... win­dow, please. ... weather is fine today. I can see ... sun in ... sky. I can see ... nice little bird. ... bird is sitting in ... big tree. ... tree is green. 6. There is ... little white cloud in ... sky. 7. We have ... large room. There is ... big sofa in ... room and ... little lamp on ... wall over ... sofa. I like to sit on ... sofa and read ... good book.

1 Существительное, стоящее в скобках, может быть любым. Прилагательное также может быть любым. Вместо предлога "on" может быть любой другой предлог иди заменяющее его слово­сочетание, напр, "in front of".

Запомните следующее застывшее словосочета­ние:

in S front

Упр. 31. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо

1. Do you play ... piano? 2. There is ... big black piano in our living-room. It is at ... wall to ... left of ... door opposite ... sideboard. My mother likes to play ... piano. She often plays ... piano in ... evening. 3. ... boys like to play ... football. 4. What do you do in ... evening? — I often play ... chess with my grandfather. 5. Where are ... children? — Oh, they are out of ... doors. ... weather is fine today. They are playing ... badminton in ... yard. 6. What ... games does your sister like to play? — She likes to play ... tennis. 7. Do you like to play ... guitar? 8. What ... colour is your guitar?

It was evening

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

Упр. 76. Дайте соответствующие существи­тельные женского рода.

A lion, a tiger, an actor, a poet, a man, an un­cle, a husband, a brother, a grandfather, a son, a master, a baron, a count, a shepherd, a host.

Упр. 77. Дайте соответствующие существи­тельные мужского рода.

A lady, a girl, a niece, Mrs. Smith, a widow, a stewardess, a French woman, a cow, a queen, a princess, a duchess, a hen, a mother.

Образование множественного числа существи­тельных

a cat — cats

a dog — dogs

a car — cars

a watch — watches

a dress — dresses a dish — dishes a box — boxes

a boy — boys a city — cities

a potato — potatoes a leaf — leaves

Упр. 78. Поставьте следующие существитель­ные во множественное число (не забудьте, что перед множественным числом неопределенный артикль нужно опустить),

A table, a plate, a fox, a room, a lady, a knife, a chair, a bus, a Negro, a match, a way, a house, a family, a flag, a town, a wolf, a country, a lion, a park, a play.

Запомните форму множественного числа следу­ющих существительных:

a man — men a goose — geese

a woman — women a tooth — teeth

a child — children a fool — feet

a mouse — mice an ox — oxen

Запомните также:

Но:

an Englishman — Englishmen a Frenchman — Frenchmen a German — Germans

Запомните три существительных, имеющих во множественном числе ту же форму, что и в единственном:

a sheep — sheep a deer — deer

a swine swine

Упр. 79. Поставьте следующие существитель­ные во множественное число (обратите внимание на артикли: неопределенный артикль во множе­ственном числе опускается, определенный артикль сохраняется).

A star, a mountain, a tree, a shilling, a king, the waiter, the queen, a man, the man, a woman, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, a boy, a goose, the watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, the sheep, a tooth, a child, the ox, a deer, the life, a tomato.

Упр. 80. Поставьте следующие словосочета­ния во множественное число.

This tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this man, that match, this knife.

Запомните:

this is — these are that is — those are there is — there are it is — they are

МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ

SOME, ANY, NO, EVERY

И ИХ ПРОИЗВОДНЫЕ

Some обозначает некоторое количество.
Употребление
Утвердительная форма We have got some dictionaries.
Отрицательная форма We have got no dictionaries. We haven't got any dictionaries.
Вопросительная форма Have you got any dictionaries?

Упр. 89. Вставьте some, any или по.

1. There are ... pictures in the book. 2. Are there ... new students in your group? 3. There are ... old houses in our street. 4. Are there ... English text­books on the desks? - - Yes, there are ... . 5. Are there ... maps on the walls? —No, there aren't ... . 6. Are there ... pens on the desk? - - Yes, there are.... 8. Are there ... sweets in your bag? - - Yes, there are ... . 9. Have you got ... English books at home? -- Yes, I have ... . 10. There are ... beauti­ful pictures in the magazine. Look at them. 11. There is ... ink in my pen: I cannot write.

Упр„ 92, Вставьте something, anything, nothing или everything,

1. ... is all right, the patient is much better today! 2. Is there ... interesting in the program of the concert? 3. I could see ... : it was quite dark. 4. Give me ... to drink. 5. I didn't take any money with me so I couldn't buy ... . 6. My new eyeglasses are very good, I can see ... now. 7.1 saw ... near the wood that looked like a tent.

Упр. 93. Вставьте something, anything, nothing или everything.

1. Give me ... to read, please. - - With pleasure, 2. I don't know ... about your town. Tell me .., about it. 3. Please give me ... warm: it is cold here. 4. I understand ... now. Thank you for your explanation. 5. There is ... white in the box. 'What is it? 6. Is there ... that you want to tell me? 7. Where is the book? — It is on the table. - No, there is . . there.

 
somebody — кто-нибудь, кто-то
Употребление
Утвердительная форма Не asked somebody to help him.
Отрицательная форма He asked nobody to help him. He did not ask any­body to help him.
Вопросительная форма Did he ask anybody to help him?

everybody — все

Упр. 94. Вставьте somebody, anybody, nobody или everybody.

1. Has ... in this group got a dictionary? 2. ... left a magazine in our classroom yesterday. 3. The question was so difficult that ... could answer it. 4. I am afraid I shan't be able to find ... in the office now: it is too late. 5. ... knows that water is necessary for life. 6. Is there ... here who knows French? 7. You must find ... who can help you. 8. ... knew anything about America before Colum­bus discovered it. 9. I saw ... in the train yesterday who looked like you. 10. There is ... in the next room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the sto­ry. ... knows it. 12. Is there ... in my group who lives in the dormitory? 13. Has ... here got a red pencil? 14. ... can answer this question. It is very easy.

A) some, any, no.

1. There were ... of my friends there. 2. Well, anyway, there is ... need to hurry, now that we have missed the train. 3. Have you ever seen ... of these pictures before? 4. There is ... water in the" kettle: they have drunk it all. 5. There were ... fir-trees in that forest, but many pines. 6. We could not buy cherries, so we bought ... plums instead.

ПРЕДЛОГИ

ГДЕ?

НА столе

ON

On the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the win­dow-sill, on the ground, on the grass, on the roof, on the bridge, on the plat­form, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard, on the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the window-sill, on the ground, on the grass, on the roof, on the bridge, on the plat­form, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard.

КУДА?

НА стол

ON

On the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the win­dow-sill, on the ground, on the grass, on the roof, on the bridge, on the plat­form, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard, on the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the window-sill, on the ground, on the grass, on the roof, on the bridge, on the plat­form, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard.

ГДЕ?

 

В комнате

КУДА?

В комнату

INTO

In the room, in the kitchen, in the house, in the car, in the box, in the cupboard, in the bag, in the pocket, in the hall, in the plate, in the cup, in the glass, in the bottle, in the snow, in the water, in the river, in the lake, in the sea, in the wood, in the park, in the gar­den, in the yard, in the classroom.

Into the room, into the kitchen, into the house, into the car, into the box, into the cupboard, into the bag, into the pocket, into the hall, into the plate, into the cup, into the glass, into the bottle, into the snow, into the water, into the river, into the lake, into the sea, into the wood, into the park, into the garden, into the yard, into the classroom.

Упр. 129. Вставьте предлоги on, in или into.

1. Where is the book? - - It is ... the table. 2. Where is the tea? — It is ... the cup. 3. Put the plates ... the table. 4. Put the book ... the bag. 5. There is a beautiful picture ... the wall. 6. He went ... the room. 7. I like to sit ... the sofa ... my room. 8. Mother is cooking dinner ... the kitchen. 9. She went ... the room and sat down ... the sofa. 10. There are many people ... the park today. 11. There is a girl standing ... the bridge. Why is she crying? - She has dropped her doll ... the water. 12. There is no tea ... my cup. 13. Pour some tea ... my cup. 14. Put these flowers ... the window-sill. 15. I saw many people ... the plat­form waiting for the train. 16. We went ... the garden and sat down ... a bench. 17. The teacher hung a picture ... the blackboard. 18. I opened the door and went ... the classroom. The teacher was writing some words ... the blackboard. The pupils were writing these words ... their exercise-books. There were some books and pens ... the teacher's table. There were two maps ... the wall and some flowers ... the window-sills. I saw a pen ... the floor. I picked it up and put it ... the table. 19. He put his hand ... his pocket, took out a letter and dropped it ... the mail-box which hung ... the wall of the house. Then he got ... his car and drove off.

Запомните также следующие словосочетания
ГДЕ? КУДА?
У стены AT К стене ТО
At the wall, at the door, at the window, at the blackboard, at the map, at the book­case, at the tree, at the river. То the wall, to the door, to the window, to the blackboard, to the map, to the book­case, to the tree, to the river.
И следующие словосочетания
ГДЕ? КУДА?
ЗА столом — AT the table ЗА партой — AT the desk ЗА стол — AT the table ЗА парту — AT the desk

 

Упр. 130. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя предлоги on, in, at, to, into.

1. Идите к доске. 2. Напишите число на дос­ке. 3. Повесьте картину на доску. 4. Она налила в вазу воды и поставила в нее цветы. Потом она пошла к окну и поставила вазу на подоконник. 5. Учитель стоит у доски. Он пишет на доске предложение. Ученики сидят за партами. Они пишут это предложение в своих тетрадях. 6. Ник вошел в кухню и сел за стол. Мама стояла у пли­ты. Она подошла к столу, поставила на стол чаш­ку и налила в чашку чаю. 7. Мы собрали в лесу много грибов. 8. Маша открыла дверь и вошла в дом. В доме никого не было. Медведи были в лесу. В комнате Маша увидела стол. Она подо­шла к столу. На столе она увидела три тарелки. 9. Катя была в комнате. Она стояла у книжного шкафа. 10. На полу лежал толстый ковер. Дети сели на ковер и начали играть. 11. Где мальчи­ки? — Они играют во дворе. 12. Сейчас зима. На земле лежит снег. На реке лед. 13. Она подошла к доске, взяла мел и начала писать на доске 14. Масло на столе. Поставь его в холодильник. А теперь садись за стол. В этом стакане сок. Вы­пей его и поставь стакан на полку. 15. Где твоя ручка? - - Она в моем кармане. 16. Положи в карман платок. 17. Он прыгнул в реку и быстро поплыл к острову.

Запомните следующие словосочетания

ГДЕ?

At the theatre, at the cinema, at the muse­um, at the swimming-pool, at the library, at the shop, at the insti­tute, at the port, at the railway-station, at the concert, at the exhibi­tion, at the stadium, at the stop, at the facto­ry, at work1, at school1, at the lesson.

КУДА?

To the theatre, to the cinema, to the muse­um, to the swimming-pool, to the library, to the shop, to the insti­tute, to the port, to the railway-station, to the concert, to the exhibi­tion, to the stadium, to the stop, to the facto­ry, to work1, to school1, to the lesson.

Упр. 131. Переведите на английский язык сле­дующие словосочетания, употребляя предлоги in или at,

В кухне, в порту, в плавательном бассейне, в пар­ке, в лесу, в театре, в саду, в библиотеке, в реке, в магазине, в стакане, в комнате, в кино, в снегу, в шко­ле, в классе, в доме, в чашке, в музее, в институте.

Упр. 132. Переведите на английский язык сле­дующие словосочетания, употребляя предлоги on или at.

На полке, на подоконнике, на скамейке, на заводе, на стене, на вокзале, на платформе, на полу, на крыше, на выставке, на остановке, на земле, на концерте, на доске, на уроке, на мос­ту, на стадионе, на снегу, на траве, на работе.

1 Обратите внимание на отсутствие артикля в этих словосо­четаниях

Упр. 133. Переведите на английский язык,

I употребляя предлоги at, on, in, to, into.

1. Где Коля? — Он в институте. 2. Папа ходит на работу каждый день. 3. Вчера папа был на ра­боте, а мама была дома. 4. Вчера я ходил в библио­теку. В библиотеке я взял очень интересную книгу. 5. Катя сидела за столом. На столе лежали книги и тетради. Папа подошел к столу и поставил на стол • вазу. В вазу он поставил цветы. 6. Вчера мы ходи­ли на выставку. На выставке мы видели много кар­тин. 7. Где Том? -- Он на стадионе. Он всегда хо­дит на стадион в воскресенье. А его сестра ходит в плавательный бассейн. Сейчас она в бассейне. 8. Ты любишь ходить в театр? 9. Когда мы пришли на вокзал, мы поставили свои вещи на платформу и сели на скамейку. Мама пошла в магазин и купи­ла лимонаду. 10. Вчера на уроке учитель сказал мне: "На доске две ошибки. Иди к доске и исправь ошибки." 11. Вы были вчера на концерте? -- Нет, мы работали в библиотеке, а потом мы пошли в парк. В парке мы играли, а потом сидели на тра­ве. 12. Положи книгу в портфель и иди к доске. 13. Сегодня во дворе много ребят.

Обратите внимание на разницу в значении в за­висимости от употребления предлогов to и into со словами wood, park, garden, yard, etc.

Пошел, ходил в лес, парк и т. д. went TO

вошел в парк, лес и

т.д.

went INTO

(преодолел какое-то расстояние прежде, чем дошел)

(был рядом и вошел внутрь)

Упр. 134. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя предлоги to или into.

1. Иди в парк. 2. Войди в парк. 3. Она пошла в кухню. 4. Она вошла в кухню. 5. Не ходите в магазин. 6. Не входите в магазин. 7. Она побежа­ла во двор. 8. Она вбежала во двор. 9. Я пошел в сад. 10. Я вошел в сад. 11. Мы пошли в лес. 12. Мы" вошли в лес. 13. Идите в класс. 14. Вой­дите в класс.

Запомните следующие застывшие словосочета­ния
ГДЕ? КУДА?
в постели — in bed1 в городе — in town1 за городом — in the country в постель — to bed1 в город — to town1 за город -to the country

Упр. 135. Вставьте предлоги in или to.

1. We did not want to stay ... town on such a hot day, so we went ... the country. 2. It is very late: Go ... bed at once. 3. Where is your little sister? - - She is ... bed. Mother always puts her ... bed at eight o'clock. 4. In summer my mother does not go ... work and I don't go ... school. We live ... the country. My father goes ... work every day, so he stays ... town. But sometimes he comes ... the country after work and goes back ... town early in the morning, when I am still ... bed. 5. In winter I usually go ... bed at ten o'clock because I learn ... school and have to get up early. But in

1 Обратите внимание на отсутствие артикля в этих словосо­четаниях

summer, when I don't go ... school and live ... the country, I like to go ... bed late. 6. Do you like to read ... bed?

Запомните следующие застывшие словосочета­ния

ГДЕ?

на севере —

in the north на юге —

in the south на востоке —

in the east на западе -

in the west

КУДА?

на север —

to the north на юг -

to the south на восток -

to the east на запад -

to the west

Упр. 136. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя предлоги on, in, at, to, into.

1. Мой друг живет на севере. 2. Мы провели лето на юге. 3. В городе было очень жарко, и мы решили поехать за город. После завтрака мы поехали на вокзал. На вокзале было много наро­ду. Люди стояли на платформе и ждали поезда. За городом было чудесно. Сначала мы пошли в лес. В лесу было прохладно. Потом мы подошли к реке. Мы плавали в реке, а бабушка сидела у реки на траве. Вечером мы поехали в город. I. Летом они всегда ездят на юг. 5. Мой папа работает на заводе, а мама в библиотеке. Мой старший брат учится в институте, а я учусь в школе. Утром папа идет на завод, мама идет в библиотеку, мой брат идет в институт, а я иду в школу. Наша бабушка обычно ходит в магазин утром. В магазине она покупает продукты. 6. Вла­дивосток расположен на Дальнем Востоке. 7. Вчера мы были в театре. 8. Позавчера мы были в парке. 9. Завтра мы пойдем в кино или в му­зей. 10. Где твой брат? -- Он в комнате, стоит у окна. 11. Где твоя сестра? - Она в школе. 12. Где ребенок? — Он в постели. Мама уложила его в постель полчаса назад. 13. Где твой папа? - Он на работе. 14. Где твой дедушка? - - Он в парке. 15. Где Коля? -- Он на стадионе.

Предлоги времени: AT

В пять часов - At five o'clock

В полдень - At noon

В полночь - At midnight

На восходе солнца -At sunrise

На закате - At sunset

УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ВРЕМЕН

Спряжение глагола to be (быть)

в Present Simple Tense

(Present Indefinite Tense)

I am He is

She is It is

We are You are They are

Ami?

Is he? Is she? Is it?

Are we? Are you? Are they?

I am not He is not She is not It is not

We are not You are not They are not

Yes, I am Yes, he is Yes, she is Yes, it is

Yes, we are Yes, you are Yes, they are

No, I am not No, he isn't No, she isn't No, it isn't

No, we aren't No, you aren't No, they aren't

Упр. 148. Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple.

1. I ... a pupil. 2. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a scientist. 3. ... your aunt a doctor? - Yes,

she ... . 4. ... they at home? - - No, they ... not at borne, they ... at work. 5. My brother ... a worker. He ... at work. 6. ... you an engineer? - - Yes, I.... 7. ... your sister a typist? No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student. 8. ... your brother at school? - - Yes, he ... . 9. ... your sister at school? - No, she ... not at school. 10. My ... sister ... at home. 11. ... this your watch? • Yes, it ... . 12. She ... an actress. 13. This ... my bag. 14. My uncle ... an office-worker. 15. He ... at work. 16. Helen ... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She has much paper. It ... on the shelf. The shelf ... brown. It ... on the wall. Helen has a brother. He ... a student. He has a family. His family ... not in St. Petersburg, it ... in Moscow.

Упр. 149. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present Simple.

1. Я ученик. Я в школе. 2. Мой брат худож­ник. Он не инженер. 3. Моя сестра на работе. Она врач. 4. Он студент. 5. Вы студент? — Нет, я врач, 6. Моя сестра дома. 7. Мы не в школе. Мы дома. 8. Мой брат ученик. Он в школе. 9. Ваша мама дома? - - Нет, она на работе. 10. Ваш двоюрод­ный брат дома? - - Нет, он в школе. Он ученик. 12. Ваша сестра учительница? - - Нет, она сту­дентка. 12. Твой папа на работе? — Нет, он дома,

13. Твоя сестра машинистка? — Да, — Она дома? - Нет, она на работе. 14. Мой дедушка ученый, 15. Моя мама не учительница. Она врач.

Упр. 150. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present Simple.

1. Чья это ручка? — Это моя ручка. 2. Чья это книга? — Это ваша книга. 3. Чей это стол? -

Это стол моего брата. 4. Чья это сумка? - - Это сумка моей мамы. 5. Чей это карандаш? - - Это карандаш моей сестры. 6. Это твоя тетрадь? -Да. 7. Это тетрадь твоего брата? - - Нет, это моя тетрадь. 8. Где ваш стол? -- Он посередине ком­наты. 9. Где твоя ручка? — Она в моем кармане. 10. Где твоя тетрадь? - - Она на столе. 11. Где твоя мама? -- Она на работе. 12. Где твой брат? - Он в школе. 13. Где твоя сестра? -- Она дома. 14. Чей это карандаш? - - Это мой карандаш. -А где мой карандаш? — Он на столе. 15. Чьи это часы? - - Это мои часы. - - А где мои часы? -Они на столе.

  Спряжение глагола to be (быть)
  в Pasf Simple Tense
  (Past Indefinite Tense)
  I was I was not
  He was He was not
  She was She was not
  It was It was not
  We were We were not
  You were You were not
  They were They were not
       
  Was I? Yes, I was No, I wasn't
  Was he? Yes, he was No, he wasn't
  Was she? Yes, she was No, she wasn't
  Was it? Yes, it was No, it wasn't
  Were we? Yes, we were No, we weren't
  Were you? Were they? Yes, you were Yes, they were No, you weren't No, they weren't
         

Упр. 151. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present или Past Simple,

1. Я ученик. 2. Он летчик. 3. Она доктор. 4. Мы школьники. 5. Вы рабочие. 6. Ты рабо­чий. 7. Они ученики. 8. Я дома. 9. Он в школе. 10. Она в кино? 11. Мы в парке. 12. Они в теат­ре? 13.Она молодая? 14. Он старый. 15. Она не старая. 16. Они сильные. 17. Она больна. 18. Вы больны? 19. Он болен? 20. Я не болен. 21. Я был болен вчера. 22. Она не была больна. 23. Мы были в кино. 24. Они не были в кино. 25. Они не в школе. 26. Они дома. 27. Вы были в парке вче­ра? 28. Он был в школе вчера? 29. Он был рабо­чим. 30. Она была учительницей.

Спряжение глагола to be (быть) в Future Simple Tense (Future Indefinite Tense)
I shall be He will be She will be It will be I shall not be He will not be She will not be It will not be
We shall be You will be They will be We shall not be You will not be They will not be
Shall I be? Will he be? Will she be? Will it be? Yes, I shall Yes, he will Yes, she will Yes, it will No, I shan't No, he won't No, she won't No, it won't
Shall we be? Will you be? Will they be? Yes, we shall Yes, you will Yes, they will No, we shan't No, you won't No, they won't
       

 

Упр. 152. Вставьте глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Simple.

1, My father ... a teacher. 2. He ... a pupil twen­ty years ago. 3.1... a doctor when I grow up. 4. My sister ... not ... at home tomorrow. 5. She ... at school tomorrow. 6. ... you ... at home tomorrow? 7,... your father at work yesterday? 8. My sister ... ill last week. 9. She ... not ill now. 10. Yesterday we... at the theatre. 11. Where ... your mother now? — She ... in the kitchen. 12. Where ... you yesterday? — I ... at the cinema. 13. When I come home tomorrow, all my family ... at home. 14. ... your little sister in bed now? — Yes, she ... 15. ... you... at school tomorrow? — Yes I ... . 16. When my granny... young, she ... an actress. 17. My friend K,,. in Moscow now. 18. He ... in St. Petersburg to­morrow. 19. Where ... your books now? -- They ... in my bag.

Упр. 153. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Simple.

1. Мой брат сейчас в школе. 2. Мой брат был вчера в кино. 3. Мой брат будет завтра дома. [ 4. Ты будешь дома завтра? 5. Она была вчера в парке? 6 Он сейчас во дворе? 7. Где папа? 8. Где выбыли вчера? 9. Где он будет завтра? 10. Мои книги были на столе. Где они сейчас? 11. Моя мама вчера не была на работе. Она была дома. 12, Мой друг не в парке. Он в школе. 13. Завтра в три часа Коля и Миша будут во дворе. 14. Мы не были на юге прошлым летом. Мы были в Москве. 15. Завтра мой дедушка будет в дерев­не. 16. Когда твоя сестра будет дома? 17. Ты бу­дешь летчиком? — Нет, я буду моряком. 18. Моя

сестра была студенткой в прошлом году, a eel час она врач. — Ты тоже будешь врачом? — Нет, я не буду врачом. Я буду инженером.

Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Continuous Tense (Present Progressive Tense) (действие в процессе, совершается в тот момент, когда о нем говорят)
I am working Не is working She is working It is working • I am not working Не is not working She is not working It is not working
We are working You are working They are working We are not working You are not working They are not working |
Am I Yes, I am No, I am not
working?      
Is he Yes, he is No, he isn't
working?      
Is she Yes, she is No, she isn't
working?      
Is it Yes, it is No, it isn't
working?      
       
Are we Yes, we are No, we aren't
working?      
Are you Yes, you are No, you aren't
working?      
Are they Yes, they are No, they aren't
working?    

Упр. 154. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.

(NOW) 1. The boys (to run) about in the garden. 2 I (to do) my homework. 3. John and his

friends (to go) to the library. 4. Ann (to sit) at her desk. She (to study) geography. 5. A young

man (to stand) at the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 6. The old man (to walk) about the room.

7. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 8. You (to have) a break? 9. What language you (to study)? 10. Who

(to lie) on the sofa? 11. What they (to talk) about? 12. It still (to rain).

Упр. 155. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.

(СЕЙЧАС) 1. Я читаю. 2. Он не пишет. 3. Мы не работаем. 4. Вы читаете? 5. Он спит? 6. Коля и Миша играют в футбол. 7. Катя играет на роя-I ле. 8. Она не поет. 9. Моя сестра спит. 10. Папа пьет чай? 11. Твои родители пьют чай? 12. Я не сплю. 13. Она сидит за столом. 14. Мы делаем упражнение. 15. Мы не купаемся. 16. Они игра­ют во дворе? 17. Нина и Аня моют пол. 18. Коля помогает маме. 19. Ты помогаешь папе? 20. Моя сестра читает интересную книгу. 21. Они идут в школу. 21. Вы идете в школу? 22. Он работает? 23 . Твоя бабушка идет в магазин? 24. Он поку­пает конфеты. 25, Что делает твоя сестра? 26. Где играют дети? 27. Почему ты смеешься? 28. Куда они идут? 29. Что несут эти мальчики?

 

 

II Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Simple Tense (Present Indefinite Tense) (действие совершается обычно)  
  I work I do not work  
  He works He does not work  
  She works She does not work  
  It works It does not work  
  We work We do not work  
  You work You do not work  
\— They work They do not work  
| 1)0 I work? Yes, I do No, I don't  
! Does | Does 1 Does he work? Yes, he does she work? Yes, she does it work? Yes, it does No, he doesn't No, she doesn't No, it doesn't  
Do we work? Yes, we do No, we don't  
Do you work? Yes, you do Do they work? Yes, they do No, you don't No, they don't  
_ --------------------
         

Упр. 156, Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Simple.

(USUALLY) 1. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 2. She (to be) a school-girl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 3. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 4. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 5. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 6. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 7. She (to speak) French well. 8, My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes, At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My fa­ther and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living-room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).

Упр. 157. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.

(ОБЫЧНО) 1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. ' 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? - - Да. | 5. Он работает? - - Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат | не учится. Он работает. 7. Моя сестра не читает книг. 8. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 9. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 10. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 11. Мой брат не любит читать га­зеты. 12. Мы спим в спальне. 13. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 14. Моя сестра оде­вается перед зеркалом. 15. Мой дядя пишет кни­ги. 16. Мы пишем упражнения в школе.

Упр. 158. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.

1. Когда вы встаете? - - Я встаю без четверти семь. 2. Когда встает твой брат? - - Он встает без двадцати восемь. — А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - - Нет. Мой брат ходит в шко­лу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 3. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вече­ром он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 4. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? - - Нет. Она гово­рит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски.

Упр. 159. Переведите на английскийязык,! употребляя глаголы вPresent Simple.

Мой дядя инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немец­ки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он по­сещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего I дяди ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.

Сравните употребление Present Continuous и Present Simple.

Упр. 160. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

I (to read) now. He (to sleep) now. We (to drink) tea now. They (to go) to school now. I (not to sleep) now.

She (not to drink) coffee now. I (to read) every day. He (to sleep) every night. We (to drink) tea every morning.

They (to go) to school eve­ry morning. I (not to sleep) in the day­time. She (not to drink) cof­fee after lunch. We (not to watch) TV now. They (not to eat) now. My mother (not to work) now. You (to work ) now? He (to play) now? They (to eat) now? Your sister (to rest) now? What you (to do) now? What you (to read) now? What they (to eat) now? What your brother (to drink) now? We (not to watch) TV in the morning. They (not to eat) at the lesson. My mother (not to work) at an office. You (to work) every day? He (to play) in the after­noon? They (to eat) at school? Your sister (to rest) af­ter school? What you (to do) every morning? What you (to read) after dinner? What they (to eat) at breakfast? What your brother (to drink) in the evening?

Упр. 161. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 2. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 3. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 4. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 5. Look! The baby (to sleep). 6. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 7. My grandmother (not to work). She is on pension. 8. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 9. I usually (to get) up at seven o'clock in the morning. 10. What your sis­ter (to do) now? - - She (to wash) her face and hands. 11. When you usually (to come) home from school? — I (to come) at three o'clock. 12. Where your cousin (to work)? -- He (to work) at a hospi-taJ. 13. Your sister (to study) at an institute? -No, she (to study) at school. 14. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 15. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning.

Упр. 162. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. I (to read) books in the evening. 2. I (not to read) books in the morning. 3. I (to write) an exer­cise now. 4. I (not to write) a letter now. 5. They (to play) in the yard now. 6. They (not to play) in the street now. 7. They (to play) in the room now? 8. He (to help) his mother every day. 9. He (to help) his mother every day? 10. He (not to help) his mother every day. 11. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 12. My friend (not to like) to play foot­ball. 13.1 (not to read) now. 14. He (to sleep) now? 15.We (not to go) to the country in winter. 16.My sister (to eat) sweets every day. 17. She (not to eat) sweets now. 18. They (to do) their home­work in the afternoon. 19. They (not to go) for a walk in the evening. 20. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 21. He (to work) every day.

Упр. 163. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. They (to read) many books. 2. They (to read) many books? 3. They (not to read) many books. 4. The children (to eat) soup now. 5. The children (to eat) soup now? 6. The children (not to eat) soup now. 7. You (to play) volley-ball well? 8. When you (to play) volley-ball? 9. What Nick (to do) in the evening? 10. He (to go) to the cinema in the evening? 11. We (not to dance) every day. 12. Look! Kate (to dance). 13. Kate (to sing) well? 14. Where he (to go) in the morning? 15. He (not to sleep) after dinner. 16. My granny (to sleep) after din­ner. 17. When you (to sleep)? 16. Nina (not to sleep) now. 19. Where John (to live)? - - He (to live) in England.

Упр. 164. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. I (to write) a composition now. 2. I (not to drink) milk now. 3. I (to go) for a walk after din­ner. 4. I (not to go) to the theatre every Sunday. 5. He (not to read) now. 6. He (to play) now. 7 He (to play) now? 8. My mother (to work) at a factory. 9. My aunt {not to work) at a shop. 10. You (to work) at an office? 11. My friend (to live) in St. Petersburg. 12. My cousin (not to live) in Moscow. 13. The children (not to sleep) now. 14. The chil­dren (to play) in the yard every day. 15. They (not to go) to the stadium on Monday. 16. She (to read) in the evening. 17. She (not to read) in the morn­ing. 18. She (not to read) now. 19. Your father (to work) at this factory? 20. You (to play) chess now? 21. Look at the sky: the clouds (to move) slowly, the sun (to appear) from behind the clouds, it (to get) warmer. 22. How is your brother? - - He is not well yet, but his health (to improve) day after day. 23. Listen! Who (to play) the piano in the next room?

Запомните глаголы, не употребляющиеся во временах группы Continuous: to be, to know, to understand, to think, to recognize, to want, to like, to see, to hear, to feel, to have1. Эти глаго­лы надо употреблять в Present Simple, даже если действие совершается в момент речи.

Упр. 165. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы вPresent Continuous или в Present Simple.

I. What you (to do) here now? - - We (to listen) to tape-recordings. 2. You (to want) to see my fa­ther? - Yes, I ... 3. Michael (to know) German rather well. He (to want) to know English, too, but he (to have) little time for it now. 4. What maga­zine you (to read)? - - It (to be) a French magazine. There (to be) good articles on sports here. You (to be) interested in sports? - - Yes, I .... But I (not to know) French. 5. We (to have) an English lesson now. 6. Lena usually (to prepare) her homework at the institute? - - No, she ... . As a rule, she (to work) at home. — And what she (to write) now? -Oh, she (to write) an article for our wall newspa­per. 7. Who that man (to be) who (to stand) in the doorway? - - You (not to recognize) him? It (to be) John, my cousin. 8. I (to have) no time now, I (to have) dinner. 9. Your family (to leave) St. Peters­burg in summer? - Yes, we always (to go) to the sea-side. We all (to like) the sea. Mother (to stay) with us to the end of August, but father (to re­turn) much earlier. 10. Where Tom and Nick (to be) now? — They (to have) a smoke in the garden.

1 to have -- только в своем прямом значении «иметь». В словосочетаниях типа "to have breakfast", "to have a lesson", "to have a smoke" глагол to have употребляется также и во временах группы Continuous

Упр. 166. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. It (to take) me forty minutes to get to school. 2. Hello, Pete, where you (to go)? — I (to hurry) to school. 3. When your lessons (to begin) on Mon­day? — They (to begin) at nine o'clock. 4. Where your sister (to be)? — She (to do) her homework in the next room. 5. It usually (to take) me an hour to do my written exercises. 6. Where Boris (to be)? I (to look) for him. - - He (to have) dinner. 7. In the evening I often (to go) to see my friends. 8. On Sunday we sometimes (to go) to the cinema or to a disco club. 9. Andrew (to get) up very early as he (to live) far from school, He (to be) never late. 10. It (to be) six o'clock in the evening now. Victor (to do) his homework. His sister (to read) a book. His mother and grandmother (to talk). 11. I (to write) a letter to my grandmother who (to live) in Novgorod. I (to write) to her very often.

Упр. 167. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла­голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.









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