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The Separation of Powers Checks and Balances





Congress has the power to make laws, but the President may veto any act of Congress. Congress, in its turn, can override a veto by a two-thirds vote in each house. Congress can also refuse to provide funds requested by the President. The President can appoint important officials of his administration, but they must be approved by the Senate. The President also has the power to name all federal judges; they, too, must be approved by the Senate. The courts have the power to determine the constitutionality of all acts of Congress and of presidential actions, and to strike down those they find unconstitutional.

The system of checks and balances makes compromise and consensus necessary. Compromise is also a vital aspect of other levels of government in the United States. This system protects against extremes. It means, for example, that new presidents cannot radically change governmental policies just as they wish. In the US, therefore, when people think of "the government", they usually mean the entire system, that is, the Executive Branch and the President, Congress, and the courts. In fact and in practice, therefore, the President (i.e. "the Administration") is not as powerful as many people outside the US seem to think he is. In comparison with other leaders in systems where the majority party forms "the government", he is much less so.

2. Explain the meanings of the following words and expressions.

a) constitutionality;

b) to strike down an act of Congress;

c) consensus;

d) the Administration.


3. Find in the text the English equivalents for the expressions below.

- быть связанным с;

- получить слишком большую власть;

- зависеть от;

- политика правительства;

- партия большинства;

- отклонить вето президента;

- одобрить;

- по сравнению с.


4. Answer the questions.

1. How are the powers of

a) the President;

b) Congress;

c) the Supreme Court limited by the system of checks and balances?

2. What is the role of compromise in the American system of running the country?

3. Why do people abroad tend to exaggerate the power of the US President?


5. There are 15 words connected with politics in the box. Use them to complete the sentences, in some cases you will need to make them plural. The first one has been done for you as an example.


abstention budget consensus constitution devolution house leader leak legislation membership policy poll recess spokesman veto  


1. Germany has a federal constitution .

2. A government________________revealed that discussions had been concluded on the treaty.

3. According to the latest opinion________________the Prime Minister is more unpopular than ever.

4. Austria's application for________________of the EU was successful.

5. Many Scots would like to see more________________of power from Westminster.

6. Parliament has introduced________________to control the sale of drugs.

7. The bill was passed by both________________and sent to the President for signature.

8. The crisis happened during the summer________________and Parliament had to be recalled.

9. The government is investigating the latest________________of documents relating to the spy trial.

10. The government is running a tight monetary________________to try to control inflation.

11. The________________of the opposition criticised the Prime Minister for his failure to act.

12. The motion was carried by 200 votes to 150; there were 60________________.

13. The President has the power of________________over bills passed by Congress.

14. There is a________________between all the major parties about what we should do now.

15. The minister has put forward a________________aimed at slowing down the economy.


Extension 1. All the words in the box are nouns. Some of them have verb forms. What are they? The first one has been done for you as an example.

1. an abstention to abstain 5. a leak  
2. a budget   6. legislation  
3. a devolution   7. a poll  
4. a leader   8. a veto  





What is the Government? The Government is the management of the country. The Government makes the important decisions, e. g. about foreign policy, education, or health, but all these decisions have to be approved by Parliament. If Parliament thinks that a particular Government policy is against the public interest, then it can force the Government to change its mind.

State Organs of the United Kingdom include the monarchy, the legislative, executive and judicial organs of Government.

* The monarchy is the most ancient institution in the United Kingdom, with a continuous history stretching back over a thousand years. The monarchy is hereditary. Queen Elizabeth II, who succeeded to the throne in 1952, is the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Crown and the temporal head of the established Church in England. Her Majesty's Government governs in the name of the Queen who must act on the advice of her ministers

* Parliament is the legislative organ of the United Kingdom. What do we mean by Parliament? The Parliament of the United Kingdom consists of the Queen (hereditary monarch), the House of Lords (almost 1300 unelected members or peers) and the House of Commons (659 elected Members of Parliament). All three combine to carry out the work of Parliament.

The House of Lords is still a hereditary body. It consists of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The House of Lords is presided over by the Lord Chancellor who is the chairman of the House.

The House of Commons is an elected and representative body. Members are paid a salary and an allowance. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected by the members of the House immediately after each new Parliament is formed.

The Government consists of approximately 100 members of the political party which has the majority of seats in the House of Commons.

What does Parliament do? Making laws (legislations).

The Queen, Lords and Commons all have to agree to any new law which is passed.

Examining the work of Government. Both the Lords and the Commons examine the work of the Government on behalf of the public. They do this by asking the Government questions, by debate and through committees of inquiry.

Controlling finance. Only the House of Commons can give permission for the Government to collect taxes. The House of Com­mons decides what taxes shall be collected and how the money shall be spent.

Protecting the individual. Members of Parliament (Members of the House of Commons) protect the rights of the individual. Each Member of Parliament represents the people of a certain area. Britain is divided into 659 of these areas, known as constituencies.

Hearing appeals. The House of Lords is a Court of Justice, the highest Court of Appeal in Britain.

* Executive. The Government consists of the ministers appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Prime minister is appointed directly by the Crown and is the leader of the political party which has a majority of seats in the House of Com­mons. The Prime Minister is the head of the Government, he is al­ways a Member of the House of Commons. He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and coordinates the work of the various ministers and departments in the House of Commons. He also makes recommendations to the Monarch on many important public appointments.

The most senior members of the Government are known as the Cabinet. The Cabinet is the nucleus of the Government. All major decisions of the Government are made by the Cabinet, and therefore it is the Cabinet which forms Government policy.

Who chooses the Cabinet? Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the Prime Minister. The majority of the members of the Cabinet are drawn from the House of Commons. Nevertheless there are always a few members from the House of Lords. He selected a team of Ministers to serve in his Government. A Cabinet must be large enough to include senior ministers. There is no limit on the size of the Cabinet but the number of salaried Secretaries of state is limited to 21. Cabinet meetings are usually held on a Thursday morning in the Cabinet room at 10 Downing Street.

What happens when there is a change in Government?

On each of these occasions the ministers in each Department changed. Ministers of the winning party took over from those of the loosing party. The main parties have very different ideas - for example, about education, housing and industry.

Departments and ministers are run by civil servants, who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an elec­tion, the same civil servants are employed.

The United Kingdom has no Ministry of Justice. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system in England and Wales is di­vided between the courts themselves, the Lord Chancellor, and the Home Secretary. The Lord Chancellor is responsible for the compo­sition of the courts, civil law, parts of criminal procedure and law reform in general; the Home Secretary is responsible for the preven­tion of criminal offences, trial and treatment of offenders and for the prison service.

Words and phrases

Government – уряд (правительство)

Parliament –парламент

legislative - законодавчий (законодательный)

executive - виконавчий (исполнительный)

judicial - судовий (судебный)

hereditary - спадкоємний (наследственный)

to succeed - успадковувати (унаследовать)

to preside – головувати (председательствовать)

Lord Chancellor - Лорд-канцлер (глава судового відомства та верховний суддя Англії, глава Палати лорд1в)

the House of Commons - Палата общин (громад)

the House of Lords - Палата лордів (Палата лордов)

Pеег- пер, лорд

legislation – законодавство (законодательство)

tax – податок (налог)

to protect – захистити (защитить)

right - право

constituency - виборчий округ (избирательный округ)

appeal - апеляційна скарга (аппеляционная жалоба)

the Labour Party - Лейбористська партія (Лейбористская партия)

general election- загальні вибори (общие выборы)

civil servant - цивільний службовець (государственный служащий)

court - суд

civil law - цивільне право (гражданское право)

Home Secretary – міністр внутрішніх справ (министр внутренних дел)

prevention-запобігання, попередження (предотвращение, предупреждение)

criminal offences - карні злочини (уголовные преступления)

trial - судовий розгляд, судовий процес (судебный процесс)

treatment - поводження (iз злочинцями) (обращение с преступниками)

offender – злочинець (преступник)

Treasury - казна

Foreign office - Міністерство закордонних справ (Министерство иностранных дел)

Home office - Міністерство внутршніх справ (Министерство внутренних дел)

spiritual - духовний

bishop - епископ

temporal - светские (члены Палаты лордов)


l. Fill in the blanks:

1. All the heads of ministries (departments) are included into……………..

2. The Cabinet is headed by the …………………….... .

3. The Prime Minister chooses the …………………....

4. Mr ……….. is the ... of the United Kingdom.

5. The majority of the members of Mr ………..'s Cabinet are members of the ……………………...

6. Mr ………. Cabinet belongs to the …………….. Party.

7. The Cabinet meets at 10 …………………... Street.

8. During the last 27 years there have been eight general…………………..

9. Ministers rely on ………………... servants for advice and information.

10. The Parliament of the United Kingdom consists of the………….. (hereditary monarch), the House of………….. and the House of…... .

11. Only the House of Commons can give permission for the Govern­ment to collect …………………..

12. Members of Parliament protect the ………………... of the individual.

13. The House of………………. is a Court of Justice.


2. Read the following sentences and decide if they are true or false:

1. The Government is the body which decides the laws of the country and decides about the way the country should be governed.

2. The Government is the Ministers chosen from the Party (or parties) which has the largest number of MPs in the House of Commons after a general election.

3. The Prime Minister is the leader of the governing party.

4. The Queen chooses the Cabinet.

5. The Cabinet are the senior members of the Government chosen by the Prime Minister.

6. The House of Lords is the elected Chamber in Parliament.

7. The House of Commons is the unelected Chamber in Parliament.

8. Mr Blair's Cabinet belongs to the Conservative Party.

9. Britain is divided into 659 areas, called constituencies, and one MP is elected to represent each constituency.

10. The House of Lords is the highest Court of Appeal in Britain.


3. Find words and expressions in the text which mean:

1. body of persons governing a State;

2. choosing or selection (of candidates for an office, etc.) by vote;

3. the inhabitants of an electoral district;

4. laws enacted by lawmaking body;

5. a person with the right to sit in the House of Lords;

6. a charge by the government on the income of an individual, corporation, or on the value of an estate or gift or property.


4. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the Government?

2. Who are the Cabinet?

3. Who chooses the Government?

4. What is the House of Lords?

5. What is the House of Commons?

6. Who is the Prime Minister?

7. What does Parliament do?

8. What is the highest Court in Britain?



At the head of the United Kingdom is the King, or, as at present, the Queen. But her power is very symbolic. Everything is done in Queen's name. But her power is not absolute; it is limited in many various ways. It is said that the Queen reigns but does not rule. She personally does not decide what action the state shall take. The he­reditary principle still operates and the Crown is passed on to the sovereign's eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons).

The Queen has a central role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers.

Functions of the Queen:

- opening and closing Parliament;

- approving the appointment of the Prime Minister;

- giving her Royal Assent to bills;

- giving honours such as peerages, knighthoods and medals;

- Head of the Commonwealth;

- Head of the Church of England;

- Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.


1. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:

1. the head of the state;

2. to reign and to rule;

3. the hereditary principle;

4. the Crown;

5. to approve the appointment of smb.


2. Prepare to describe the system of government in Ukraine Use the elements of the UK system of government as a guide and make brief notes if you like. Include the following points:

The Head of State: appointment, functions and powers, relation ship with other state organs.

Legislature: composition, functions and powers, relationship will other state organs.

The Executive: composition, functions and powers, relationship with other state bodies.




Criminal Proceedings.There are two courts of trial and two courts of appeal for criminal proceedings in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The courts of trial are the Magistrates' Court and the Crown Court, and the courts of appeal are the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords.

The Magistrates' Court.The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the Magistrates' Court. The Magistrates' Court is the lower court of trial. It deals with summary offences. More serious criminal cases (indictable offences) then go to the Crown Court. Civil cases are dealt with in County courts.

Magistrates' Courts have limited powers of penalty but may commit a convicted offender to the Crown Court if it is considered that the powers of the Magistrates' Court are insufficient. Approximately 95% of all prosecutions are dealt with in the Magistrates' Courts.

Juvenile Courts are composed of specially trained magistrates. They try most charges against children and young persons under the age of 18 years.

The Crown Court.The Crown Court is the senior court of trial for criminal offences. The courts are established at various centres throughout the country. The courts are presided over by either a High Court Judge, Circuit Judge or Recorder who sits with a jury. The Crown Court for the City of London is the Central Criminal Court, also known as the Old Bailey.

The Crown Court may also hear appeals against conviction and/or sentence for some offences dealt with at the Magistrates' Court.

The Court of Appeal.The Court of Appeal hears appeals from criminal cases heard in the Crown Courts.

The House of Lords.The House of Lords is the most senior and final court of appeal.

Civil Proceedings.Civil proceedings consist of litigation about Property, family matters and actions to obtain financial redress for damage to property and personal injury. The courts of trial for such litigation are the County Court and the High Court of Justice.

County Courts are local courts and are presided over by a single Judge. The High Court of Justice is situated in London. Some cases before the High Court of Justice may be heard before a jury.


Words and phrases


court of trial - суд першої інстанції (суд первой инстанции)

court of appeal - апеляційний суд (аппеляционный суд)

the Magistrates' Court - Магістратський суд (Магистратский суд)

the Crown Court - Королівський суд (Королевский суд)

juvenile court - суд у справах неповнолітніх (суд по делам несовершеннолетних)

summary offence - злочин, який не являе великої суспільної небезпеки

indictable offence - особливо тяжкий злочин (тяжкое преступление)

jury - суд присяжних

penalty - покарання; стягнення; штраф (наказание, штраф)

convicted - ув'язнений, в'язень (заключенный)

prosecution - судовий розгляд (судебное рассмотрение)

judge – суддя (судья)

to sentence for smth - засуджувати за щось; виносити вирок (выносить приговор)

litigation - тяжба, cnip

to obtain financial redress for smth - одержати фінансове відшкодування за щось

injury - образа, кривда (повреждение)

l. Fill in the blanks:

1. There are two courts of ……... and two courts of………... for criminal proceedings in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

2. The Magistrates' Court deals with ………... .

3. More serious offences go to the .......……..

4. Magistrates' Courts have limited powers of... .

5. Magistrates' Courts may commit……………. to the Crown Court.

6. Approximately 95% of all …... are dealt with in the Magistrates' Court.

7. .............. courts try most charges against children and young persons under the age of 18 years.

8. The Crown Court is the senior court of trial for....................

9. The Crown Court may hear ……….... against conviction and/or ……….. for some offences dealt with at the Magistrates' Court.

10. The Court of………….. hears appeals from criminal cases heard in the Crown Court.

11. The House of Lords is the most senior and final.....................

12. Civil proceedings consist of ………... about property, family matters and actions to obtain ………. for damage to property and personal injury.

13. County Courts are …………... over by a single Judge.

14. Some cases before the High Court of Justice may be heard before a ....


2. Read the following sentences and decide if they are true or false:

1. The courts of trial are the Magistrates' Court and the Crown Court.

2. The courts of appeal are the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords.

3. The Magistrates' Court is the senior court of trial.

4. The Magistrates' Court deals with summary offences.

5. More serious offences are committed to the Crown Court.

6. Juvenile Courts try charges against convicted offenders.

7. Juvenile Courts try most charges against children and persons under the age of 18 years.

8. The Crown Court is the lower court of trial.

9. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from criminal cases heard in the Crown Courts.

10. The House of Lords is the most senior and final court of appeal.

11. Criminal proceedings consist of litigation about property, family matters and actions to obtain financial redress for damage to property and personal injury.

12. County Courts are local courts and are presided over by a jury.


3. Find words and expressions in the text which mean:

1. the system of law courts in a country;

2. place where law-cases are held;

3. person against whom a legal action is brought;

4. punishment for wrongdoing;

5. court where children are tried;

6. crime, breaking of a rule.


4. Ask questions to get the following answers:

1. There are two courts of trial and two courts of appeal for criminal proceedings in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

2. The courts of trial are the Magistrates' Court and the Crown Court.

3. The courts of appeal are the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords.

4. The Magistrates' Court deals with summary offences.

5. The Crown Court deals with indictable offences.

6. Magistrates' Courts have limited powers of penalty.

7. Approximately 95% of all prosecutions are dealt with in the Magistrates' Courts.

8. Juvenile Courts try most charges against children and young persons under the age of 18 years.


5. Answer the following questions:

1. What courts are there in England, Wales and Northern Ireland?

2. What offences does the Magistrates' Court deal with?

3. Where must the most serious offences be committed to?

4. What charges do Juvenile Courts try?

5. What court is the senior court of trial for criminal offences?

6. What is the most senior and final court of appeal?

7. What do civil proceedings consist of?

8. Where is the High Court of Justice situated?


6. Complete the following sentences by translating the words and expressions in brackets:

1. All criminal cases start in the (Магистратском суде).

2. More serious criminal cases then go to (Королевский суд).

3. Civil cases are dealt with in (судах графств).

4. Appeals are heard by (аппеляционными судами).

5. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is (Палата лордов).

6. The legal system also includes (суды по делам несовершеннолетних) which deal with offenders under seventeen.


7. Work in pairs. Discuss the following:

What courts do you think would deal with:

a) careless driving?

b) a divorce case?

c) a shoplifting committed by a schoolboy?

d) an assault causing actual bodily harm?

e) a murder of a child?



1. What do you think makes a good presentation? List all the things that make a good presentation.

2. Read the video Presentation Context. Imagine you are making the presentation. What content will you include? How will you structure the content?


The company Westwood Brewery, based in London, is a traditional company. It has recently created the post of Public Relations (PR) Manager in order to improve the company’s image in the market The presenter   Joanna Brookes is Westwood’s new PR Manager. One of the first things she does is to organize a meeting to discuss the brewery’s corporate image – in particular whether it needs to be changed.   The audience   Joanna has invited the senior managers of the brewery and some outside consultants. They are expecting to participate in a meeting about the corporate image of the brewery The presentation   Unfortunately, Joanna gets the date wrong. She only realizes her mistake when her secretary tells her that the audience is waiting in the conference room. She starts the meeting with a short presentation. The presentation should introduce the main topics for discussion

Tips for Presentations.


Awareness of your audience (Who are they? What are their needs or interests? What do they expect from you?)

Clear objectives (to inform, persuade, welcome, train)



Planning- have clear structure and sense of timing.

Organization – have clear connections between the different parts or ideas.

Information – make sure what you say is interesting and relevant to your audience.

Impact – make sure you have a strong introduction and conclusion.



Clear simple and fluent, use of natural spoken language, use of pauses for emphasis.


Body language

Good eye contact with the audience.

Positive, confident and relaxed manner.


Visual aids

Clear and simple messages. Efficient, professional use of equipment.


Don’t use visuals to repeat what you say with words.

Don’t overcrowd visuals with too much information.

Use visuals to support or summarize what you say.

Only use key words, not lines of text.

Think about which kind of visual is right for you (graph, table, picture, words, etc.)

Use colour (but not too much).


Don’t use too many visuals.

Don’t read from the visual.

Make sure the audience understands the visual.

Face the audience as much as possible.

Don’t block the audiences view.


Remember that your visuals should help you communicate your message.

They should not distract your audiences attention from what you say.

Language Focus: Introducing yourself and your talk

Greeting, name, position

Good morning. My name’s (…). I’m the new Finance Manager.

Ladies and gentlemen. It’s an honour to have the opportunity to address such a distinguished audience.

Good morning. Let me start by saying just a few words about my own background. I started out in …

Welcome to Standard Electronics. I know I’ve met some of you. But just for the benefit of those I haven’t, my name’s (…).


I’d like to talk (to you) today about…

I’m going to present the recent …
explain our position on …
brief you on …
inform you about …
describe …
The subject of my talk
focus presentation
topic paper (academic)
speech(usually to public audience)


We are here today to decide…
learn about…
The purpose of this talk is to update you on…
put you in the picture about…
give you the background to…
The talk is designed to act as a springboard for discussion.
start the ball rolling.


I shall only take (…) minutes of your time.

I plan to be brief.

This should only last (…) minutes.

Outline/Main parts

I’ve divided my presentation into four parts/sections. They are …

The subject can be looked at under the following fields:

Firstly/first of all …

Secondly/then/next …

Thirdly/and then we come to …

Finally/lastly/last of all …


I’d be glad to answer any questions at the end of my talk.

If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt.

Please interrupt me if there’s something which needs clarifying. Otherwise, there’ll be time for discussion at the end.

Reference to audience

I can see many of you are …

I know you’ve travelled a long way.

You all look as though you’ve heard this before.


1. Introductions can become repetitive. It’s important to have a choice of words and expressions at your fingertips. Use the following expressions to replace each of the expressions in italics in the introduction.

don’t hesitate a chance I take care

I’m delighted sections go through

in more depth my purpose is divide


Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. It’s a pleasure to be with you today. My name’s Gordon Matthews and I’m in charge of corporate finance at our headquarters here in Brussels. We are here today to review some key figures and to outline financial strategy over the next five years. So what I intend to do is to break down this presentation into three parts: first, the financial review, second, the options facing us; and finally, the strategy I propose. If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt me, but I should also say there’ll be an opportunity to discuss issues at greater length after my talk


2.Match a sentence or phrase on the left with one from the right.

1 Please help yourselves a. describe the new proposal.
2 If we're all here, b. Thank you Geoff. It's good to be here.
3 I'd like to start by c. to the brochures at the back.
4 I have a handout with the statistics on. d. let's make a start.
5 I'd like to welcome Geoff Maxwell. e. Please take one as I pass them around.
6 After that I'd like to f. please feel free to ask me.
7. Today, I'd like to talk about g. outlining the plan for the day.
8 If you have any questions h. the success we've had with after-sales

3. Choose a verb from the box to complete each of the sentences below.



Example: If we're all here, I'll begin

a. It's good to.......................... Mr Maxwell here from the Head Office.

b. I have the figures for the last three months to ............. to you.

c. Would you like to........................ a handout?

d. I'd .............................. to talk today about last year's sales figures.

e. I plan to ………………….about twenty minutes for questions at the end.

f. I'd like to ........................... our speaker today.


4. The following sentences are mixed up. Put the words into the correct order.

example: for / to / thank / like / all / you/ coming

I’ d like to thank you all for coming........................................................

1 points / handout / of / have / with / my / the / a / main / presentation

I .......................................................................................................

2 customer/care/here/explain/to

I'm ......................................................................................................

3 Malaysian / I'm / office / the / Mohammed / from

Good morning....................................................................................

4 the / read / interesting / day / something / other

I ........................................................................................................

5 outline / begin / I'd / proposal / to / with / like / the

To .......................................................................................................

6 leader/you /sure/ I'm / I'm/ know/ project/the

As .......................................................................................................

5. Complete the sentences with the correct word.


example: It's good to................... meet you. have / take / meet
a Did everyone ....................... a handout ? give/ get/ go
b Don't.......................... about taking notes. worry/forget/think
с Please .......................... yourselves. meet/ have/help
d Please feel ......................... to stop me. expensive/free/open
e I'd like to......................... the past. let/ happen / describe
f I want to.......................... on the results first. look / worry / focus

6. Complete the following introduction with appropriate words from the unit.

Well, If everyone's ......................................... start. It's great to have Liu Wei here the office in Beijing. As you ……………., he is the Director of Marketing and has achieved excellent results.

Good afternoon. Thank you, Sam. I'm ....... to be here today. OK, today I'd ………………..to talk about the developments in the Beijing office. We've had to develop quickly to meet the demands of the market and it's been hard work but very rewarding. In my presentation this afternoon I'd like to ……………three main points. ……………, I'll briefly outline our small beginnings two years ago; …………………I'll explain how we adapted the RB409 range to suit the local market and …….……I'll show our success. If you have any questions, there'll be ………… at the end.

Before I start, I ………………..a handout for you. It has the graphs and main notes on it. Would you like to .............................................. one? Here you are.

7 Make a presentation on one of the topics studied in the module.


Functions Structural Exponents
Introducing a presentation   Greeting and introducing oneself Good morning/afternoon. My name ‘s …/I am … Let me introduce myself. Let me start by saying a few words about …
Presenting the title/subject   The subject of my presentation is … The focus of my paper (academic) is …Today I’d like to talk about… I’m going to tell you something about …
Specifying the purpose/objective We are here today to decide/ agree/learn about … The purpose of the talk/ presentation is … The talk /presentation is designed to …
Signposting the presentation   My presentation will be in … parts. First/ Firstly/ First of all, I’ll give you …. Second/secondly/ Next/ Then, … Lastly/finally last of all…. I’ve divided my presentation into … parts /sections. They are … . I’ll be developing … main points. The first point will …. Second, … . Lastly … .
Sequencing and linking ideas Sequencing/ ordering Firstly … , secondly … , thirdly … . Then … next… finally/lastly … Let’s start with … Let’s move /go onto … Now we come to … That brings us to … Let’s leave that … That covers … Let’s go back to … Let me turn now to …
Giving reasons/causes Therefore So, As a result, Consequently. That’s why … This is because of … This is largely due to … It could lead to… It may result in …
Contrasting But On the other hand,… Although …. In spite of this, … However, …
Comparing Similarly, In the same way,
Contradicting In fact, Actually,
Highlighting In particular, Especially,
Digressing By the way, In passing
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Generalising Usually Generally As a rule
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Describing trends, charts and graphs There is/has been a slight/dramatic /considerable/significant/moderate decrease/fall/ drop/collapse/rise/increase in … …. remain(s)/has remained constant/stable … … has/have decreased/increased/fallen/risen dramatically/considerably/slightly/moderately
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Ending a presentation     Summarising To sum up… In brief … In short …. I’d like to sum up now …… I’ll briefly summarise the main issues. Let me summarise briefly what I’ve said. If I can just sum up the main points. At this stage I’d /like to run through /to go over… Let’s recap, shall we?
  Concluding In conclusion, … To conclude, … As you can see, there are some very good reasons … I’d like to leave you with the following thought/idea.
Recommending My/our suggestion/proposal/recommendation would be/is to … We recommend/I’d like to suggest/I propose setting up….
Closing formalities I’d be happy to answer any questions. If you have any questions, I’d be pleased to answer them. I would welcome any comments/suggestions. Thank you for your attention.
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Avoiding giving an answer Perhaps we could deal with that later. Can we talk about that another time? I’m afraid that’s not my field. I don’t have the figures with me. I’m sure Mr X could answer that question. That’s interesting, but I’d prefer not to answer that today. I’m afraid I’m not the right person to answer that. Could we leave that till later? I’m not sure this is the right place/time to discuss this particular question.
Checking the questioner is satisfied May we go on? Does that answer your question? Is that clear?


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CNN News

BILL HEMMER, CNN ANCHOR: Now we're going to turn to the Kobe Bryant matter. Almost two weeks after the Lakers star surrendered to police for an alleged sexual assault in Colorado, the D.A. still has not filed charges. That is leading to questions about the timing of the original arrest warrant. Criminal defense attorney Jayne Weintraub, our guest back here from Miami to talk about this. Good morning to you.

JAYNE WEINTRAUB: Good morning, Bill. How are you?

HEMMER: I'm doing just fine. Thank you. What do you make of this delay? How significant?

WEINTRAUB: Well, I don't think that the delay is significant. I think what is significant here is the impulsive move to arrest him. You know, when you arrest somebody, there is the issue of bond and whether or not he will appear and whether or not he's a danger to the community. Neither of those apply here to Kobe Bryant. They should have investigated the crime, as in any other crime with any other person that they're looking at, confidentially, particularly in a sexual assault case, and made a decision whether or not to charge him formally. Meanwhile, this lag of the two weeks seems so long, because it's causing irreparable damage to Kobe Bryant's reputation. And there is no reason for the prosecutor at this point to be dragging his feet.

HEMMER: Let me go back to my original question. Do you think it says anything right now about the evidence?

WEINTRAUB: Absolutely not. I think there are two competing interests here as far as the evidence is concerned. One, of course, is whether or not there was any sexual contact. And, two, if there was any sexual contact, whether or not it was consensual. And here in a case if there is physical evidence to corroborate a victim, I'm sure that the D.A. will file the charges and Kobe will defend himself against it.

However, in a case such as this, especially when they've already messed up by arresting him when they shouldn't have, I think that the focus will become different. I think the focus is whether or not they can sustain a conviction beyond a reasonable doubt, and the prosecutor will review it to that standard or should. I just don't see it happening. I think Kobe Bryant didn't do it. I think he's a celebrity sitting duck.

HEMMER: Wow! OK, more on that in a moment here. Get back to the evidence, if you could, for a second here.


HEMMER: Do you think we're just becoming impatient?

WEINTRAUB: Well, it seems as if it's a long time, because it's in the press

morning, noon and night because of who he is. And that underscores perhaps -- and I'm not saying that the victim is not telling the truth - but I'm saying perhaps that underscores that she knew just what she was doing when she went into that room.

I mean, you know, there are a lot of questions here. Remember, Bill, she's the concierge. She's going to serve room service after hours? She had spotted him. She knows it's Kobe Bryant. She tried out for "American Idol." Her best friend says something -- she's looking for 15 minutes of fame. We just don't know here.

HEMMER: Yes, there certainly is...

WEINTRAUB: And then you have Kobe Bryant...

HEMMER: Yes, do you think...

WEINTRAUB: ... a perfect gentleman.

HEMMER: Do you think he right now is playing this right? Mickey Sherman, a well-known defense attorney, was on our program two days ago. He thinks he should be more public right now. Your thought?

WEINTRAUB: I think that this is Kobe Bryant. I think he's a gentleman. I think he's got a very quiet demeanor. I think that he gave one interview the other day to the "L.A. Times" declaring his innocence, because he just couldn't help himself anymore and he wanted everyone to know he didn't do it. But, no, I don't think that he should be taking it public. I think he should be the gentleman that he is.

HEMMER: When was the last time...

WEINTRAUB: And I think that shows.

HEMMER: When was the last time you talked to Kobe Bryant?

WEINTRAUB: I have not spoken with Kobe Bryant.

HEMMER: Ever met him?

WEINTRAUB: No, I have not.

HEMMER: How do you know he's such a perfect gentleman?

WEINTRAUB: From what I've seen. I see his reputation and I've read a lot about how he conducts himself. And, you know, when you look at Kobe Bryant in conjunction with how we see so many other athletes on the front pages today, he truly is a role model for kids who play basketball.

HEMMER: At least that's what the headlines are telling us. Quickly, a move by the D.A. comes when?

WEINTRAUB: I think that it comes within 21 days. State to state they vary of how long they have to charge someone or not charge someone, but it's usually around 21 days to a month. In this case, I think he's just waiting to see what he's going to develop, if anything. He has all of the evidence.

HEMMER: We will all see eventually. Jayne Weintraub, thanks much, in Miami.

WEINTRAUB: Thank you, Bill.

Навчальні матеріали з англійської мови до модулів: № 1 “LAW AND ORDER”, № 2 “BUSINESS LAW”, № 3 “CRIME AND PUNISHMENT”, № 4 “CONSTITUTION AND LAW для студентів 1 курсу денної форми навчання напряму підготовки „Правознавство” (6 видання перероблене та виправлене ) – Донецьк. ДонНУ, 2013. – 162 с.



Укладачі: Мохосоева М.Н., ст. викл., к.ф.н.
Ожерельєва В.О., ст. викл.

Просалова Я.В., ст. викл., к.ф.н.


Тираж 310 прим.


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