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The achievement of science and technical revolution





As the years go forward our life becomes faster, a lot of new things appear, our mind develops and it cannot stop. It's like a strong river which never ends to run and it is rapidly spreading all over the earth. Many centuries ago people even couldn't imagine that we will be able to exchange information using telephone, fax, Internet as long as they couldn't think that there are a lot of planets except our earth and that people can fly their. If we think how everything had developed, how many new things had appeared and how had the minds of people become so wide we even won't be able to understand it because nowadays we cannot imagine our life without such inventions like lamps, ovens, central heating and others.

During the centuries people have been invented the things to make our life easier. A great invention such as transport plays one of the most important roles in our life. We live in flats, can appear in different point of earth within a day, can say hello to people who live in another point of the world. All those things are a product of technical progress and it doesn't stop to grow and develop. Nowadays we live surrounded by machines and other inventions. And with new inventions we become happier because nearly everything is making by machine not by ourselves. And from day to day appear more and more new things. And we don't think about how the first inventions were created. The only thing we know that we never will return to the life which people lived a lot of centuries ago because there is no way back. Everything is handy. We use at home vacuum cleaners to clean the flat, ovens to cook, lifts to walk down in our houses, lamps to make our flats light…. There are a lot of such things like this, and we even don't think about when and where and who invented it. And it's so simple to us. And it's so dear to us that we cannot even live without it.

Our century is a century of developing informational connection. Faxes, TV, Internet, and Telephone became the most popular way of getting and sending information. One of the greatest inventions of the century, in my opinion is computer. It's the coup in the technology. When Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves today. Computer becomes like a brain of human but the only thing it cannot do is to feel. The other things are easy to it. As everything computers also develop. The possibilities of it are so wide. It can do more than 500000 sums in a fraction of a second. Programming became one of the most useful and popular profession.

 

 

Changes in materials technology

Since the technology of any age is founded upon the materials of the age, the era of new materials will have a profound effect on engineering of the future.

Not only new materials, but related, and equally important, new and improved and less wasteful processes for the shaping, treating and finishing of both traditional and new materials are continuously being developed. It is important that an engineer should be familiar with them. These include casting, injection molding and rotational molding of components of ever increasing sizes, complexity and accuracy; manufacture of more complex components by powder metallurgy techniques; steel forming and casting processes based on new, larger and more mechanized machines, giving reduced waste and closer tolerances; the avoidance of waste in forging by the use of powder metallurgy or cast pressforms and new finishing processes for metals and plastics, just to name a few. A high proportion of these processes is aimed at the production of complex, accurate shapes with a much smaller number of operations and with far less waste than the traditional methods of metal manufacture.



Joining techniques have developed to unprecedented level of sophistication and are also providing opportunities for economies. It is necessary to mention that these newer techniques allow the manufacture of complicated parts by welding together simpler sub-units requiring little machining; such assemblies can be made from a variety of materials. The methods can also be used effectively for assembly, allowing savings to be made in both materials and machine utilization.

The brief review of new processes above has indicated that a new materials technology is rapidly emerging, proving new opportunities and challenges for imaginative product design and for more

efficient manufacture.

 

 

Trends in the modern machine-building industry

The scientific and technological progress will continue in engineering along two main headlines. Firstly, it is automation, including the creation of “unmanned” industries. Secondly, raising the reliability and extending the service life of machines.

This certainly requires new technology. The machine modules on a large scale are well suited for “unmanned” industries. Intense work is being carried out on new robots. What we need is not merely manipulators which can take up a work piece and pass it on, but robots which can identify objects, their position in space, etc.

We also need machines that would trace the entire process of machining. Some have been designed and are manufactured. Modern engineering thinking has created new automated coal-digging complexes and machine systems, installations for the continuous casting of steel, machine-tools for electro physical and electrochemical treatment of metals, unique welding equipment, automatic rotor transfer lines and machine-tool modules for flexible industries.

New technologies and equipment have been designed for most branches of engineering. In the shortest time possible the engineers are to start producing new generations of machines and equipment which would allow manufacturers to increase productivity several times and to find a way for the application of advanced technologies.

Large reserves in extending service life for machines can be found in the process of designing. At present, advanced methods have been evolved for designing machines proceeding from a number of criteria. Automatic design systems allow for an optimizing of the solutions in design and technology when new machines are still in the blueprint stage.

 

Construction careers

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. There are many routes to the different careers within the construction industry which vary by country. However, there are three main tiers of careers based on educational background which are common internationally:

Unskilled and semi-skilled – general site labor with little or no construction qualifications: skilled – on-site managers whom possess extensive knowledge and experience in their craft or profession. Technical and management – Personnel with the greatest educational qualifications, usually graduate degrees, trained to design, manage and instruct the construction process. Skilled occupations in the UK require further education qualifications, often in vocational subject areas. These qualifications are either obtained directly after the completion of compulsory education or through "on the job" apprenticeship training .In the UK 8500 construction-related apprenticeships were commenced in 2007. Technical and specialised occupations require more training as a greater technical knowledge is required. These professions also hold more legal responsibility. Architect – Typically holds 1, undergraduate 3 year degree in architecture + 1, post-graduate 2 year degree (DipArch or BArch) in architecture plus 24 months experience within the industry. To use the title "architect" the individual must be registered on the Architects Registration Board register of Architects.

Civil engineer – Typically holds a degree in a related subject. The Chartered Engineer qualification is controlled by the Engineering Council, and is often achieved through membership of the Institution of Civil Engineers. A new university graduate must hold a master's degree to become chartered, persons with bachelor's degrees may become an Incorporated Engineer. Building services engineer – Often referred to as an "M&E Engineer" typically holds a degree in mechanical or electrical engineering. Chartered Engineer status is governed by the Engineering Council, mainly through the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.

Project manager – Typically holds a 4-year or greater higher education qualification, but are often also qualified in another field such as quantity surveying or civil engineering. Structural engineer – Typically holds a bachelors or master's degree in structural engineering, new university graduates must hold a master's degree to gain chartered status from the Engineering Council, mainly through the Institution of Structural Engineers.

 









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