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Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук





Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук

Кафедра іноземних мов

Освітньо-кваліфікаційний рівень: бакалавр

Спеціальність: Правознавство

Назва дисципліни: Іноземна мова за професійним спрямуванням

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант №1

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) to adopt laws –

b) а locality -

c) criminal intent –

d) double jeopardy –

e) an apprehention -

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) урядове законодавство -

b) застосовувати закон -

c) обвинувачувати –

d) тягар доказу –

e) умовне засудження –

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) to codify - 1) to use a law in a particular situation

b) “written” law - 2) all unenacted laws

c) “unwritten” laws - 3) any enacted law

d) to apply – 4) to put laws together as a code or system

e) approval – 5) the belief that something or someone is good or acceptable

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) Witnesses for the prosecution 1) a bill relating to money.
b) The House of Lords has no power to throw out 2) educate the guilty person.
c) The defendant preferred to make a statement 3) may be cross-examined.
d) The object of punishment is to reform and 4) one of the jurors.
e) The judge has discharged 5) through his solicitor.

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) On the Continent the writings of legal … form an important source of law.

a) writers b) authors c)judges

2) The expression “unwritten” law will signifies all … laws

a) unenacted b) enacted c) adopted

3) The expression “written” law signifies any … law.

a) unenacted b) adopted c) enacted

4) Roman law is one of the greatest … that has ever existed.

a) systems b) codes c) laws

5) Roman law had a deep influence upon the … of the world.

a) system b) code c)law

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) The use of force may be excused if the defendant believed that the use of force … by special circumstances.:

a) is necessitated b) was necessitated c) will be necessitated



2) If are you interested in these problems, I … a very interesting book to read.

a) can offer b) could offer c) will offer

3) England … all efforts toward comprehensive legislative codification of its criminal law.

a) had rejected b) have rejected c) has rejected

4) Presentations …always… , if presenters put enough effort into the preparation.

a) are successful b) were successful c) will be successful

5) Some Commonwealth countries, however … criminal codes that are based on the English common law of crimes.

a) had enacted b) will have enacted c) have enacted

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

a) What does the English word “law” refer to? 1) In all societies, relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws.
b) What regulates the relations between people? 2) It refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour.
c) Who can create special “laws” for the localitу? 3) Particular groups of people are sometimes still capable of creating a special “law” for the locality.
d) What traditions are systems of law based on? 4) Customs and court rulings have been as important as statutes.
e) What has been as important as statutes? 5) They are English Common law and Continental or Roman law.

Read the text and decide if the statements are True or False.

Persons offending against the law are summoned before a court of law. The summons issued by the court state the charges moved against the offender by the persons sueing him. When a defendant is brought before a court the charge is read out to him and he isasked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty. If he pleads guilty he is sentenced by the court. If he pleads not guilty» a jury of 12 persons must be formed and summoned to attend the court. The trial begins with opening the case for the prosecuting party and hearing the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution. On the completion of the plaintiff's case and evidence, the defendant's case is stated and evidence is heard in support of it. The accused is entitled to be defended by the counsel. Witnesses for the prosecution may be cross-examined by the accused or his counsel. The accused may call witnesses or give evidence in his own defence. At the conclusion of the evidence, and after speeches on both sides, the judge sums up the case to the jury. The jury consider the verdict. If they decide that the accused is not guilty, he is immediately discharged. If the jury return the verdict of guilty, sentence is pronounced by the judge.

1. The trial begins with opening the case for the defence party.

2. The offenders are summoned before a court of law.

3. If he doesn’t plead guilty he is sentenced by the court.

4. The trial begins with hearing the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution.

5. On the completion of the plaintiff's case and evidence, the defendant's case is stated and evidence is heard in support of it.

Speak on the topic: Text „Lawyer”

I am a first year student of Lviv.Polytechnic National University. I study at the Law Faculty. In 5 years I'll graduate from the Institute and become a professional lawyer. To become a good lawyer one must know much. So at the Institute we are taught various general and special subjects: Roman Law, Labour Law, Family Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Law of Procedure, etc.

The profession of a lawyer is quite diversified. The graduates of our faculty can work as investigators, judges, defence counsels, legal consultants. I'd like to be a judge and to work at the Court. My friends will work at the Procurator's Office, Militia, Legal Aid Offices.

I think that now the profession of a lawyer is one of the most important in the law-governed state, which we are creating now. Lawyers have to solve many problems that still exist in our society. The duty of lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes: hooliganism, stealing, murder, traffic violation and so on but they must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society. They should help those people who committed an error to find the right road in their life. The lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, institutions and organisations. All the citizens are equal before the law. Judges are elected for a term of 5 years. Not only professional lawyers but the representatives of the population hear all criminal and civil cases having equal authority. The defendants are guaranteed the right to defence.

In our country justice is exercised on the principles of equality of citizens before the law and the court, regardless of social position, property or official standing, nationality or race. The court's mission is not just to meter out punishment, but rather to educate people in the spirit of strict observance of all laws, of labour discipline, appreciation of their duty to the state and society, respect for the rights and integrity of fellow citizens and of the norms of behaviour.

Proceedings of all courts are open. All people before the court are presumed innocent, until the court, having observed all procedural guarantees, finds them guilty. Only then is the sentence pronounced. An appeal can be made against the ruling to a higher court, right up to the Supreme Court.

 

 

Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

Кафедра іноземних мов

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант № 2

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) charging -

b) presuppose -

c) to embody –

d) forms of behavior –

e) to accept the rules –

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) обмежувати –

b) штраф –

c) розслідувати –

d) запропонувати закон -

e) схвалити -

 

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) to encounter - 1) to put somebody in a place and stay there for a period of time

b) to station - 2) a powerful or major influence or effect

c) to constitute - 3) to have or experience problems, difficulties

d) a draft - 5) a version of a document that you make before you make the final version

e) an impact – 4) to establish or create an organization, a government

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) Only a member of the House of Commons may introduce 1) the ancient customs of the country.
b) Common Law consists of principles and rules of conduct based on 2) a financial Bill.  
c) The Common Law can be changed or 3) in their courts.
d) By the eleventh century many European countries had begun to use Roman 4) almost equal to that of precedents.
e) The principal and the subsidiary sources carry the whole weight of authority 5) by statutes.  

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) Barristers, … and police officers must have retired from the work in jury for a minimum of ten years.

a) jurors b) solicitors c) judges

2) The call to jury … is regarded as an obligation.

a) service b) office c) premises

3) Any state machine is known … the interests of the ruling class.

a) to depict b) to proclaim c) to reflect

4) The barrister is the specialist… much of whose time is taken up with court-room appearance.

a) adviser b) supporter c) legal consultants

5) The criminal statutes are often simply … of the common law.

a) statutes b) regulations c) codifications

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) In a civil case the verdict … by a jury. :

a) was given b) is given c) will be given

2) Some laws … by nations and enforced against all citizens within their power. :

a) are made b) were made c) will be made

3) Principles and rules of conduct … on the ancient customs of the country and recognized by the Courts as Law. :

a) are based b) were based c) will be based

4) The Common Law … or developed by statutes.:

a) can be changed b) could be changed c) may be changed

5) If we continually break the rules, or break a very important one, other members of society may act violently toward us. :

a) may act b) сan act c) must act

 

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

a) What difficulties in relations with the public did the Police force suffer? 1) Usually theу decide whether the case should be heard in the Сrown Court.
b) What do the magistrates decide? 2) It suffered many trials and difficulties in overcoming public hostility and opposition.
c) What is the main principle of the Force's relationship with the public? 3) It is established on the firmest foundation of mutual respect and confidence.
d) Who carefully reviews the papers to decide whether or not to go ahead with the case? 4) Police is responsible for maintaining public order.
e) What for is the Police responsible? 5) А Crown Prosecutor carefully reviews the papers.

 

Кафедра іноземних мов

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант №3

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) legal memory –

b) to create laws –

c) to back by -

d) to betray -

e) an offender -

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) підозрювати –

b) виправдання –

c) звинувачення –

d) cкладати закони -

e) втілювати закони -

 

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) to approve - 1) a place or area that a policeman regularly goes to or covers as part of a job

b) to codify - 2) a part of a police force that deals with a specific type of crime

c) emergency - 3) to officially accept

d) squad – 4) an unexpected and usually dangerous situation that calls for immediate action

e) beat - 5) to put laws together as a code or system

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) The trial begins with opening the case 1) defended by the counsel.
b) The accused is entitled to be 2) for the prosecuting party.
c) At the conclusion of the evidence, and after speeches on both sides, 3) before a court of law.
d) Persons offending against the law are summoned 4) to the Court of Appeal.
e) The defendant may appeal against the sentence 5) the judge sums up the case to the jury.

 

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) The courts are … of the law.

a) lawmakers b) interpreters c) lawgivers

The general nature of the law is that it is enforced equally against all members of the nation.

a) is enforced b) is used c) is prepared

Many of the … rules of the Constitution are “conventional” rather than legal rules.

a) formal b) informal c) fundamental

The laws proposed by individual members of the House of Commons or House of Lords, must be agreed to by … before they become effective.

a) Parliament b) the Cabinet c) the Monarch

Statute Law consists of all laws passed … Parliament.

a) in b) by c) into

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) In Europe the criminal law of modern times … from various codifications.

a) have emerged b) has been emerged c) has emerged

2) If she had gone to bed earlier, she wouldn’t … for the exam.

a) have been late b) has been late c) be late

3) Modern criminal law … considerably by the social sciences.

a) have been affected b) has been affected c) has affected

4) If he had invested in that company, he … by now.

a) will be rich b) would be rich c) should be rich

5) In the last few decades the movement for codification and the law reform … considerable progress everywhere.

a) have made b) have been made c) has made

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

 

a) What customs become laws? 1) General customs become laws.
b) Whom are customs made by? 2) In the seventh century B. C..
c) What laws describe how people usually behave? 3) Descriptive laws describe how people usually behave.
d) Who makes laws? 4) They are made by governments.
e) When did the Greeks begin to put their laws into writing? 5) The governments create them.

 

Кафедра іноземних мов

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант №4

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) an accomplice -

b) an assassin -

c) a stowaway –

b) to codify -

c) government legislation –

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) свідчення -

b) визнати –

a) втілювати закони -

b) свідоме створення -

e) штабквартира -

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) to offend - 1) to order someone to appear in a court of law

b) to summon - 2) to cause something new to exist

c) to plead - 3) to try to prove a case in a court of law

d) to create – 4) to commit a crime

e) to claim – 5) to say that you have a legal right to be given something

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) The Norman Kings sent travelling judges around the country 1) by the gradual development of the doctrine of precedent.
b) Uniform application of the law throughout the country was promoted 2) and gradually a “Common law” developed.
c) Continental systems, codified legal systems, have resulted from attempts by governments 3) of the Roman Catholic Church.
d) The lawmakers were also influenced by the model of the Canon law 4) to produce a set of codes.
e) The most important models were the codes produced in the seventh century 5) under the direction of the Roman Emperor Justinian.

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) There is approximately one … to every 1300 of the population,

a) barrister b) solicitor c) judge

2) The House of Lords is the supreme … body of Great Britain.

a)legislative b) judicial c) executive

3)… most frequently appear in criminal cases in the Crown Courts.

a) legal executives b) solicitors c) juries

4) The function of the … is to determine the facts, having heard the judge's summing up and his directions on questions of law.

a) jury b) court c) House

5) The basic … of the USA - the Constitution was adopted in 1789.

a) statute b) code c) law

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) Roman law … upon customs. :

a) was based b) is based c) is being based

2) Government – made laws … often upon informal rules of conduct.

a ) are patterned b) have been patterned c) were patterned

3) Relations between people … by a combination of all the rules.

a) are regulated b) will be regulated c) were regulated

4) A jury might number anything from 201 to 2,500. :

a) might number b) may number c) must number

5) If we continually … the rules, or break a very important one, other members of society may refuse to have anything to do with us. :

a) break b) broke c) will break

 

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

a) What do the summons state? 1) The CPS lawyer must present the facts to the court fairly.
b) What lawyer must present the facts to the court? 2) They state the charges moved against the offender by the persons sueing him.
c) When is a defendant sentenced by the court? 3) If the jury return the verdict of guilty, the sentence is pronounced by the judge.
d) Where are "Summary only" offences heard? 4) The accused is entitled to be defended by the counsel.
e) Whom is the accused defended by? 5) They can only be heard in the magistrates' court.

Кафедра іноземних мов

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант №5

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) lawmakers -

b) an impact -

c) a solicitor -

d) a suspect -

e) Crown Prosecutor -

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) перехресний допит –

b) правопорушник -

c) cтворювати закони -

d) спиратись на -

e) пограбування -

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) а plaintiff - 1) a person who is being sued or accused of a crime in a court of law

b) а defendant - 2) to make a law active or effective

c) juvenile - 3) a person who sues another person or accuses another person of a crime in a court of law

d) to break – 4) of or relating to young people who have committed crimes

e) to enforce – 5) to fail to do what is required by a law

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) The administrative head of Scotland Yard is the commissioner, 1) in the United Kingdom.
b) Scotland Yard keeps extensive files on all known criminals 2) who is appointed by the Crown.  
c) A special branch of police guards 3) British law-enforcement agencies and Interpol.
d) Scotland Yard is responsible for maintaining links between 4) in the countries of the Commonwealth.
e) The Yard assists in the training of police personnel 5) visiting dignitaries, royalty and statesmen.  

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) The majority of laws are proposed and … by the government in power.

a) codified b) drafted c) developed

2) The right must be … by or on behalf of a definite group of people.

a) be defined b) be explained c) be claimed

3) After many years Roman law reappeared in the eleventh century, when there was a great … of learning.

a) revival b) recovery c) renovation

4) The law on partnership … by the Parliament in 1972.

a) was developed b) was adopted c) was codified

5) Common Law consists of principles and rules of conduct based on the ancient … of the country.

a) customs b) rules c) laws

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) When a defendant … before a court the charge is read out to him.

a) is brought b) was brought c) has been brought

2) If you … your work, give it to the teacher.

a) has done b) have done c) will have done

3) If a defendant pleads guilty he … by the court.

a) was sentenced b) is sentenced c) has been sentenced

4) When a defendant … before a court last week, the charge was read out to him.

a) was brought b) is brought c) will be brought

5) If a defendant pleads not guilty, a jury of 12 persons… .

a) can be formed b) must form c) must be formed

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

a) What laws describe how people usually behave? 1) The governments create them.
b) Who makes laws? 2) Roman law is.
c) When did the Greeks begin to put their laws into writing? 3) Descriptive laws describe how people usually behave.
d) What is one of the greatest systems of law? 4) In the seventh century B. C..
e) What are the two main types of sources of law? 5) They may either be written or unwritten.

 

Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук

Кафедра іноземних мов







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