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Освітньо-кваліфікаційний рівень: бакалавр





Спеціальність: Правознавство

Назва дисципліни: Іноземна мова за професійним спрямуванням

Курс I, семестр II

Варіант №1

1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words:

a) to adopt laws –

b) а locality -

c) criminal intent –

d) double jeopardy –

e) an apprehention -

2. Give English equivalents of the following words:

a) урядове законодавство -

b) застосовувати закон -

c) обвинувачувати –

d) тягар доказу –

e) умовне засудження –

3. Match the words with their definitions:

a) to codify - 1) to use a law in a particular situation

b) “written” law - 2) all unenacted laws

c) “unwritten” laws - 3) any enacted law

d) to apply – 4) to put laws together as a code or system

e) approval – 5) the belief that something or someone is good or acceptable

4. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

a) Witnesses for the prosecution 1) a bill relating to money.
b) The House of Lords has no power to throw out 2) educate the guilty person.
c) The defendant preferred to make a statement 3) may be cross-examined.
d) The object of punishment is to reform and 4) one of the jurors.
e) The judge has discharged 5) through his solicitor.

5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

1) On the Continent the writings of legal … form an important source of law.

a) writers b) authors c)judges

2) The expression “unwritten” law will signifies all … laws

a) unenacted b) enacted c) adopted

3) The expression “written” law signifies any … law.

a) unenacted b) adopted c) enacted

4) Roman law is one of the greatest … that has ever existed.

a) systems b) codes c) laws

5) Roman law had a deep influence upon the … of the world.

a) system b) code c)law

6. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate Grammar forms:

1) The use of force may be excused if the defendant believed that the use of force … by special circumstances.:

a) is necessitated b) was necessitated c) will be necessitated

2) If are you interested in these problems, I … a very interesting book to read.

a) can offer b) could offer c) will offer

3) England … all efforts toward comprehensive legislative codification of its criminal law.

a) had rejected b) have rejected c) has rejected

4) Presentations …always… , if presenters put enough effort into the preparation.

a) are successful b) were successful c) will be successful

5) Some Commonwealth countries, however … criminal codes that are based on the English common law of crimes.

a) had enacted b) will have enacted c) have enacted

7. Match the following questions with the corresponding answers:

a) What does the English word “law” refer to? 1) In all societies, relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws.
b) What regulates the relations between people? 2) It refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour.
c) Who can create special “laws” for the localitу? 3) Particular groups of people are sometimes still capable of creating a special “law” for the locality.
d) What traditions are systems of law based on? 4) Customs and court rulings have been as important as statutes.
e) What has been as important as statutes? 5) They are English Common law and Continental or Roman law.

Read the text and decide if the statements are True or False.

Persons offending against the law are summoned before a court of law. The summons issued by the court state the charges moved against the offender by the persons sueing him. When a defendant is brought before a court the charge is read out to him and he isasked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty. If he pleads guilty he is sentenced by the court. If he pleads not guilty» a jury of 12 persons must be formed and summoned to attend the court. The trial begins with opening the case for the prosecuting party and hearing the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution. On the completion of the plaintiff's case and evidence, the defendant's case is stated and evidence is heard in support of it. The accused is entitled to be defended by the counsel. Witnesses for the prosecution may be cross-examined by the accused or his counsel. The accused may call witnesses or give evidence in his own defence. At the conclusion of the evidence, and after speeches on both sides, the judge sums up the case to the jury. The jury consider the verdict. If they decide that the accused is not guilty, he is immediately discharged. If the jury return the verdict of guilty, sentence is pronounced by the judge.

1. The trial begins with opening the case for the defence party.

2. The offenders are summoned before a court of law.

3. If he doesn’t plead guilty he is sentenced by the court.

4. The trial begins with hearing the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution.

5. On the completion of the plaintiff's case and evidence, the defendant's case is stated and evidence is heard in support of it.

Speak on the topic: Text „Lawyer”

I am a first year student of Lviv.Polytechnic National University. I study at the Law Faculty. In 5 years I'll graduate from the Institute and become a professional lawyer. To become a good lawyer one must know much. So at the Institute we are taught various general and special subjects: Roman Law, Labour Law, Family Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Law of Procedure, etc.

The profession of a lawyer is quite diversified. The graduates of our faculty can work as investigators, judges, defence counsels, legal consultants. I'd like to be a judge and to work at the Court. My friends will work at the Procurator's Office, Militia, Legal Aid Offices.

I think that now the profession of a lawyer is one of the most important in the law-governed state, which we are creating now. Lawyers have to solve many problems that still exist in our society. The duty of lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes: hooliganism, stealing, murder, traffic violation and so on but they must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society. They should help those people who committed an error to find the right road in their life. The lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, institutions and organisations. All the citizens are equal before the law. Judges are elected for a term of 5 years. Not only professional lawyers but the representatives of the population hear all criminal and civil cases having equal authority. The defendants are guaranteed the right to defence.

In our country justice is exercised on the principles of equality of citizens before the law and the court, regardless of social position, property or official standing, nationality or race. The court's mission is not just to meter out punishment, but rather to educate people in the spirit of strict observance of all laws, of labour discipline, appreciation of their duty to the state and society, respect for the rights and integrity of fellow citizens and of the norms of behaviour.

Proceedings of all courts are open. All people before the court are presumed innocent, until the court, having observed all procedural guarantees, finds them guilty. Only then is the sentence pronounced. An appeal can be made against the ruling to a higher court, right up to the Supreme Court.

 

 

Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук

Кафедра іноземних мов

Освітньо-кваліфікаційний рівень: бакалавр







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