Syntactical EMs and SDs Based on the Arrangement Of Words in a Sentence
Syntactical SDs deal with expressive possibilities of the structural pattern of sentences and paragraphs, the arrangement of words in a sentence and sentences in a paragraph. Syntactical SDs are based on deliberate deviation from accepted norm.
It should be observed here that oral speech is normatively more emphatic than the written type of speech. Various syntactical structures deliberately employed by the author as SD for the creation of the proper effect, in oral speech are used automatically as a norm of oral intercourse and are not to be considered SD. But when these syntactical oral norms are intentionally imitated by the writer to produce the effect of authenticity and naturalness of dialogue we may speak of his preliminary deliberate choice of most suitable structures and of their preconceived usage, i.e. syntactical norms of oral speech, interpreted and arranged by the writer, become SD in belles-lettres style. Though, while analyzing them we should always keep in mind that their employment as SD is secondary to their normative usage in oral speech and that their primагу function as SD is to convey the effect of ease and naturalness of the characters' speech.
The vast variety of syntactical EMs and SDs not an easy matter to describe unless one observes the following five major criteria:
1. Arrangement of words in a sentence & sentences in a paragraph.
2. Abundance of some language elements.
3. Absence of some language elements.
4. Particular ways of linking.
5. Transference of structural meaning.
First we’ll consider SDs and EMs based on arrangement of words in a sentence & sentences in a paragraph.
SDs and EMs based on arrangement of words in a sentence are Stylistic Inversion and Detached Constructions.
A. Stylistic Inversion.Unlike grammatical inversion, stylistic inversion does not change the structural meaning of the sentence. The latter aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional coloring to the surface meaning of the utterance. Inversiondeals with the displacement of the predicate (which is the case complete inversion) or with the displacement of secondary members of the sentence (which is the case of partial inversion) and their shift in the front, opening position in the sentence.
The direct word-order is: Subject-Predicate-Object – the combination points unmistakably at the subject of the sentence.
Stylistic inversion breaks the order of words in the sentence but doesn’t change its grammatical meaning. The logical message remains the same. The emphatic character of the sentence is increased. In the inverted word order the emphasized members of the sentence are usually placed in the position with a full force of the stress on them. Most frequently emphasized members are: Predicates, Objects, and Adverbial modifier including, so-called post positions.
Stylistic inversion in Modern English should not be regarded as a violation of the norms of Standard English.
The following patterns are most frequently met:
-the object is placed at the beginning of the sentence, eg. Talent Mr. M. has (Dickens);
-the attribute is placed after the word it modifies, eg. Once upon a midnight dreary…(Po);
-the predicative is placed before the subject, eg. A good generous prayer it was (Twain);
-the adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence, eg. At your feet I fall (Dryden); ‘Beyond the Wild Wood comes the Wide World,' said the Rat – Kenneth Grahame, The Wind in the Willows, Ch. 1
-both modifier and predicate stand before the subject, e.g. In went Mr. Pickwick (Dickens).
B.Detached Constructions.A secondary part of a sentence placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to. Its position in the sentence and punctuation marks signify a pause and give the detached members the full force of predication. The most frequent cases of detached constructions are attributes and adverbial modifiers. Sometimes the isolation is so complete that a word syntactically connected with the sentence is separated into an independent sentence.
E.g. She was lovely: all of her – delightful (T. Driser).
The marks of punctuation and the intonation play an important role. They suggest a strong feeling of admiration here. The detached part becomes logically significant.
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