THE FIELD OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
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International business includes all business transactions that involve two or more countries. Such business relationships may be private or governmental. In the case of private firms the transactions are for profit. Government-sponsored activities in international business may or may not have a profit orientation. There are three major motivations for private firms to pursue international business. These are to expand sales, to acquire resources, and to diversify sources of sales and supplies.
Sales expansion. Sale are limited by the number of people interested in a firm’s products and services and by customers’ capacity to make purchases. Since the number of people and the degree of their purchasing power is higher for the world as a whole than for a single country firms may increase their sales potentials by defining markets in international terms.
Ordinarily higher sales mean higher profits. If, for example, each sales unit has the same mark-up, more volume translates to more profits. Lucas film, for example, receives a percentage of the sales made by companies marketing Star Wars merchandise; thus Lucas film’s revenues increase with each additional toy that Parker Kenner sells in the United Kingdom. In fact, profits per unit of sales may increase. Star Wars cost approximately $ 10 millions to produce; as more people see the film, the average production cost per viewer decreases.
International sales are thus a major motive for firms’ expansion into international business. A United Nations study indicated that among the largest industrial firms in the world, about 40 percent of their sale come from outside their home markets.
Resource acquisitions. Manufacturers and distributors seek out products and services as well as components and finished goods produced in foreign countries. Sometimes this is to reduce their costs: for example. Lucas film used studios in the United Kingdom in the filming of Star Wars and Kenner manufactures its Laser Pistol in Hong Kong. The potential effects on profits are obvious. The profit margin may be increased, or cost savings may be passed on to consumers, thereby permitting more people to buy the products.
Diversification. Companies usually prefer to avoid wild swings in their sales and profits; so they seek out foreign markets and procurement as a means to this end. Lucas film has been able to smooth its yearlong sales somewhat because the summer vacation period (the main season for children’s film attendance) varies between the northern and southern hemispheres. It has also been able to make large television contracts during different countries. Many other firms take advantage of the fact that the timing of business cycles differs among countries. Thus while sales decrease in one country that is experiencing a recession, they increase in another that is undergoing recovery. Finally by depending on supplies of the same product or component from different countries, a company may be able to avoid the full impact of price swings or shortages in any one country that might be brought about, for example, by a strike.
7.1. Basic text. Read and translate the text using the following words and word combinations
· input factor – первоначальный фактор
· hardware store – магазин скобяных товаров(металлических
· output flow – выход, выпуск
· remain unrecognized in accounting – остаётся вне сферы бухучёта
· to make sound internal decisions – принять правильное решение на рабочем месте
WHAT IS ACCOUNTING
The study of accounting begins with the understanding of the way in which accountants see the business enterprise. Accountants frequently refer to a business organization as an accounting entity or a business entity. A business entity is any business organization such as a hardware store or grocery store that exists as an economic unit. As an economic unit, the business enterprise acquires, organizes and transforms factors of production in its activity of producing goods and services. This activity may be presented as the following.
In accounting, business activities are associated with transactions and, indeed, are limited to transactions. Thus, unless there is a transaction there is no observable business activity.
A transaction occurs whenever the firm enters into a legal contract for the acquisition of means of production or the sale of goods and services. Business activities which do not lead to transactions remain unrecognized in accounting.
First, transactions between the firm and its markets – both its supply markets and its selling markets – are defined as «external transactions». The totality of «external transactions» forms the subject matter of financial accounting. General purpose of financial statements (reports) is to provide most of the information needed by external users of financial accounting. These financial statements are formal reports providing information on a business entity’s financial position (solvency), cash inflows and outflows, and the results of operations (profitability). Financial accounting information is historical in nature, reporting on what has happened in the past. Hence, the external users rely on relevant and reliable financial statements to make present decisions about future events.
Second, transactions within the firm, consisting of the exchanges which occur between the various departments are defined as «internal transactions». The totality of «internal transactions» forms the subject matter of cost or managerial accounting. Managerial accounting information provides special information for the managers of a business entity. The kind of information used by managers may range from very broad, long-range planning data to detailed explanation of why actual costs varied from costs estimates. The purpose of managerial accounting is to generate information that a manager can use to make sound internal decisions.
an account – счёт
accounting – бухгалтерский учёт
an accountant – бухгалтер
an entity [entiti] – объект, подразделение, единица
a unit – -- // -- // --
to acquire – приобретать, достигать
an acquisition – приобретение
means of production – средства производства
external – внешний
internal – внутренний
a totality – вся сумма
a subject matter – предмет, тема
a purpose – цель
to provide – обеспечивать
solvency – платёже способность
profitability – прибыльность
managerial account – управленческий учёт
A. Complete the table
B. Write out synonyms (use dictionary if necessary)
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