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(ряд из трех синонимов): beneficiation
(ряд из двух синонимов): selective solution
(ряд из двух синонимов): leaching
(ряд из трех синонимов): gangue
(ряд из двух синонимов): metallurgical extraction
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Au, Ag, Pt, Cu
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Индивидуальное задание к модулю 3
Особенности перевода главных членов предложения
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The first process in the reduction of an iron ore is smelting in a blast furnace. Almost all iron ores are oxides and the problem then is to break the combination of iron and oxygen and obtain the iron in the metallic form. The smelting operation does this and at the same time separates the gangue from the iron. The product of the blast furnace is known as pig iron and is used for the manufacture of steel. A typical pig iron analysis is as follows: Fe – 93.0%, C – 3.8%, Si – 2.0%, Mn – 1.0%, P – 0.2%, and S – 0.05%.
The carbon is present in the pig iron because of the contact between the liquid iron and the coke during smelting operation. Carbon has a marked effect upon iron. The varying properties of steel and the many uses of which can be applied are due largely to the influence of the element. Carbon in steel then is not to be considered as an impurity but as an essential ingredient.
Silicon and manganese in steel generally have beneficial effects. Phosphorous and sulphur in steel have harmful effects when they occur in appreciable amounts: phosphorous makes steel brittle when cold, and sulphur makes it brittle when hot, so every effort is made to keep the quantities of these substances low in the pig iron.
The blast furnace in which smelting is accomplished is a steel shell about 70-80 metres high, lined with fire bricks. The internal diameter varies in the furnace, being about 10 metres at the widest part. Near the bottom of the furnace, air is blown in through nozzles known as “tuyeres”, located at intervals around the furnace. Near the top of the furnace is a passage to carry away the gases produced in the furnace, to be used elsewhere because of their heating values.
A part of the gas from the top is used to preheat the air, which is blown into the furnace though the tuyeres. This is accomplished in three or four stoves which are actually chambers filled with fire bricks. The gases from the top of the furnace are mixed air and coke-oven gases, and pass through the stoves and by combustion, heat up the brick work. When the desired temperature is obtained in the stove, the flow of gas is diverted to another stove in the opposite direction, and into the bottom of the furnace. When the bricks cool, the air is diverted to a hot stove, and the gas again admitted to reheat the bricks.
The blast furnace in operation may be considered as a high column of iron oxide and gangue, coke and limestone, all mixed together but being in individual lumps large enough to allow free passage of the air up through the interstices between the lumps.
Near the bottom of the column where the hot air is blown in there is a high temperature, and the carbon of coke unites with the oxygen of the air to form carbon monoxide, which passes up through the column along with nitrogen from the air:
As the carbon monoxide becomes cooler it can unite with more oxygen to form carbon dioxide. To do this, the monoxide takes up the oxygen from the iron oxide, in a comparatively pure state:
As the material in the bottom of the column is consumed, the charge settles and finally reaches the hot part of the furnace, where the iron is melted and runs down to collect in the bottom of the furnace.
The molten iron is removed intermittently through a hole in the wall of the furnace.The hot gases going up the column heat the limestone and cause it to dissociate into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide:
The carbon dioxide escapes with the nitrogen at the top of the furnace, while the hot calcium oxide unites with the gangue to form a liquid slag which flows to the bottom of the column and remains on the top of the liquid iron. As the amount of liquid material in the furnace increases, the slag is draw off through a hole in the wall of the furnace above the iron tap hole. The slag is usually run into large ladles and taken to a granulation basin where the ladles are empted.
The pig iron from the furnace is sometimes cast into mouldsand allowed to solidify so that it can be conveniently transported or stored until needed. More often the pig iron is taken in the liquid state to the refining furnaces for the manufacture of steel.
The starting up or blowing in of a blast furnace is a slow and expensive process, and so once the furnace is operating nothing id allowed to interfere with the regular operation until wear of the lining necessitates shutting down to reline the furnace.During a good run, a blast furnace will produce 10-12 million tons of pig iron before it becomes necessary to reline it.
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