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Прочтите текст и скажите, о каких типах компьютеров и сферах их применения вы узнали.


As we know all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. Now we'll get acquainted with the computer system units that per­form these functions. But to begin with let's examine computer systems from the perspective of the system designer, or archi­tect.

It should be noted that computers and their accessory equip­ment are designed by a computer system architect, who usually has a strong engineering background. As contrasted with the analyst, who uses a computer to solve specific problems, the computer system architect usually designs computer that can be used for many different applications in many different business. For example, the product lines of major computer manufactur­ers such as IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others are the result of the efforts of teams of computer system architects.

Unless you are studying engineering, you don't need to be­come a computer system architect. However, it is important that as a potential user, applications programmer or systems analyst you understand the functions of the major units of a computer system and how they work together.

Types of computers

The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For ex-

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 58

ample, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quan­tities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.

Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.

Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and in­dustrial computer applications rely on the combination of ana­log and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of mi­croprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household ap­pliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide in­puts to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1. Who designs computers and their accessory equipment? 2. What is the role of an analyst? 3. Is it necessary for a user to become a computer system architect? 4. What functions do computer systems perform? 5. What types of computers do you know? 6. What is the principle of operation of analog comput­ers? 7. How do digital computers differ from analog comput­ers? 8. Where are digital and analog computers used? 9. What are hybrid computers? 10. Where do they find application?

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих

Функции ввода, хранения, обработки, управления и вывода информации; познакомиться; системные блоки;

59 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

для начала; вспомогательные устройства; разработчик ком­пьютерной системы; хорошая компьютерная подготовка; различные сферы применения; корпорация цифрового оборудования; прикладной программист; системный раз­работчик; главные устройства компьютерной системы; моделировать физические величины; измерение сигналов; в отличие от; иметь дело скорее с дискретными, чем не­прерывными величинами; в режиме реального времени; коммерческие операции; цифровое вычисление; аналого-цифровые компьютеры; тенденция к установке систем управления; домашние приборы.

5. Образуйте (и переведите) имена существительные от
приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов:

A. -er, -or

То control, to compute, to design, to use, to manufacture, to work, to simulate, to operate, to protect, to process, to deal, to perform, to examine, to program, to execute, to transmit, to convert, to print, to consume, to record.

B. -tion, -sion

To organize, to collect, to combine, to apply (ic), to repre­sent, to add, to corporate, to transact, to compute, to produce, to operate, to execute, to protect, to substitute, to prepare, to invent, to decide, to eliminate, to communicate, to correct, to inform.

С -ment

To require, to measure, to equip, to invest, to accomplish, to improve, to develop, to achieve, to displace, to govern, to move.

6. Переведите предложения, содержащие Participle I и
Participle II, в функции обстоятельства.

1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of inter­esting information. 2. Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage represents other physical quantities in analog com­puters. 6. Being discrete events commercial transactions are in

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 60

a natural form for a digital computer. 7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete quan­tities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a microcomputer you are constantly making choice — to open a file, to close a file, and so on. 10. As known all comput­er systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, process­ing, controlling, and outputting.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

hardware ['hcudwes] — аппаратное обеспечение; аппара­тура; оборудование

software ['softwea] — программное обеспечение; про­граммные средства

system software — системное программное обеспечение

application software — прикладное программное обеспе­чение

firmware ['faimwea] — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение

visible units ['vizibl 'jirnits] — видимый блок, устройство procedure [pra'SKd&d] — процедура, процесс; метод, ме­тодика; алгоритм

to associate [s'soujieit] — соединять; объединять; связы­вать

associated documentation — соответствующая докумен­тация

to execute applications programs — выполнять приклад­ные программы

payroll ['peiroul] — платежная ведомость

inventory control [m'ventsn ksn'troul] — инвентаризация; переучет

investment analyses [s'nsehsiz] — анализ инвестиций (ка­питаловложений)

to protect [pfa'tekt] — защищать

read-only memory (ROM) — постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)

to refer to [лТэ:] — относиться к; ссылаться на

61 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

to substitute ['sAbstitjmt] — заменять; замещать

to cause ['ko:z] — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, осно­вание

to accomplish [s'komplij] — завершать, заканчивать; вы­полнять, осуществлять

performance [ps'foimans] — производительность; быстро­действие; рабочая характеристика

8. Прочтите текст 2 и объясните, как вы понимаете тер­мины «аппаратное обеспечение» и «программное обес­печение». Переведите текст.


The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, or hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.

Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a com­puter and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.

Applications software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.

Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read­only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 62

Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe cer­tain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hard­ware. For example, in an instance where cost is more impor­tant than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to mul­tiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who pre­pares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firm­ware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?

10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих

Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппа­ратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; со­ответствующая документация; эффективная работа; систем­ное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведо­мость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная програм­ма; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное за­поминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; вы­полнять сложение.

11. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь пере­
вести словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.

Architecture: communication architecture; computer archi­tecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.

Software: system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.

63 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hard­ware; system hardware; video hardware.

Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision proce­dure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; instal­lation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.

Protection: computer protection; data protection; device pro­tection; display protection; error protection; hardware protec­tion; software protection; resource protection; security protec­tion; system protection; virus protection.

12. Озаглавьте каждый компонент текста и составьте не­большой реферат к нему (по вариантам).

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