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Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency.


1. What are the ways of foregrounding a morpheme?

2. How can root and affixational morphemes be emphasized?

3. What is the result of extension of a morphemic normative valency?

4. What are occasional words characterized by?

5. What does a morpheme gain in case of repetition?


I. State the function of the following cases of morphemic repetition:

1. She unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door.

2. It was there again, more clearly than before: the terrible expression of pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain.

3. We were sitting in the cheapest of all the cheap restaurants that cheapen that very cheap and noisy street, the Rue des Petits Champs in Paris.

4. Young Blight made a great show of fetching from his desk a long thin manuscript volume with a brown paper cover, and running his finger down the day’s appointments, murmuring: “Mr. Aggs, Mr. Baggs, Mr. Caggs, Mr. Daggs, Mr. Faggs, Mr. Gaggs, Mr. Boffin, Yes, sir quite right. You are a little before your time, sir.”

5. Yound Blight made another great show of changing the volume, taking up a pen, sucking it, dipping it, and running over previous entries before he wrote. As, “Mr. Alley, Mr. Balley, Mr. Calley, Mr. Dalley, Mr. Falley, Mr. Galley, Mr.Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And Mr. Boffin».

6. New scum, of course, has risen to take the place of the old, but the oldest scum, the thickest scum, and the scummiest scum has come from across the ocean.

7. At the time light rain or storm darked the fortress I watched the coming of dark from the high tower. The fortress with its rocky view showed its temporary darkling life of lanterns.

8. Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi’s people brought him home in triumph.

9. In a sudden burst of slipping, climbing, jingling, clinking and talking, they arrived at the convent door.

10. The procession then те-formed; the chairmen resumed their stations, and the march was recommenced.

II. Analyse the morphemic structure and the purpose of creating the occasional words in the following examples:

1. The girls could not take off their panama hats because this was not far from the school gates and hatlessness was an offence.

2. David, in his new grown-upness, had already a sort of authority.

3. That fact had all the unbelievableness of the sudden wound.

4. Suddenly he felt a horror of her otherness.

5. Lucy wasn't Willie's luck. Or his unluck either.

6. She was waiting for something to happen or for everything
to un-happen.

7. He didn't seem to think that that was very funny. But he didn't seem to think it was especially unfunny.

8. "You asked him».

"I'm un-asking him," the Boss replied.

9. He looked pretty good for a fifty-four-year-old former college athlete who for years had overindulged and un-derexercized.

10. She was a young and unbeautiful woman.



Лабораторная работа №3 (2 ч.)

Lexical level

Word and its semantic structure. Connotational Meanings of a Word.

The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning



1. What is the role of the context in meaning actualization?

2. What registers of communication are reflected in the styl­istic differentiation of the vocabulary?

3. Speak about general literary words illustrating your elaboration with examples from nineteenth- and twentieth- century prose.

4. What are the main subgroups of special literary words?

5. What do you know of terms, their structure, meaning, functions?

6. What are the fields of application of archaic words and forms?

7. Can you recognize general colloquial words in a literary text? Where do they mainly occur?

8. What are the main characterises of slang?

9. What do you know of professional and social jargonisms?


I. Speak about the difference between the contextual and the dictionary meanings of italicized words:

1. Mr. James Duffy lived in Chapelizod because he wished to live as.far as possible from the city of which he was the citizen and because he found all the other suburbs of Dublin mean, modem and pretentious.

2. He does all our insurance examining and they say he's some doctor.

3. He seemed prosperous, extremely married and unromantic.

4. "What do you think?" The question pops their heads up.

5. We tooled the car into the street and eased it into the rack of folks.

6. He inched the car forward.

7. "Of course it was considered a great chance for me, as he is so rich. And-and-we drifted into a sort of understanding - I suppose I should call it an engagement -"

"You may have drifted into it; but you will bounce out of it, my pettikins, if I am to have anything to do with it».

8. He sat with the strike committee for many hours in a smoky room and agonized over ways and means.

9. Betty loosed fresh tears.

10. When the food came, they wolfed it down rapidly.


II. State the type and fraction of literary words in the following examples:

1. "I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings».

2. "I am not in favour of this modern mania for turning bad people into good people at a moment's notice. As a man sows so let him reap».

3. Isolde the Slender had suitors in plenty to do her lightest hest. Feats of arms were done daily for her sake. To win her love suitors were willing to vow themselves to perdition. But Isolde the Slender was heedless of the court thus paid to her.

4. "He of the iron garment," said Daigety, entering, "is bounden unto you, MacEagh, and this noble lord shall be bounden also».

5. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle.

6. "Thou art the Man," cried Jabes, after a solemn pause, leaning over his cushion. "Seventy times didst thou gapingly contort thy visage-sevently times seven did I take council with my soul-Lo! this is human weakness: this also may be absolved. The first of the seventy first is come. Brethren-execute upon him the judgement written. Such honour have all His saints».


III. Think of the type of additional information about the speaker or communicative situation conveyed by the following general and special colloquial words:

1. "She's engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a foot, her favor».

"You know Brooklyn?"

"No. I was never there. But I had a buddy at Myer was from Brooklyn».

2. I didn’t t really do anything this time. Just pulled the dago out of the river. Like all dagos, he couldn't swim. Well the fellow was sort of grateful about it. Hung around like a dog. About six months later he died of fever. I was with him. Last thing, just as he was pegging out, he beckoned me and whispered some excited jargon about a secret.

3. "Here weare now," she cried, returning with the tray. "And don't look so miz».

4. "What’s the dif," he vented to know.

5. Going down the stairs he overheard one beanied freshman he knew talking to another. Did you see that black cat with the black whiskers who had those binocks in front of us? That's my comp prof».

6. "Don’t you intend to get married?" asked Eugene curiously. "I don't know," she replied, "I'd want to think about that. A woman-artist is in a d - of a position anyway," using the letter d only to indicate the word "devil".

Лабораторная работа №4 (2 ч.)

Lexical Stylistic Devices

Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet.


1. What lexical meanings of a word can you name? Which of them, in most cases, is the most important one?

2. What SDs are based on the use of the logical (denotational) meaning of a word?

3. What is a contextual meaning? How is it used in a SD?

4. What is the difference between the original and the hackneyed SDs?

5. What is a metaphor? What are its semantic, morphological, syntactical, structural, functional peculiarities?

6. What is a metonymy? Give a detailed description of the device.


I. Analyse the given cases of metaphor from all sides mentioned above-semantics, originality expressiveness, syntactic function, vividness and elaboration of the created image. Pay attention to the manner in which two objects (actions) are identified: with both named or only one — the metaphorized one — presented explicitly:

1. She looked down on Gopher Prairie. The snow stretching without break from street to devouring prairie beyond, wiped out the town's pretence of being a shelter. The houses were black specks on a white sheet.

2. And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were nothing but vast decorated pyramids; on the summit of each was stuck the upper half of a princess.

3. I was staring directly in front of me. at the back of the driver's neck, which was a relief map of boil scars.

4. She was handsome in a rather leonine way. Where this girl was a lioness, the other was a panther-lithe and quick.

5. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass.

6. Wisdom has reference only to the past. The future remains forever a unite field for mistakes. You can't know beforehand.

7. He felt the first watery eggs of sweat moistening the palms of his hands.

8. At the last moment before the windy collapse of the day, I myself took the road down.

9. The man stood there in the middle of the street with the deserted dawnlit boulevard telescoping out behind him.

10. Leaving Daniel to his fate, she was conscious of joy springing in her heart.

II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between die object named and the object implied, which they represent, also pay attention to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:

1. He went about her room, after his introduction, looking at her pictures, her bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from.

2. She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that way, that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome casually.

3. "Evelyn Clasgow, get up out of that chair this minute». The girl looked up from her book.

"What's the matter?"

"Your satin. The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back».

4. Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common theme,, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each face, on entering, had struggled to conceal dismay at seeing others there.

5. She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms.

6. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile.

7. The man looked a rather old forty-five, for he was already going grey.

8. The delicatessen owner was a jolly fifty.


Лабораторная работа №5. (2 ч.)

Syntactical stylistic devices

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