CLASSIFICATION OF AIR TRANSPORTATIONS
international transportation- пасажирські перевезення
territorial sign- територіальна ознака
non-stopover flight- прямий рейс
round trip- рейс туди й назад
onward journey- рейс з пересадкою
departure- відправления, виліт
point of destination- пункт призначення
Air transportation is the carriage of passengers, mail and freight by aircraft or helicopters. All air transportations are classified according to the territorial sign, to the objects of transportation and to the direction of transportation.
By the territorial division they are defined as domestic and international transportations. Domestic and international transportations are divided into scheduled and non-scheduled flights. Scheduled flights are performed due to the definite traffic schedule. Non-scheduled flights are operated according to special agreements or orders. On international routes they are known as charter flights. In summer or during holidays there may be additional flights to the schedule.
Depending upon the objects of transportation we define passenger, mail and freight transportations.
As to their direction the transportations differ as non-stopover flights, i.e. from the point of departure to the point of destination, round trips, i.e. from the point of departure to the point of destination and back to the starting point, and onward journey with the transfer from one airplane to another.
THE ROLE OF AIR TRANSPORT IN GENERAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Civil aviation, through a complex interaction with other economic sectors, benefits from and contributes to the economic development of nations. As incomes and production levels increase, the demand for aviation services expands; at the same time by fostering tourism, trade and employment, aviation is an important instrument in economic development. Air transport also provides intangible benefits by facilitating increased international contacts and understanding.
As economic activity increases, so does the extent of business travel, and with it the need for the speed and convenience of air transport services. Also as personal income and available leisure time increase, air tourism becomes increasingly popular.
Freight transport by all modes increases as interregional trade expands, and since the more dynamic sectors of industry often rely heavily on air transport for distribution of their products, the demand for air freight services tends to grow faster than the demand for surface transport.
Air transport widens the markets for many types of products and promotes the interchange among nations of ideas, professional experience and skill. Because of the increasingly important role of air transport in the economic development of countries and regions, it is important to take due account of the economic and social benefits which an efficient air transport system can offer, and to ensure that future air transport needs are properly assessed together with the associated financial and human resources that need to be provided.
A.. It seems obvious that in our time air transport becomes more and more popular. I would like to discuss the following: what are the reasons of the increasing role of air transport in modern life?
B. The answer seems to be very clear. It is expressed in the motto of many airlines: Speed, comfort and time economy.
A.. Right you are. But from the point of view of the economist what causes the growth of air traffic now?
B. The economic activity leads to the necessity of the expansion of trade relations which concern, as a rule, different regions or even different countries, situated at long distances.
A.. But passenger and freight services may be carried out by surface transport.
B. And it is so partly but in many cases the surface transport is not convenient or available (practicable) due to reasons of time and distances. Sometimes it is cheaper to carry by air than to build roads or railways.
A. And what about passenger carriages?
B. They also grow, both scheduled and non-scheduled, domestic and international. Air transport provides benefits by facilitating increased international contacts and understanding.
A. How does the air transport meet the demands of increased air transportations?
В. The air transport expands the network of its routes, offers different types of aircraft: wide-body, narrow-body, jet and prop planes, small and large ones, proposes different kinds of services, different fares and charges, a number of additional services related to air transportations. And their number and quality tend to grow.
A. And what could you tell me about the role of air transport for the development of social contacts, mutual understanding and peace?
B. I am sure that air transport being international by its nature, promotes the interchange of ideas among nations, professional skill and experience, it fosters tourism and economic contacts.
UNIT III. THE AIRPORT: PASSENGER HANDLING
Boarding pass: A special pass that shows that the passenger has completed the check-in process and can board his flight.
Check in: Passengers have to check in for a flight before boarding. This includes checking their reservations, weighing their baggage, checking their travel documents and so on.
Passenger Service Agent: An airline employee who provides ground services other than ticketing or making reservations for a passenger, usually at the airport or at a city terminal. Included are agents at the check-in counter as well as others who help the passengers with special problems both on departure and arrival.
Public Address System: A system using microphones and loudspeakers for making announcements to many people at the same time.
Runway: The strip on which planes land and take off.
Standby: A standby is a passenger without a reservation who is waiting at departure time to purchase an unsold seat on a flight.
Terminal: A place in the city where the passenger can check in for a
flight and get transportation to the airport.
VIP: A very important person. This common abbreviation is used for well-known or important passengers who receive special attention from the airlines. Many airports have special lounges or other facilities for VIPs.
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