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C. Chemical Technology of Organic Substances and Compounds





I am a first (second) - year student of the Ufa Oil University. I study at the faculty of "Chemical Technology of Organic Substances and Compounds". I am very fond of chemistry. I wish to become a specialist in petroleum refinery engineering. Students entering our faculty may specialize in various branches, such as organic synthesis, reception of rubber and other compounds of petroleum.

I wish to become a specialist in petroleum refinery engineering. Those who will choose the branch of petroleum and refining engineering will deal with designing and operating various plants with work at research institutes and laboratories. Besides practicing in the university laboratories the students of our department are to get some practical training at various refineries оf the country.

A refinery is a huge chemical enterprise. Distillation units are the heart of the refinery, every distillation unit consists of at least two distillation towers, a tube still, heat exchangers, pumps, etc.

One of the distillation towers is operated at atmospheric pressure, the other one is operated at vacuum. Pumps deliver preheated crude oil to the tube still where it is heated to 360 С at atmospheric pressure. Heated oil is then passed through the distillation tower. Lighter hydrocarbon vapors flown up the tower, are removed at different levels and condense in specials coolers.

Havier fractions are accumulated at the bottom as residuum which undergoes further distillation in the vacuum tower.

Within the refinery one may see many other installations for cracking, dehydrogenation, refining and alkalition huge storage vessel pumping stations, etc. All the units are remotely controlled from the single centre.

The whole process of obtaining valuable products from crude oil is called refining. As a result of refining a great variety of products is obtained, such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oils, fuels, coke, paraffin and gas for synthesis of petrochemicals and many others.

 

Topical Vocabulary

organic substances – органические вещества

compound – соединение

petroleum – нефть, нефтяной

refinery – очистительный (нефтеперерабатывающий) завод

to deal with – иметь дело с чем-либо

reception of rubber – получение резины

distillation unit – очистительное сооружение

to consist of – состоять из чего-либо

tower – башня

still – дистиллятор

pump – насос

pressure – давление

vacuum – вакуум, пониженное давление

to heat – нагревать

to pass through – проходить

hydrocarbon vapors – пары углеводорода

to remove – удалять, убирать

to condense – сгущать, конденсировать

havier fractions – более тяжелые фракции

to accumulate –скапливаться (накапливаться)

residuum - остаток

installation - установка

cracking – крекинг (тех.)

dehydrogenation – удаление водорода

storage vessel – емкость для хранения

remotely – на расстоянии

to obtain - получать

lubricating oil – смазочное масло

fuel – горючее, топливо

coke – кокс

 

Answer the questions:

  1. What faculty do you study at?
  2. What branches do the students of your faculty specialize in?
  3. Where do the students get their practical training?
  4. What is a refinery?
  5. What products are obtained in the process of oil refining?

 

Translate into English:

  1. Нефтеперерабатывающий завод – это огромное химическое предприятие.
  2. Студенты проходят практику на различных нефтеперерабатывающих заводах нашей страны.
  3. Одна из очистительных башен работает при атмосферном давлении.
  4. Нагретая нефть проходит через очистительную башню.
  5. В результате очистки получают большое количество продуктов.

 

    1. Environmental protection and rational use of nature resources

I'm a student of the Ufa Oil University. I wish to become a specialist in environmental protection and rational use of nature resources.

Environmental protection attracts keen and apprehensive attention all over the world now. Engineers can't stay apart when there is a dangerous evolution of the environment. The ecological crisis which takes place all around is the result and price which man has to pay for scientific and technological progress. At the same time it should be noted that ecological disbalance is determined by social, historical, natural and economic specifics, by the level of development in the economy, science and technology. And to go on, some economic managers are passive, negligent or simply reluctant to abide by the scientifically substantiated nature protection measure. So our task as engineers in ecology is to control their actions in this respect, first, and in more wide sense, to master modem scientific basis of links between enterprises and environment. In 5 years I'll become a full-fledged specialist and I'll try to do my best to care about protection of the atmospheric air, health, mineral wealth, forests, waters, land, animal and plant kingdoms.

After graduation from the University I can work in research and design offices, plants, practically in all fields of industry, and first of all, in chemical and petrochemical ones.

In order to become a highly qualified specialist I must work hard and perfectly know the fundamental engineering disciplines. I should have sound knowledge of special subjects such as ecology, ecological monitoring of environmental surroundings foundations of chemical toxicology; design and ecological analysis, economics, technology of industrial ecology.

 

Topical Vocabulary

environmental protection – защита окружающей среды

nature resources – природные ресурсы

to attract – привлекать

keen – сильный, глубокий

apprehensive – полный тревоги, понятливый

to stand apart – стоять в стороне

dangerous - опасный

to determine - определять

negligent - халатный, беспечный, равнодушный

reluctant – неохотный, делающий с неохотой

to abide by – оставаться верным, придерживаться чего-либо

to substantiate – доказывать. подтверждать

a full-fledged specialist – вполне подготовленный специалист

to care about – заботиться о

protection – защита

 

a highly qualified specialist – высококвалифицированный специалист

 

Answer the questions:

1. Why is there a dangerous evolution of the environment?

2. Which price has the man paid for scientific and technological progress?

3. What task do engineers in ecology have?

4. Where can you work after graduation from the university?

5. What special subjects do you study at the university?

 

Translate into English:

  1. Защита окружающей среды привлекает внимание всех прогрессивных людей во всем мире.
  2. Экологический кризис является результатом научно-технического прогресса человечества.
  3. Задача инженеров-экологов - усовершенствовать современную научную базу связи предприятия и окружающей среды.
  4. После окончания университета мы можем работать в научно-исследовательских и проектных институтах.
  5. Для того чтобы стать высококвалифицированным специалистом, необходимо в совершенстве знать основные инженерные дисциплины.

 

Learning languages

Language is the means of communication. The most common way of expressing an idea for people is to say it out loud. Language enables peo­ple to understand each other. At the same moment language can be a major barrier to understanding because there are thousands of different languages on our planet. From the earliest time, with the development of trade and exchange of ideas and techniques people saw the necessity of learning for­eign languages.

A language that is used as a means of communication by people of dif­ferent nations is called international. International language helps people of different nations to understand each other. Different epochs had different international languages. As a rule the existence of the language as an inter­national one is determined by political, cultural and economic development of the country which language is spoken as international.

In the first half of the 20-th century English started gradually to replace French as the international language. Moreover, in the second half of the 20-th century the United States became the world's dominant power. The USA had enormous political, eco­nomic and cultural influence on the Western world.

The transition from French to English as the international language was relatively easy because in many countries of the world people already knew English by that time. The British Empire brought English not only in the North America, but in the Australia, Africa, and India as well. The leadership of English in the modern world can be explained by numerous factors. Over 300 million people who live in Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America speak English is as a native tongue. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Can­ada, the South African Republic. It is also the second official language used in the former British and U.S. colonies. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organisation and other political organisa­tions. It is the language of literature, education, modern music, interna­tional tourism. English has become the key to international scientific, technological and commercial innovations of today.

The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in sci­ence and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge. The total knowl­edge of mankind doubles every seven years. English is needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange. With the acceptance of English as the international language of technology and commerce ap­pears a new generation of people who know why they are learning the lan­guage. Scientists and scholars need it to keep up with developments in their fields. Many students need English because their course of studies includes textbooks available only in English. Young people around the world need English in order to be able to use the Internet, communicate with their partners in other countries, understand films and songs. Specialist should know foreign languages to communicate with their colleagues at the conferences, through books and journals or the Internet.

Unfortunately, there is no universal or ideal method of learning lan­guages. Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to study gram­mar or learn new words. But it is well known that reading books in the origi­nal, listening to the BBC news, communicating with native speakers will help a lot. When learning a foreign language one learns the culture and his­tory of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.

Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today. In Russia people learn English to be able to exchange the latest infor­mation concerning science, technology and commerce with their colleagues; to be able to read foreign newspapers and books. Learning foreign languages is especially popular among young people. For them English is a way of ex­ploring a completely new world. A person who travels a lot also needs Eng­lish. Even in the countries where English is not an official language people will generally be able to understand it.

Basically English is an easier language to learn than almost any other language. Its grammar is not difficult at all.The richness of the vocabulary makes English a difficult language. Moreover, spelling and pronunciation make trouble. Another thing is that Russian and English are very different. It is not easy for a Russian to learn how to use definite and indefinite articles properly because there are no arti­cles in Russian.

Specialists have to know that kind of English which will help them to solve their professional problems. They need English for specific purposes. It has been established that there are important differences between, say, the English of commerce and that of engineering. That is why a great deal of English courses for specific groups of learners has been developed. Today specialist of different branches of sciences and professionals can learn English for their specific purposes. Nowadays there are English courses for Biology, Geography, Law, History, Mathematics, Medicine, Economy, and other sciences.

 

from the earliest time - с древнего времени

development - развитие

necessity - необходимость

means of communication – средство общения

gradually - постепенно

to replace – заменять, замещать

the dominant power – господствующая сила

the leadership – превосходство

the native tongue – родной язык

the United Nations Organisation - ООН

explosion – быстрый рост

to keep up – быть в курсе

available – доступный, наличный

boring - скучный

circumstances -обстоятельства

native speakers - носители языка

purpose – цель

urgent – крайне необходимый

to exchange – обменять, менять

to concern – касаться, иметь отношение

 

 

Answer the questions:

 

  1. Why do you learn English?
  2. What language is the internatonal one?
  3. Why did English become the international language?
  4. How can the leadership of English in the modern world be explained?
  5. Is it difficult for you to learn English?

 

Translate into English:

 

1. Язык, который используется как средство общения людьми разных национальностей, называется международным.

2. Английский язык нужен в качестве главного и самого эффективного средства обмена информации.

3. Молодые люди изучают английский язык, чтобы пользоваться Интернетом, понимать песни и фильмы.

4. Английский язык легче учить, чем какой-либо другой язык.

5. Изучая язык, мы узнаем культуру и историю страны изучаемого языка.

 

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

 

1 Андрианова Л.Н., Багрова Н.Ю., Ершова Э.В. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных технических вузов. – М.: Высшая школа, 2002. – 463 с.

2 Бгашев В.Н., Долматовская Е.Ю., Ручкина Г.А., Швыйковская Р.Н. Английский язык для машиностроительных специальностей вузов. – М.: Высшая школа, 1990. – 416 с.

3 Занина Е. 95 устных тем по английскому языку. – М.: Айрис Пресс, 2002. – 300 с.

4 Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., Иванова О.Д. Английский язык. Ответы на экзаменационные вопросы. – М.: Экзамен, 2005. – 94 с.

5 Полякова Т.Ю., Синявская Е.В., Тынкова О.И., Улановская Э.С. Английский язык для инженеров. – М.: Высшая школа, 2002. – 463 с.

6 Червякова Л.Д. Английский язык. Основные разговорные экзаменационные темы. – М.: Уникум-центр, 1997. – 244 с.

Содержание

Countries: geography, economy, politics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1State system of Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Bashkortostan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

State system of Bashkortostan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Sterlitamak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

The United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

UK Political System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

London’s Places of Interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

The United States of America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

US Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..23

Washington D.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Education in Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Higher education in Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

American Universities and Colleges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

The university I study at. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

My Specialty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Automation of Technological Processes and Productions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

Mechanical faculty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Chemical Technology of Organic Substances and Compounds. . . . . . . . . .41

Environmental protection and rational use of nature resources. . . . . . . . . .43

Learning languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

Список литературы . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

 

Рекомендовано к использованию в учебном процессе решением заседания УМК от г. протокол № .

 

 

Редактор Л.А.Матвеева

 

 

Подписано в печать 05.06.08 г. Бумага офсетная. Формат 60х84 1/16.

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Тираж 50 экз. Заказ

Издательство Уфимского государственного нефтяного технического университета

 

Адрес издательства:

450062, РБ, г.Уфа, ул.Космонавтов, 1.







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