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I. a) Read the following text about public speaking.

1. Aim of communicator must be clear. If you don't know where you
are going, any road will lead there — so says an old saying. But in a world
where there are many enticing side-paths — both to speaker and listen­
er, to writer and reader — we must be sure just what message we are
taking to what people. What responses do we Want? The kind of mes­
sage transported makes a difference. There are messages of information,
of persuasion, of suggested action and these are often combined.

2. There should be a clear picture of audience. Many communi­
cators ignore the background and educational level of prospective
members of the audience. People are not a mass.

3. Communication should not be too long. Brevity is not only the
soul of wit, it is also the essence of good communication. While prac­
tising, time your speech!

4. Reinforce the message. Every message that is read, listened to,
or viewed has some value. But it is the reinforced message that will
be remembered and acted upon.

A key idea must be repeated in varied settings, be exhibited from varied points of view, with different instruments of.communication. The old message in a new setting prevents boredom.

5. Since you must hold the attention of your listeners, it is also
important that your speech be well organized, so that the listeners
can follow the ideas very easily. After an interest-provoking introduc­
tion, the speaker may even give a short outline of his speech.

6. In speaking, as in writing an essay or composition, the most
important requirement for success is to have something interesting
that you want to say.


7. For most people the best method is to speak from a clear out­
line, that contains key-words to keep the flow steady, but leaves the
actual words of each sentence up to the speaker to form as he or she
proceeds, guided by the outline.

8. It is very important to look at different people in the audience
as you speak.

9. Some people use a formal style of speech, others prefer a more
casual one. If you're formal, don't be stiff, if you're casual, don't
slouch or wander.


10. Obviously, to succeed, a speaker must be easy to hear — be
audible. Be sure to speak to the back row.

11. If you come to the end of the point and need to refer briefly to
your notes, simply do it. You don't have to say "uh".


B) Add a few more helpful hints if you know any.

c) Make a speech on any topic you choose trying to use all the helpful hints
given above.

d) Answer the following questions:

I. Do you think public speaking is difficult? Can any intelli­
gent, well-informed person seize the attention of the audience?
2. What qualities must a good speaker possess? 3. Do you think
stage fright is a usual thing for any speaker? 4. Say what interest­
ed you most in any public speech you have heard. Was it a spirit­
ed speech, full of enthusiasm, or did it impress you because of its
good wording?

II. We often communicate today at meetings and conferences,
a) Read the following text.

Special attention should be paid to the role of the conference lead­er. His duties are: 1) to plan for the conference, 2) to encourage gen­eral participation, 3) to make frequent summaries, 4) to keep the discussion on the subject, 5) to make suggestions by means of ques­tions, 6) to arrange for each participant to receive a written summa­ry of the conference as soon as possible after it is over.

Summarizing is extremely important: the summary takes what is worthy of attention and holds it up for everyone. Failure to listen causes men to get away from the subject, and it is part of the lead­er's role to get them back again.

If the object in holding the conference is to get others' thoughts, the leader ought not to declare his own views until he has heard theirs. The conference leader can make suggestions by the method of asking questions. E.g., let's assume that you have a participant who is making generalisations. He makes a lot of them. You can ask, "Can you give us a specific example of that point? " To ask questions instead of making declarative statements is con­ductive to obtaining more participation. b) Learn the following conversational formulas and phrases which are common at conferences and public meetings:

Some more phrases for less formal occasions Would you care to comment on He хотите ли высказаться по that? этому поводу? Aren't you losing sight of some He упускаете ли вы из виду facts? некоторые факты? Is that a question or a speech? Это вопрос или выступление? Кажется, я неудачно выразил- I'm afraid I've put it clumsily. ся. Это очень трудно сформули- It's hard to put it into words. ровать.

The meeting is declared open.

The floor is open for nomina­tions.

We are to elect the chair/the president and the secretary of the meeting.

I move (make a motion) (that) nominations (should) be . closed.

I second the motion.

The floor is open for discussion.

Conduct the meeting, please.

N. will keep the minutes.

The following items are on the agenda; Item One... Item Two...

The agenda is carried (adopted, passed).

The floor is given to N. for the re­port.

There is a motion to fix the time limit at 10 minutes.

Submit questions in writing, please.

Who asks the floor?

May I speak on the point in question?

Разрешите считать собрание открытым.

Прошу выдвигать кандидату­ры.

Мы должны выбрать предсе­дателя и секретаря собра­ния.

Предлагаю прекратить выдви­жение кандидатур.

Поддерживаю предложение. Начинаем прения. Пожалуйста, велите собрание. Н. будет вести протокол. На повестке дня следующие вопросы: 1. ... 2. ...

Повестка дня принята.

Слово для доклада предостав­ляется Н.

Есть предложение установить регламент 10 минут.

Вопросы прошу подавать в письменном виде.

Кто просит слова?

Разрешите выступить (выска­заться) по данному вопро­су.

May I take the floor?

N. has the floor.

The motion is carried (adopted).

The motion is voted down (over­ruled).

Let's attend to the other items of the agenda.

I move that the discussion should be stopped owing to the late hour.

Hear! Hear!

I'm putting the matter to the vote.

Shall we draw up a resolution on the points discussed?

The resolution is passed unani-.

mously (by an overwhelming

majority). The majority has it.

Who's in favour of(against) it? Who's Abstained (from voting)?

The agenda is complete.

I declare the meeting closed.

Прошу слова. Слово предоставляется Н. Предложение принято. Предложение отклонено.

Есть предложение перейти к другим пунктам повестки. Я предлагаю прекратить пре­ния в связи с недостатком времени.

Правильно! Правильно!

Ставлю вопрос на голосова­ние.

Будем ли мы принимать резо­люцию по обсуждаемым вопросам?

Резолюция принята едино­гласно (подавляющим боль­шинством голосов).

Принято большинством голо­сов.

Кто за (против) ?

Кто воздержался (от голосова­ния) ?

Повестка дня исчерпана.

Объявляю собрание закры­тым.

He's put it very well. Any questions? Let me be the judge of that. It's for your information. Let it be a challenge to you. Do I make myself clear? Would you mind explaining? Let's go forward, shall we? Keep to the point.

Он очень хорошо сказал.

Есть вопросы?

Разрешите мне судить об этом.

Это для вашего сведения.

Подумайте над этим (воп­росом)

Моя мысль ясна?

Объясните, пожалуйста.

Давайте дальше.

Не отклоняйтесь.

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