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C) Use the given expressions in situations of your own.

d) Conduct a conference on* one of the following talking points:


1. How to improve teaching practice in the 5th year.

2. Should the methods and techniques of foreign-language teach­
ing be changed at school?

3. The pros and cons of school practice in the early stage.

III. a) Read the following text:

Recently I was teaching to a third-grade class. I threw out a num­ber of ideas and asked the students to write something for me with­out worrying about grades* or spelling. Most of the class got right away, but a few students looked puzzled, almost panicky. One girl said, "I want to write, but I just don't know how to get started."

That wasn't the first time one of my students had made that kind of statement or the first time I had thought about the problem of getting started. Many times during the years right after I graduated from College, I sat staring at blank paper wanting very much to write but unable or afraid to get started.

At that moment I had an idea. I decided that after the rest of the class was through with writing I would talk with all the children about how people get themselves ready to work. This would not be intend­ed as a way of criticising the students having trouble, but rather a way of getting the students to think about the rituals people develop to help themselves concentrate and do serious work.

So that I wouldn't embarrass anybody, I decided to start talking about my own problems with getting started and the rituals I've de­veloped to overcome them. I explained that each morning before I write I go to the phonograph and decide what record I want to hear. The record I choose sets the tone and rhythm for my work.

After putting on music, I pace a bit, think about what I'm going to write, sit down slowly at my desk, adjust my pad of yellow lined paper to just the right angle, fiddle with my fountain-pen a bit, look off into space and then begin to write as if I've woken up from a trance. I write for about an hour and a half a day, no more*

I explained that I'm a steady writer,* but that a good friend of mine who's also a writer works in a thoroughly different manner.

After giving these examples, I asked if any student had ever had problems beginning to work and had come up with a personal solu­tion. I was greeted with silence, and just when I was beginning to think that-the students didn't understand what I was talking about, one girl raised her hand. She said, "I heard an ice skater on TV the other night. She said she has to sit alone in a corner and think for a while before she can skate. Is that the kind of thing you mean?"

One boy mentioned that he liked to close his eyes and shut everything out before he got to work. The girl who had said she didn't know how to begin writing said that she was a bit like me. She said she liked to walk around and think before getting to work.

It was becoming clear that the students were excited by thinking of work habits as a personal matter. From this discussion I realized that the students had come to think of work as something that had no personal style. For the most part, they considered it something one did because others insisted on it, rather than something that enriched them.

Consequently, the students and I took a detour from writing and spent a lot of time looking at people's working habits.

At this point, I decided the children and I were ready to take the topic of work habits further and develop the whole curriculum around the theme of people working. There is no limit to the possi­bilities of bringing the real and rewarding world of personal, non-mechanical work into classroom.

b) Answer the following questions:

1. What is the message of the article? 2. Does the author think work habits are a personal matter? What do you think on the point?


* AE: marks. 10

The author is both a classroom teacher and a writer.

3. Do you think the author managed to communicate his ideas to the class effectively? If so, say how he did it.

C) Discuss the article in pairs.

d) Give suggestions of your own how to conduct an interesting and effective
lesson of English (in any stage) that would involve all the members of the class in
work. Describe a few techniques that would maintain interest.

IV. Select a picture or series of pictures that you believe would be essential to
teach a specific aspect of English at school to make it both instructive and enter­
taining. Be ready to tell the class how you would use it.

V. Make a round-table talk to discuss the problems raised in this section.

Key Words and Expressions:to get started; to follow through; to get oneself ready to work; to overcome smth.; to come up with a per­sonal solution; to have a personal style; to have feedback from the class; clear aims and objectives; in (at) the primary/intermediate/ advanced stage; to stimulate thinking; active response on the part of the class, etc.



By James Hilton


James Hilton (1900—1954) was born in England and educated at Cambridge where he wrote his first novel, "Catherine Herself". His first big success came with the publication of "Good-bye, Mr. Chips". It was dramatized and filmed. "Lost Horizon" published in 1933 was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. Some of his other books are: "We Are Not Alone" (1937), "Random Harvest" (1941), "Nothing So Strange" (1947), "Time and Time Again" (1953). A resident of the United States since 1935, he died in Long Beach, California.

(Kenneth Speed, B.A., a young Master at Millstead Boarding School for boys, was warned that the first night he takes prep1 he might be ragged2 as it was a sort of school tradition that they always tried to rag teachers that night.

Preparation for the whole school was held in Millstead Big Hall, a huge vault-like chamber in which desks were ranged in long rows and where Master in charge sat on high at a desk on a raised dais.)

Speed was very nervous as he took his seat on the dais at five to seven and watched the school straggling to their places. They came in quietly enough, but there was an atmosphere of subdued expect­ancy of which Speed was keenly conscious; the boys stared about them, grinned at each other, seemed as if they were waiting for some­thing to happen. Nevertheless, at five past seven all was perfectly quiet and orderly, although it was obvious that little work was being done. Speed felt rather as if he were sitting on a powder-magazine, and there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break.

At about a quarter past seven a banging of desk-lids began at the far end of the hall.

He stood up and said, quietly, but in a voice that carried well: "I don't want to be hard on anybody, so I'd better warn you that I shall punish any disorderliness very severely."

There was some tittering, and for a moment or so he wondered if he had made a fool of himself.

Then he saw a bright, rather pleasant-faced boy in one of the back rows deliberately raise a desk-lid and drop it with a bang. Speed con­sulted the map of the desks that was in front of him and by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name to be Worsley. He wondered

how the name should be pronounced — whether the first syllable should rhyme with "purse" or with "horse". Instinct in him, that un­canny feeling for atmosphere, embarked him on an outrageously bold adventure, nothing less than a piece of facetiousness, the most dan­gerous weapon in a new Master's armoury, and the one most of all like­ly to recoil on himself. He stood up again and said: "Wawsley or Wurss-ley — however you call yourself — you have a hundred lines!"3

The whole assembly roared with laughter. That frightened him a little. Supposing they did not stop laughing! He remembered an occasion at his own school when a class had ragged a certain Master very neatly and subtly by pretending to go off into hysterics of laugh­ter at some trifling witticism of his.

When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hun­dred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk."

Again the assembly laughed, but there was no mistaking the re­spectfulness that underlay the merriment. And, as a matter of fact, the rest of the evening passed entirely without incident. After the others had gone, Worsley came up to the dais accompanied by the pleasant-faced boy who dropped the desk-lid. Worsley pleaded for the remission of his hundred lines, and the other boy supported him urging that it was he and not Worsley who had dropped the lid.

"And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pio­neers."

They went away laughing.

That night Speed went into Clanwell's room for a chat before bedtime, and Clanwell congratulated him fulsomely on his success­ful passage of the ordeal.4 "As a matter of fact," Clanwell said, "I happen to know that they'd prepared a star benefit performance for you but that you put them off, somehow, from the beginning. The

prefects5 get to hear of these things and they tell me. Of course, I don't take any official notice of them. It doesn't matter to me what plans people make — it's when any are put into execution that I wake up. Anyhow, you may be interested to know that the members of School House6 subscribed over fifteen shillings to purchase fireworks which they were going to let off after the switches had been turned off! Alas for fond hopes ruined!"

Clanwell and Speed leaned back in their armchairs and roared with laughter.


1. to take prep:to be in charge of preparation of lessons in a reg­
ular period at school.

2. to rag(coll): to play practical jokes on; treat roughly.

3. You have a hundred lines:Copying text is a common penalty
for misbehaviour in English and American schools.

4. ordeal:in early times, a method of deciding a person's guilt or in­
nocence by his capacity to pass some test such as passing through fire,
taking poison, putting his hand in boiling water, or fighting his accus­
er. It was thought that god would protect the innocent person (to sub­
mit to the ordeal by battle; ordeal by fire, etc.). Now it means any severe
test of character or endurance, as to passthrough a terribleordeal.Eg. It
was his turn to speak now, so he braced himself up for the ordeal.

5. prefects:in some English schools senior boys to whom a cer­
tain amount of authority is given.

6. House:(here) a boarding-house attached to and forming a por­
tion of a public school. Also, the company of boys lodged in such
a house. E.g. I'm as proud of the house as any one. I believe it's the
best house in the school, out-and-out.

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