Сдам Сам

ПОЛЕЗНОЕ


КАТЕГОРИИ







В. Д. Аракин, Г. Б. Антрушина, Е. П. Кириллова, Э. Л. Левина, С. И. Петрушин, Т. С. Самохина





ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ


 


Авторы:

В. Д. Аракин, Г. Б. Антрушина, Е. П. Кириллова, Э. Л. Левина, С. И. Петрушин, Т. С. Самохина

Рецензент:

кафедра английского языка Самарского

государственного педагогического института

(зав. кафедрой доц. Г.И. Чернышева)

Практический курс английского языка. 5 курс: Учеб. для П69 высш. учеб, заведений / Под ред. В. Д. Аракина. — 4-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2003. - 232 с.

ISBN 5-691-00399-2.

Учебник состоит из 7 разделов, каждый из которых содержит тек­стовые и вокабулярные задания, а также задания, направленные на развитие коммуникативных навыков. В учебнике реализуется ус­тановка на развитие профессиональных знаний и умений будущего учителя.

В 4-м издании полностью переработаны все вторые части разде­лов, направленные на развитие навыков неподготовленной устной речи.

ББК 81.2Англ-923

© Коллектив авторов, 2000 © Гуманитарный издательский

центр «ВЛАДОС», 2000 © Серийное оформление обложки. Гумпнитарный издательский центр «ВЛАДОС», 2000

ISBN 5-691-00339-2


Настоящий учебник предназначается для студентов V курса факультетов и отделений английского языка педагогических институтов. Учебник ставит своими целями:

—дальнейшее развитие творческих умений и навыков устной и письмен­
ной речи, а также умения углубленно читать, точно и всесторонне понимая
оригинальный английский текст любой трудности;

—дальнейшее расширение словарного запаса студентов и интенсивная
активизация лексических единиц, накопленных на предыдущих этапах обу­
чения;

—развитие навыков реферирования и перевода с английского языка на
русский;

—дальнейшая тренировка и коррекция навыков произношения;

—совершенствование профессиональных знаний и умений будущего учи­
теля, в том числе навыков педагогического общения;



—развитие дискуссионных навыков и умений;

—развитие-коммуникативных навыков.

Учебник состоит из Основного курса (Essential Course) и Приложения (Appendix). Основной курс (авторы В. Д. Аракин, Г. Б. Антрушина, Е. П. Ки­риллова, Э. Л. Левина, С. И. Петрушин, Т. С. Самохина) состоит из 7 уроков, каждый из которых делится на две части и имеет следующую структуру: текст (отрывок из произведения или отдельный рассказ английского или американ­ского автора), сопровождающийся краткими сведениями об авторе и — в боль­шинстве случаев — комментарием; словарь активных лексических единиц с дефинициями и иллюстративными примерами (при отборе активных лекси­ческих единиц авторы пользовались материалами современных частотных сло­варей); список активных словосочетаний; фонетические тренировочные уп­ражнения; упражнения на интерпретационный анализ текста; упражнения на отработку и закрепление активного вокабуляра; речевые упражнения; зада­ние на стилистический анализ текста, профессионально-направленные упраж- нения и задания.

В настоящем издании полностью переработаны вторые части всех уроков ("Conversation and Discussion"). При их составлении авторы опирались на со­временную методику преподавания иностранного языка — коммуникативное обучение языку. Исходя из требований этой методики, мы сочли необходимым включить в эту часть максимальное количество заданий на аргументирован­ное монологическое высказывание, диалоги с обсуждением и отстаиванием противоположных точек зрения, дискуссии по проблемным вопросам и по принципу «за — против», круглые столы, ролевые игры.

Вторая часть каждого урока состоит из четырех разделов. В первом из них обычно дается текст информативного характера. В заданиях к нему студентам предлагается выделить основные идеи и аргументацию автора; наметить ос­новные смысловые вехи текста. Второй раздел имеет коммуникативную на­правленность с определенной целевой установкой: реакция на чужое мнение, расспросы, убеждение собеседника, выражение согласия — несогласия, одрб-


рения — неодобрения и т. п. Вводятся соответствующие разговорные клише. Третий раздел строится вокруг текста, содержащего спорные положения. За­дания направлены на стимулирование дискуссии. В четвертом разделе пред­лагаются материалы и тематика для обобщающих дискуссий и круглых столов по данной теме.

В приложение входят проблемные педагогические задачи (автор Е. П. Ки­риллова).

Методические указания

1. На каждый урок требуется 20 — 24 часа аудиторного времени при вы­
полнении всех упражнений (письменные упражнения выполняются учащи­
мися во внеаудиторное время и проверяются в аудитории выборочно). При
ограниченном количестве времени материал может быть использован выбо­
рочно: например, можно предложить студентам во внеаудиторное время про­
читать текст, а потом обсудить его в аудитории, использовав соответствую­
щие речевые упражнения. Непройденные тексты хорошо использовать для
«неподготовленного» чтения, перевода, реферирования в период подготов­
ки к экзаменам.

2. Большой объем некоторых текстов определяется спецификой заключи­
тельного этапа — достаточно высоким уровнем знаний студентов и, соответ­
ственно, высоким уровнем предъявляемых к ним требований. Работа над тек­
стом в аудитории предполагает чтение, выборочный перевод и анализ текста
(«интерпретацию текста») по схеме, предлагаемой в упражнении «Read the text

and consider its following aspects». Интерпретационный анализ имеет своей целью привлечь внимание студентов к тем частям текста, которые представ­ляют наибольший интерес с точки зрения раскрытия содержания через опре­деленный набор языковых и художественных средств. Обеспечивая более глубокое и неформальное понимание текста, интерпретационный анализ со­здает надежную опору для заключительного, обобщающего обсуждения его стилистических особенностей (см. упражнение "Reread the text to speak on the following points of style").

3. Как уже было сказано, авторы считают основной целью работы над язы­
ком на V курсе тренировку и дальнейшее развитие творческих умений и на­
выков устной речи.

4. Тексты и упражнения располагаются по принципу нарастания трудно­
стей, что делает возможным при выборочной работе использовать материал,
наиболее соответствующий уровню знаний студентов.

5. В упражнениях с профессиональной направленностью, отталкиваясь от
тематики основного урока, преподаватель сможет направить внимание студен­
тов на ряд важных в практике преподавания видов работы: диагностику и про­
филактику фонетических ошибок, подбор справочного материала ("Informa­
tion Files") и наглядных пособий по теме, адаптацию материала для школьно­
го уровня, методический анализ упражнений и т. д.

Сюда же включены задания на подготовку «микроуроков». К каждой теме дается список необходимых выражений «классного обихода». (Схему прове-


дения «микроуроков» см.: «Практический курс английского языка для 4 кур­са педагогических вузов» В. Д. Аракина и др.).

6. В разделе "Insight into Profession" предлагается материал для бесед на различные профессиональные темы с методическим, педагогическим и линг­вистическим уклоном, не связанные с темой урока. Раздел начинается с пере­числения основных проблем, своего рода предваряющих тезисов, которые должны стать предметом обсуждения. Вопросы для обсуждения носят про­блемный характер и могут быть использованы преподавателем для организа­ции дискуссий самого различного характера («пресс-конференции», «научно-методические конференции по обмену опытом» и т. д.). Каждый раздел рас­считан на два часа аудиторного времени с условием подготовки студентами ма­териала как домашнего задания.

Авторы


INSIGHT INTO PROFESSION

COMMUNICATION: THIS EVER NEW OLD PROBLEM Talking Points:

1. Human relations can safely be said to be a basic human neces­
sity. In most cases it is regarded as one of the social or spiritual needs
of the individual. But how to communicate effectively?

2. The profession of a teacher obviously implies the ability to
speak in public — to students, parents, etc. Do you think this ability
is inborn or one can acquire it through training?

UNIT ONE

TEXT ONE THE PASSIONATE YEAR

By James Hilton

(Fragments)

James Hilton (1900—1954) was born in England and educated at Cambridge where he wrote his first novel, "Catherine Herself". His first big success came with the publication of "Good-bye, Mr. Chips". It was dramatized and filmed. "Lost Horizon" published in 1933 was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. Some of his other books are: "We Are Not Alone" (1937), "Random Harvest" (1941), "Nothing So Strange" (1947), "Time and Time Again" (1953). A resident of the United States since 1935, he died in Long Beach, California.

(Kenneth Speed, B.A., a young Master at Millstead Boarding School for boys, was warned that the first night he takes prep1 he might be ragged2 as it was a sort of school tradition that they always tried to rag teachers that night.

Preparation for the whole school was held in Millstead Big Hall, a huge vault-like chamber in which desks were ranged in long rows and where Master in charge sat on high at a desk on a raised dais.)

Speed was very nervous as he took his seat on the dais at five to seven and watched the school straggling to their places. They came in quietly enough, but there was an atmosphere of subdued expect­ancy of which Speed was keenly conscious; the boys stared about them, grinned at each other, seemed as if they were waiting for some­thing to happen. Nevertheless, at five past seven all was perfectly quiet and orderly, although it was obvious that little work was being done. Speed felt rather as if he were sitting on a powder-magazine, and there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break.

At about a quarter past seven a banging of desk-lids began at the far end of the hall.

He stood up and said, quietly, but in a voice that carried well: "I don't want to be hard on anybody, so I'd better warn you that I shall punish any disorderliness very severely."

There was some tittering, and for a moment or so he wondered if he had made a fool of himself.

Then he saw a bright, rather pleasant-faced boy in one of the back rows deliberately raise a desk-lid and drop it with a bang. Speed con­sulted the map of the desks that was in front of him and by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name to be Worsley. He wondered


how the name should be pronounced — whether the first syllable should rhyme with "purse" or with "horse". Instinct in him, that un­canny feeling for atmosphere, embarked him on an outrageously bold adventure, nothing less than a piece of facetiousness, the most dan­gerous weapon in a new Master's armoury, and the one most of all like­ly to recoil on himself. He stood up again and said: "Wawsley or Wurss-ley — however you call yourself — you have a hundred lines!"3

The whole assembly roared with laughter. That frightened him a little. Supposing they did not stop laughing! He remembered an occasion at his own school when a class had ragged a certain Master very neatly and subtly by pretending to go off into hysterics of laugh­ter at some trifling witticism of his.

When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hun­dred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk."

Again the assembly laughed, but there was no mistaking the re­spectfulness that underlay the merriment. And, as a matter of fact, the rest of the evening passed entirely without incident. After the others had gone, Worsley came up to the dais accompanied by the pleasant-faced boy who dropped the desk-lid. Worsley pleaded for the remission of his hundred lines, and the other boy supported him urging that it was he and not Worsley who had dropped the lid.

"And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pio­neers."

They went away laughing.

That night Speed went into Clanwell's room for a chat before bedtime, and Clanwell congratulated him fulsomely on his success­ful passage of the ordeal.4 "As a matter of fact," Clanwell said, "I happen to know that they'd prepared a star benefit performance for you but that you put them off, somehow, from the beginning. The


prefects5 get to hear of these things and they tell me. Of course, I don't take any official notice of them. It doesn't matter to me what plans people make — it's when any are put into execution that I wake up. Anyhow, you may be interested to know that the members of School House6 subscribed over fifteen shillings to purchase fireworks which they were going to let off after the switches had been turned off! Alas for fond hopes ruined!"

Clanwell and Speed leaned back in their armchairs and roared with laughter.

Commentary

1. to take prep:to be in charge of preparation of lessons in a reg­
ular period at school.

2. to rag(coll): to play practical jokes on; treat roughly.

3. You have a hundred lines:Copying text is a common penalty
for misbehaviour in English and American schools.

4. ordeal:in early times, a method of deciding a person's guilt or in­
nocence by his capacity to pass some test such as passing through fire,
taking poison, putting his hand in boiling water, or fighting his accus­
er. It was thought that god would protect the innocent person (to sub­
mit to the ordeal by battle; ordeal by fire, etc.). Now it means any severe
test of character or endurance, as to passthrough a terribleordeal.Eg. It
was his turn to speak now, so he braced himself up for the ordeal.

5. prefects:in some English schools senior boys to whom a cer­
tain amount of authority is given.

6. House:(here) a boarding-house attached to and forming a por­
tion of a public school. Also, the company of boys lodged in such
a house. E.g. I'm as proud of the house as any one. I believe it's the
best house in the school, out-and-out.

EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text One and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pro­
nunciation:

vaultlike, dais, atmosphere, powder-magazine, disorderliness, pleasant-faced, deliberately, uncanny, outrageously, facetiousness, armoury, assembly, subtly, clever-looking, impudently, penalty, congratulate, fulsomely, ordeal, prefect, execution

3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to assimilation and
the linking "r":

on the dais, watched the school straggling to their places; but there was an atmosphere of subdued expectancy; the boys stared about them; at the far end of the hallpconsulted the map; by counting down the rows discovered the boy' s name; when the laughter subsided; in the front row but one; again the assembly laughed; who dropped the desk-lid; but that you put them off; and they tell me; in their armchairs

4. Read the passage beginning with "Speed was very nervous..." till "...he was
eager for the storm to break"; concentrate your attention on weak forms and the
rhythm.

5. While reading the following dialogues mind the intonation of the stimuli and
responses and convey proper attitudes according to the author's directions given
in the text:

A. When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rese up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hun­dred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk."


В. "And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pioneers.''

They went away laughing.

Give a summary of Text One.

19. Relate the incident that took place during the preps at Millstead from the
point of view of: a) Speed who tells it to his colleague Clanwell in a facetious way;
convey proper attitudes by using adequate intonation means; b) one of the boys
who took part in the ragging of the new teacher; the boy is excited and somewhat
frightened; use proper intonation means; c) Clanwell whose attitude to the whole
incident is disapproving.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEACHER?

Topical Vocabulary

academica (- work/achievements/assessments)

assess v (to - academic achievements; to be -ed by the students)


authority л; authoritarianл, а (- basis/approach/posture)

availablea (to be - for personal contact; to be - to children; to be -in a private capacity)

backgroundл (child's/social/family/home -)

сагел (- and concern)

caringa (- attitude)

climateл (supportive ~; - of trust and support; to create -)

developmentл (academic/social/personal - of a pupil)

distanceл (social -)

encouragementn; syn. motivation

functionv (to - happily/effectively); syn. operate

guidev; syn. counsel, advise

impartv (to - one's knowledge)

individualл, а (- approach)

individualize v

individuallyadv (to approach each student -)

interchange, n

interviewл (- with parents/career advisers)

peerл (- group)

pressureл (to operate under ~; - on teachers)

problemл (to present a -; a - child, to anticipate a -; to respond to pupils' -s)

relationshipл (teacher-student -; to work on -; to maintain -; social -; to build up -)

skillл (trade/social/study -s)

statusл (high, low -)

teachv (to - effectively);

teacherл (sympathetic/exacting/friendly/open/approachable/ conscientious/confident/knowledgeable/strict/efficient/tact­ful-)

out-of-class(- activities) patienceл (endless/eternal -)

I. 1. Read the following article:

Naughty — or Inquisitive?

The inherent naughtiness of children! Heavens above, do teach­ers really believe such rubbish? Evidently so, for the phrase comes from a letter you print and Mr. Tomkins, a head, no less, writing a two-page article, says it is "in the nature of children to be mischie­vous." Do they really think that the child is already naughty or mischievous as it emerges from the womb? I doubt it. What they probably mean is the inherent inquisitiveness of children which pro­vides the fundamental drive to learning. Part of this learning is de­rived from the testing-out of adults with whom the child comes into contact, and unfortunately the pressures of society often make adults impatient or selfish or even, occasionally, sadistic in their respons­es. Inquisitiveness becomes frustrated or distorted into naughtiness (in the eyes of adults, though not necessarily those of the child), The prime function of school should be to nurture, and where necessary, restore inquisitiveness to its fullest vigour; but how can we achieve that with woolly formulations about "naughtiness" ?

Actually, I think that such woolliness is often the product of teach­ers' refusal to face up squarely to the basic question relevent to disci­pline in London schools: namely, "to cane or not to cane? " So long as the cane is available, even if only as a last resort, to extract obedience through fear, discussion of alternative policies must remain ham­strung. The learning of complex skills, leadership and the ability to use initiative is not taught through the cane. Caning has ceased even in the Navy's boy training establishments — they found that corporal punishment did not work. Yet some teachers — including correspon­dents to "Contact" — want it restored in London's junior schools. Maybe someone would explain to me why London teachers lag some years behind our military men in this matter, and 190 years behind the Poles, who abolished corporal punishment in schools in 1783.

Charles Gibson


 

С самого первого урока

Нина Сергеевна чувствовала, что терпит поражение. Снача­ла она старалась, как умела, ничем не выдавать себя. Первой выходила из класса: быстрой, независимой походкой направля­лась к учительской. А дома долго не могла заснуть, мучительно искала причину...

Она недавно окончила педагогический институт. Предмет свой знала отлично. Всегда считалась первой в группе по мето­дике преподавания. И теперь вот... не справлялась с классом.

Бывали у нее на уроках, конечно, и завуч школы, и директор, но в их присутствии ребята сидели тихо. Внешне все выглядело благополучно.

Молодой учительнице казалось, что она любит детей. А ребя­та ее не приняли.. В первые дни как будто все было хорошо, а потом классы стали похожими на муравейники. На учительни­цу ребята просто не обращали внимания, и она ничего не могла поделать. Попытки овладеть классом приводили лишь к больше­му обострению отношений с учениками. Росло взаимное отчуж­дение, то и дело вспыхивали конфликты. В сердце учительницы поселилось отчаяние. А потом пришел день, когда ей стало как-то все безразлично...

Случай с учительницей К. далеко не единичен. Многие пре­подаватели, хорошо знающие свой предмет, не находят правиль­ного тона в общении с детьми, а потому и не испытывают радо­сти от своей работы. Вина это их или беда?

Иной учитель считает, что самое главное для него — это до­биться в классе дисциплины и порядка. И забывает о том, что методы, с помощью которых они устанавливаются, имеют не


меньшее воспитательное значение, чем сама дисциплина. Мож­но достичь видимости относительного благополучия окриком, угрозой. Некоторые учителя при этом самодовольно приговари­вают; "У меня не пикнут!". Но вряд ли такой педагог пользуется искренним уважением и любовью ребят.

Хочется заранее отвести возможные обвинения в том, что противопоставляется опора на интерес и вдохновение учителя требованию. Ничуть. Нужно и то и другое. Начни Нина Сергеев­на с продуманных, четких инструктивных требований, направ­ленных на создание работоспособного коллектива в классе, — и очень скоро рабочая атмосфера на уроке стала бы привычной. Вот тогда-то она смогла бы развернуть и свое дарование, увлечь ребят творческим порывом и пробудить интерес к знанию...

s

b) Discuss the text in pairs. (The talking point: "How important is the teach­
er's understanding of his relationships with the class?")

c) Answer the following questions:

1. Do you think Nina Sergeyevna's main fault was her failure to keep order in class? Or was it something else? 2. What do you think about different ways of maintaining discipline in class, such as rap­ping knuckles on the table, shouting, etc. ? Do they have any effect? 3. Was it difficult for you to maintain good discipline at your lessons during your teaching practice? 4. What measures did you take if somebody tried to undermine the discipline?

d) Make up short monologues dealing with discipline problems in a second­
ary school. Say how you think the teacher should fight against truancy, tardiness,
rowdyism, "I-don't-care attitude", etc.

UNIT TWO

TEXT TWO THE ESCAPE

By Somerset Maugham

W. Somerset Maugham, a famous English writer, was born in 1874 in Paris. He received his medical degree, but he never practised medicine; the ambition to write dominated his entire life. In 1897 "Liza of Lambeth", Maugham's first novel, ap­peared. It had no success. For the next ten years Maugham wrote and starved. He turned out a steady stream of plays and novels none of which excited much atten­tion. His luck changed in 1907. In that year "Lady Frederic", a comedy of manners, was produced in London. It had a bright, fashionable success. By and by, Maugham became internationally celebrated; his plays were performed all over the world. Now independent and well able to enjoy life Maugham began to travel. He came to know Europe thoroughly and spent long periods in the United States, the South Seas and China. His favourite country was Spain ("The Land of the Blessed Virgin" and "Don Fernando"). In 1915 Maugham published a novel that had been in preparation for many years. Called "Of Human Bondage" it was received by critics with great re­spect. Over the years, it has become a modern classic. Many popular successes fol­lowed its publication: "Ashenden", "Moon and Sixpence", "Cakes and Ale", etc. He died in 1965.

I have always been convinced that if a woman Once made up her mind to marry a man nothing but instant flight could save him. Not always that; for once a friend of mine, seeing the inevitable loom menacingly before him, took ship from a certain port (with a tooth­brush for all his luggage, so conscious was he of his danger and the necessity for immediate action) and spent a year travelling round the world; but when, thinking himself safe (women are fickle, he said, and in twelve months she will have forgotten all about me), he landed at the selfsame port the first person he saw gaily waving to him from the quay was the little lady from whom he had fled. I have only once known a man who in such circumstances managed to extricate him­self. His name was Roger Charing. He was no longer young when he fell in love with Ruth Barlow and he had had sufficient experience to make him careful; but Ruth Barlow had a gift (or should I call it a quality?) that renders most men defenceless, and it was this that dis­possessed Roger of his common sense, his prudence and his worldy wisdom. He went down like a row of ninepins.1 This was the gift of pathos. Mrs. Barlow, for she was twice a widow, had splendid dark eyes and they were the most moving I ever saw; they seemed to be


ever on the point of filling with tears; they suggested that the world was too much for her, and you felt that, poor dear, her sufferings had been more than anyone should be asked to bear. If, like Roger Char­ing, you were a strong, hefty fellow with plenty of money, it was al­most inevitable that you should say to yourself: I must stand between the hazards of life and this helpless little thing, or, how wonderful it would be to take the sadness out of those big and lovely eyes! I gath­ered from Roger that everyone had treated Mrs. Barlow very badly. She was apparently one of those unfortunate persons with whom nothing by any chance goes right. If she married a husband he beat her; if she employed a broker he cheated her; if she engaged a cook she drank. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die.2

When Roger told me that he had at last persuaded her to marry him, I wished him joy.

"I hope you'll be good friends," he said. "She's a little afraid of you, you know; she thinks you're callous."

"Upon my word I don't know why she should think that."

"You do like her, don't you?"

"Very much."

"She's had a rotten time, poor dear. I feel so dreadfully sorry for her."

"Yes, "I said.

I couldn't say less. I knew she was stupid and I thought she was scheming. My own belief was that she was as hard as nails.

The first time I met her we had played bridge together and when she was my partner she twice trumped my best card. I behaved like an angel, but I confess that I thought if the tears were going to well up into anybody's eyes they should have been mine rather than hers. And when, having by the end of the evening lost a good deal of mon­ey to me, she said she would send me a cheque and never did, I could not but think that I and not she should have worn a pathetic expres­sion when next we met.

Roger introduced her to his friends. He gave her lovely jewels. He took her here, there, and everywhere. Their marriage was announced for the immediate future. Roger was very happy. He was committing a good action and at the same time doing something he had very much a mind to. It is an uncommon situation and it is not surprising if he was a trifle more pleased with himself than was altogether becoming.

Then, on a sudden,' he fell out of love. I do not know why. It could hardly have been that he grew tired of her conversation, for she had never had any conversation. Perhaps it was merely that this pathetic


look of hers ceased to wring his heart-strings. His eyes were opened and he was once more the srewd man of the world he had been. He became acutely conscious that Ruth Barlow had made up her mind to marry him and he swore a solemn oath that nothing would induce him to marry Ruth Barlow. But he was in a quandary. Now that he was in possession of his senses he saw with clearness the sort of woman he had to deal with and he was aware that, if he asked her to release him, she would (in her appealing way) assess her wound­ed feelings at an immoderately high figure.3 Besides, it is always awkward for a man to jilt a woman. People are apt to think he has behaved badly.

Roger kept his own counsel. He gave neither by word nor gesture an indication that his feelings towards Ruth Barlow had changed. He remained attentive to all her wishes; he took her to dine at restaurants, they went to the play together, he sent her flowers; he was sympathet­ic and charming. They had made up their minds that they would be married as soon as they found a house that suited them, for he lived in chambers and she in furnished rooms; and they set. about looking at desirable residences. The agents sent Roger orders to view and he took Ruth to see a number of houses. It was very hard to find anything that was quite satisfactory. Roger applied to more agents. They visited house after house. They went over them thoroughly, examining them from the cellars in the basement to the attics under the roof. Sometimes they were too large and sometimes they were too small, sometimes they were too far from the centre of things and sometimes they were too close; sometimes they were too expensive and sometimes they wanted too many repairs; sometimes they were too stuffy and some­times they were too airy; sometimes they were too dark and sometimes they were too bleak. Roger always found a fault that made the house unsuitable. Of course he was hard to please; he could not bear to ask his dear Ruth to live in any but the perfect house, and the perfect house wanted finding. House-hunting is a tiring and a tiresome business and presently Ruth began to grow peevish. Roger begged her to have pa­tience; somewhere, surely, existed the very house they were looking for, and it only needed a little perseverance and they would find it. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. Ruth was exhausted and more than once lost her temper.

"If you don't find a house soon," she said, "I shall have to recon­sider my position. Why, if you go on like this we shan't be married for years."


"Don't say that," he answered. "I beseech you to have patience. I've just received some entirely new lists from agents I've only just heard of. There must be at least sixty houses on them."

They set out on the chase again. They looked at more houses and more houses. For two years they looked at houses. Ruth grew silent and scornful: her pathetic, beautiful eyes acquired an expression that was almost sullen. There are limits to human endurance. Mrs. Bar­low had the patience of an angel, but at last she revolted.

"Do you want to marry me or do you not?" she asked him.

There was an unaccustomed hardness in her voice, but it did not affect the gentleness of his reply.

"Of course I do. We'll be married the very moment we find a house. By the way I've just heard of something that might suit us."

"I don't feel well enough to look at any more houses just yet." . "Poor dear, I was afraid you were looking rather tired."

Ruth Barlow took to her bed. She would not see Roger and he had to content himself with calling at her lodgings to enquire and send­ing her flowers. He was as ever assiduous and gallant. Every day he wrote and told her that he had heard of another house for them to look at. A week passed and then he received the following letter:

Roger,

I do not think you really love me. I have found someone who is anxious to take care of me and I am going to be married to him today.

Ruth.

He sent back his reply by special messenger:

Ruth,

Your news shatters me. I shall never get over the blow, butof course your happiness must be my first consideration. I send you herewith seven orders to view; they arrived by this morning's post and I am quite sure you will find among them a house that will exactly suit you.

Roger.

Commentary

1. He went down like a row of ninepins,(fig.) here: He was defeat­
ed at once and surrendered without resisting.

2. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die:There was
never anything dear to her that she wouldn't lose. "A little lamb" is


somebody that one loves dearly; an allusion to the well-known nurs­ery rhyme:

Mary had a little lamb. Its fleece was white as snow, And everywhere that Mary went, The lamb was sure to go.

3. she would assess her wounded feelings at an immoderately high figure:she would make him pay much for jilting her.

EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Two and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pro­
nunciation:

inevitable, menacingly, necessity, quay, extricate, experience, dispossess, prudence, pathos, hazard, apparently, persuade, callous, dreadfully, scheming, angel, cheque, pathetic, jewel, acutely, sol­emn, oath, quandary, release, assess, immoderately, gesture, restau­rant, sympathetic, chamber, agent, basement, attic, tiring, patience, perseverance, innumerable, reconsider, endurance, revolt, content, assiduous, messenger, herewith

3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to different types
of assimilation and the linking "r":

and the necessity for immediate action; round the world; at the selfsame port; that dispossessed Roger of his common sense; on the point of filling with tears; between the hazards of life and this help-: less little thing; she twice trumped my best card; his eyes were opened; he swore a solemn oath; in her appealing way; people are apt to think; in the basement; made the house unsuitable; they climbed thousands of stairs; but it did not affect the gentleness of his reply; we'll be married the very moment we find a house

4. Read the following sentences: beginning with "I have always been con­
vinced...", "Not always that..." and "Mrs. Barlow, for she was twice a widow....".
Divide them into intonation groups; read them using proper intonation patterns
and beating the time; mind strong and weak forms of form words and all the pho­
netic phenomena of connected speech.

5. Read the following extracts: from "When Roger told me,..." up to "...as hard
as nails", from "If you don't find a house soon,..." up to "...sixty houses on them",
and from "Mrs. Barlow had the patience of an angel..." up to "...Ruth Barlow took
to her bed" paying attention to the intonation of the stimuli and responses in the
dialogues. Convey proper attitudes by using adequate intonation patterns.

6. Read the text and consider its following aspects:

a) What is the relation of the opening passage of the story (ending "... from whom he had fled") to the main plot? Comment on the syntax of the second sen­tence ("Not always that;..."); justify its length.


 




b) What would be lost if the sentence "but Ruth Barlow had a 'gift' (or should
I call it a 'quality1?) that renders most men defenceless" were written "but Ruth Bar­
low had a 'quality1 that renders most men defenceless..."? What does the device of
contrasting 'quality' to 'gift' aim at?

c) Select from the first paragraph words and phrases characterizing Ruth Bar­
low. What is the attitude implied? What method of characterization is used here?
Point out cliches. Why does the author use them? How do they colour Roger's at­
tachment to Ruth?

d) Analyse the rhythm in the sentence beginning "If she married a husband..."
and the effect achieved. Indicate the stylistic devices in "She never had a little lamb
but it was sure to die".

e) What method (or methods) of characterization is used in the fragment be­
ginning "I couldn't say less...", ending "...when next we met"? Is this description
of Ruth in full accord with the one givea in the first paragraph? If not, what is the
reason? Explain "as hard as nails".

f) Exemplify the author's use of vivid epithets in the character of Ruth Barlow.
Which features of hers do they accentuate?

BOOKS AND READERS

Topical Vocabulary

acquirev (to - an idea/knowledge/a habit)

Anticipate v

Binding л

bookл (a - to open anywhere)

Book plate

Book jacket

Brevity л

characterл (to depict -s, to unmask -s, - portrayal)

Clarity of presentation

Climax л

comprehension(reading -)

Conclusion л

coverл (book- -)


digest л (book -s; a thesaurus of book -s)

Enrichment л

explore v

Fiction л

genreл (literary -)

handicapл (a - in study)

judgementл (a sense of -)

lineл (a space between the -s; to read between the -s)

literarya (~ work; - materials; - critic)

markv (to - (up) a book)

masterv (to - information and content)

matterл (reading/printed -)

messagen (to convey a -; the -• is lost upon the reader)

Non-fiction л

observationл (to call for ~; power of ~)

Plot л

Proof-reading л

rateл (- of reading)

readv (to - slowly/labouriously/from cover to cover)

readerл (intelligent/sophisticated/fast/slow/bad -)

readingл (slow/repeated/critical/exploratory -; revision -; - for

enjoyment) release л

scribblev (to - in a book) selection л

sequenceл (the - of events) skim v skip v

suspenseл (to hold the reader in -; full of -) title л

For Role-play

Situation:Readers' Conference on Television

Characters:Author

Chairman

A few televiewers invited to the studio

Televiewers asking questions by phone

Talking Point:Discussing any book you choose

UNIT THREE

TEXT THREE ONE STAIR UP

By Campbell Naime

(Fragment)

Nairne, Campbell, a Scottish novelist, the author of two books "One Stair Up" (1932) and "Stony Ground" (1934). "One Stair Up" deals with the life of an Edinburgh working-class family and is characterized by realism, a fine style and a sense of humour.

They went up a short marble staircase, treading without sound on a rich carpet of some green material that yielded like springing turf, and moved across a salon hung everywhere with the coloured and signed portraits of film stars. Back in this dim region of luxury, quite still except for the soft whirring of fans they could hear a tea-spoon chink, a cup grate on a saucer, a voice rise above another voice and sink again into voluptuous stillness. Out of a door marked "Circle" over the bull's-eye in each of its two folding partitions, a trim girl in a chocolate uniform with blue pipings silently emerged, glanced at the tickets, and admitted them, flashing her torch into a hot darkness lit here and there by red lamps and speared diagonally by a shaft of white light falling on the rounded oblong of the screen. "Gee baby, you're a swell kid."1 There was a murmur in the audience, and a man's face came surprisingly out of shadow as he struck a match in the lower part of the gallery. Still flashing her torch, the girl hopped in front of them down the steps of the circle, picked out a couple of vacant seats, and stood back to let them squeeze past her into the row. "Thank you," Andrew said huskily. Several faces glared at them as they sat down. "This a comedy?" Rosa took off her gloves and surveyed the dim amphitheatre in the hope of recognizing some of her acquaintances. It pleased her to be seen in the dress circle, even with Andrew. But her eyes were still unaccustomed to the obscurity. She noted that the cinema, as usual, was nearly full, and looked for the first time at the screen. Two shadowy faces, enormous on the white background, moved together and kissed.

"It isn't the big picture,"2 Andrew said. "That doesn't come on till eight-forty. You see all right?"


She nodded. He risked no further inquiries, knowing how often she had forbidden him to talk to her in a cinema. He promised him­self that to-night he would resist that awful temptation to explain the story in a whisper when he fancied he saw the end of it. Nor would he even say: "Liking it, Rosa?" — "No bored, are you? 'Cos3 if you are we'll go out." — "It's hot stuff, isn't it?" No, he would say noth­ing and enjoy himself... Ah, this was better. Nice and warm in a cin­ema, and dark; you couldn't see anybody else, and they couldn't see you. Prefer cinemas to theatres any day.

The film ended a few minutes after they had come in. Down swung a looped curtain, pot-plants and palms leapt up under the stage apron, one row of lights and then another shed a pink radiance over the exits, in the domed roof a shower of small stars twinkled and glit­tered and three bowls flushed suddenly to ruby colour. A dozen or so of the audience got up and pushed out to the exits. Swiftly the light dimmed again. The curtain rattled back and the white oblong emerged from folds already caught by lines of flickering grey print. A draped girl swam into view and began to blow bubbles out of a long pipe. One of these expanded and expanded until it filled the whole screen. It then burst into the letters "All Next Week", which in turn dissolved and announced a film called "Mothers of Broadway" as a forthcoming attraction.4 The film seemed to have smashed all records. It drew tears from the hardest hearts. It sent thrills down the spine. It was a rapid-fire drama. It was a heart-searing tale of studio parties, million-dollar prize fights, and supercharged automobiles. It was, according to other statements that rushed out of the screen, packed with heart-throbs, tingling with reality, vibrant with love and hate — and what a story it had! "You will love it," the screen confi­dently asserted. "You must see it: the film you'll never forget." Beau­tiful blondes evidently abounded in this tale of thrill-thirsty young bloods.5 One of them, it seemed, was to find after rushing through "gaiety, temptation, and sorrow" that motherhood is the greatest of all careers. "A film that plucks the heart-strings. Bewitching Minnie Haha in the mightiest drama of Broadway."

"Not much good, I expect," Andrew said, "Hullo" — the lights dimmed and a chorus of metallic jazz broke out — "I think that's the big picture on now."

He had now a pleasant feeling that he was going to enjoy himself.

There was some rare fun in this picture. That fat man with the beard — you had to laugh! First of all you saw a shelf with a basket of eggs on it, then a cat moved along, then the eggs tumbled one by


one on the man's head. Oh dear! the way he squeezed that yolk out of his eyes and staggered forward and plumped headfirst into a wa­ter-butt. And then the lean chap, coming into the corridor, didn't look where he was going and hit a cook who was marching out of the kitch­en with a tray of custards. What a mix-up. Custards all over the place. Holding his seat tight to control his laughter, Andrew wondered whether these chaps really allowed themselves to be knocked down and swamped with custards. No wonder they got big salaries if they had to put up with that kind of thing every day of their lives. Perhaps they faked some of it. Anyhow it was too funny for' words. And now here was that dog — must be a hard-worked dog, for you saw it, or another like it, in dozens of these comic films — and of course it was carrying something in its mouth. Oh yes, a stick of dynamite. Where was it going to put that? Under the fat man's bed. Andrew wriggled with enjoyment, then started and feughed gleefully^s the dialogue was cut short by a sudden loud explosion. Haha! There was the fat man with a black eye, no beard, half a collar, and no trousers. Oh, this was good! Rosa must be liking this.

What ababy he is, Rosa was thinking. You can't really be angry with him. He doesn't seem to have grown up at all. Talk about Peter Pan.6 He's just a big hulking kid. Faintly contemptuous, she watched his blunt nose and chin silhouetted in the darkness. Is he really so stupid, she wondered. Yes, I suppose he is. Oh, for heaven's sake stop that cackling! The explosion shattered its way into the half. She started.

"Good, isn't it?" he broke out, forgetful in his excitement.

She"tossed her head.

"I don't see anything funny in that."

"Och,7Rosa!"

His hands dropped; all the joy died out of his face and eyes. He looked so abject that she was sorry for him against her will.

"I thought — it was quite funny, you know — I mean, people laughed. I wasn't the only one. But if you don't like it — "

She tried hard, still moved by pity, to reply with gentleness, but the retort shaped itself and was uttered before she had command of it.

"I haven't your sense of humour, that's all."

Commentary

1. Gee baby, you're a swell kid: These words are coming from the screen. Gee [dgi:] is an interjection which in American English ex­presses approval.


2. By "the big picture"Andrew means the main film on the pro­
gramme (a film-show in Britain as a rule consists of the main film
usually called "the main feature" and a so-called "support film"
which usually precedes the main feature).

3. 'cos: (coll.) because

4. a forthcoming attraction:a film to be released in the near
future.

5. young bloods:here society youths

6. Peter Pan:the main character of "Peter and Wendy", a book
written by J.M. Barrie in 1911 and extremely popular in English-
speaking countries. Peter Pan was a boy who never grew up and is
a symbol of the sincerity and ingenuousness of childhood.

7. Och: interjection used in Scotland and Ireland for "oh, ah"

Forgery n, forger n

faken 1) a worthless thing that is represented as being smth. it is not; maybe used attributively, as a fake picture 2) a person that rep­resents himself as someone he is not. Syn. fraud.

Fakediffers from fraudin not necessarily implying dishonesty, for a fakemay be a joke, or a theatrical device (e.g. Actors use fakes in­stead of real swords), or it maybe dishonesty (e.g. This testimony is clearly a fake).

Fraudalways refers to wilful deception and dishonesty (e.g. He got money by fraud) or to a person who cheats or a thing that deceives (e.g. This hair-restorer is a fraud, I'm as bald as ever I was!).

EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Three and mark the stresses and tunes.
b| Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pro­
nunciation:

marble, luxury, voluptuous, obscurity, inquiry, apron, confident­ly, gaiety, chorus, partition, chocolate, uniform, diagonally, oblong, gallery, amphitheatre, radiance, exit, bowl, dissolve, record, automo­bile, vibrant, metallic, yolk, dynamite, dialogue, contemptuous, sil­houetted, abject


 


3. Practise the pronunciation of the following compound words paying atten­
tion to stresses:

'tea-spoon, 'bull's-eye, 'dress .circle, 'background, 'pot-plants, 'stage ,apron, 'rapid-'fire, 'heart-.searing, 'heart-throbs, 'thrill-'thirsty, 'heart-string(s), 'water-butt, 'mix-'up, 'hard-'worked, a 'hard-worked 'dog, 'black 'eye

4. Read the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phe­
nomena of connected speech (assimilation, linking "r", lateral and nasal plosions,
loss of plosion):

a short marble staircase; in the dim region; here and there; you're a swell kid; a murmur in the audience; stood back to let them squeeze; surveyed the dim amphitheater; in the hope of; some of their acquain­tances; in the dress circle; she noted that the cinema; on the white background; it isn't the big picture; no further inquiries; a shower of small stars; filled the whole screen; sent thrills down the spine; packed with heart-throbs; in this tale of thrill-thirsty young bloods; in the mightiest drama; then the eggs tumbled; he squeezed that yolk; and then the lean chap

5. Read the following sentences out loud; beginning with "Back in this dim re­
gion of luxury...", "Out of a door marked "Circle"..." and "Down swung a looped
curtain...". Beat the time and observe all phonetic phenomena of connected speech.
Use proper intonation patterns.

6. Study the following proverbs, a) Translate them into Russian or supply their
Russian equivalents, b) Practise their reading paying attention to the sound .{ai]
and the intonation; beat the time:

1. Beauty lies in lover's eyes. 2. A stitch in time saves nine. 3. Once bitten, twice shy. 4. Let bygones be bygones. 5. Out of sight, out of mind. 6. Velvet paws hide velvet claws. 7. Salt water and absence wash away love. 8. Time and tide wait for no man. 9. Idleness rusts the mind.

7. Read the text and consider its following aspects, a) Comment upon the choice of words:

in this dim region of luxury (whynot "dark"?); a trim girl... silently emerged, glanced at the tickets, and admitted them (why not "silently appeared, looked at the tickets, and let them in"); several faces glared at them (whynot "looked"?).


 

b) Point out formal (learned) words and colloquialisms in the first three para­
graphs. Explain how their use is motivated by the nature of the context in which
they occur.

c) Explain:

treading without sound on a rich carpet... that yielded like spring­ing turf; a hot darkness... speared diagonally by a shaft of white light; in this dim region of luxury, quite still except for the soft whirring of fans; a draped girl swam into view; the curtain rattled back; it was a rapid-fire drama; it was a heart-searing tale; supercharged automo­biles; it was... packed with heart-throbs, tingling with reality, vibrant with love and hate; thrill-thirsty young bloods; what a mix-up; per­haps they faked some of it; talk about Peter Pan; the retort shaped itself and was uttered before she had command of it

d) Select from the first three paragraphs sentences through which the author,
by implication, introduces the reader into the relations between Rosa and Andrew.
What can be deduced about their relations?









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