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Fill in the gaps in the following sentences by using either what or which.





72) He didn’t believe … I said … annoyed me very much.

73) In detective stories a murderer is always caught, … doesn’t happen in real life.

74) He wasn’t surprised at … he saw because I told him … to expect.

75) I did … I could … wasn’t much.

76) The clock struck thirteen, … made everyone laugh.

77) I am sure that … you say is true.

78) I poured him a glass of wine, ... he drank at once.

79) When the mechanic opened the bonnet he saw at once … was wrong with the car.

80) I didn’t buy anything because I didn’t see … I wanted.

81) He was very rude to a customs officer … of course made the things worse.

82) Tell me … you want me to do.

83) She was once bitten by a monkey … made her dislike monkeys for the rest of her life.

Unit 9

Complete the following sentences with other, others, the other, another.

84) Only two of us are here. … students have already left.

85) I’ve got two sisters. One of them is a nurse, … is still a student.

86) Her two sons were playing in the garden. Ann turned her eyes from one to … .

87) There was … pause.

88) This hat is too small for me. Can you give me … one, a size bigger?

89) Alec whispered something from … side of the table.

90) Some people like spring, … prefer summer.

91) She went to the kitchen and came back with … cup of tea.

92) I’ve brought two of the books you gave me. I’ll bring … books next Friday.

93) I’m not doing any English, I’m busy with … thing now.

94) Three parachutes opened one after … .

95) He entered the room and saw Mike and Martha sitting on the sofa. He looked first at one, then at … .

96) He wanted to get to … side of the river.

97) I like Agatha Christie. I’ve just finished one of her books and I’m going to start … one.

98) I broke my mother's vase this morning. Hopefully I can get ... before she notices.

99) After adding the rice, heat the soup for … 20 minutes.

100) If you look across the lake, you can see Donald’s house on … side.

 

100/______

Translate the sentences.

1) Он сын моего старого друга.

2) Я встретил ее вчера на улице.

3) Ей самой захотелось сделать что-нибудь особенное перед приездом родителей.

4) "Вы боитесь темноты или собак?" – "Я не боюсь ни того, ни другого".

5) Ты всегда разговариваешь сама с собой, когда волнуешься.

6) Вчера они взяли наши журналы и оставили нам свои.

7) Оба моих родителя работают в сфере образования.

8) Я представил им ее.

9) Ты когда-нибудь разговаривал с соседом, который живёт напротив?

10) В следующий момент ничего не было сказано, а затем Майкл и Мартин неожиданно улыбнулись друг другу.



11) "Бабушка, мы все здесь", - сказала Люси очень тихо.

12) Ни один корреспондент не писал об этом.

13) В те первые августовские дни у меня было мало дел на работе.

14) Этот хлеб не такой свежий, как тот, что купили вы.

15) Я повернулся к нему лицом. Он был выше меня.

16) Я бы хотела купить эти туфли, хотя они и дороже, чем мои.

17) Мы больше никогда не слышали об этом странном замужестве Элизы.

18) Посмотри на эту птицу. Она всегда прилетает к этому окну.

19) Либо я, либо мой брат проводим тебя домой.

20) Когда все закончили кушать, официанты убрали тарелки.

21) Я порезался, бреясь сегодня утром.

22) Если кто-нибудь из мальчишек позвонит, скажи, что я буду дома к семи часам.

23) Вы не правы. Он перевёл эту статью самостоятельно.

24) Кто-нибудь видел это собственными глазами? – Никто, кроме меня.

25) Каждая девушка носит то, что ей больше нравится.

 

 

UNIT 1 MEANING, USE AND CLASSIFICATION

 

1. The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their qualities without naming them. A pronoun usually refers to something earlier in the text (its antecedent): When Sarah was fixing the car, she cut her hand. (Sarahis a noun.Sheis a pronoun that refers to the antecedent, Sarah.)

2.A pronoun REFERS BACK to a noun or TAKES THE PLACE OF that noun, that is why special attention should be paid to the use of the correct pronoun so that the reader clearly understands which noun our pronoun is referring to.

Pronouns should:

· refer clearly to a specific noun.

Not: Although the motorcycle hit the tree, it was not damaged. (Is "it" the motorcycle or the tree?)

Not: Vacation is coming soon, which is nice. (What is nice, the vacation or the fact that it is coming soon?)

Not: If you put this sheet in your notebook, you can refer to it. (What does "it" refer to, the sheet or your notebook?)

· agree in number;

If the pronoun takes the place of a singular noun, we use a singular pronoun: If a student parks a car on campus, he has to buy a parking sticker. (Not: If a student parks a car on campus, they have to buy a parking sticker.)

· agree in person;

If we are writing in the "third person" (he, she, it, they), we mustn’t switch to the "second person" (you) or "first person" (I): When a person comes to class, he should have his homework ready. (Not: When a person comes to class, you should have your homework ready.)

3.Pronouns can be divided into the following groups: personal, demonstrative, possessive, reflexive, reciprocal, interrogative, relative, defining, indefinite, and negative.

E x e r c i s e s

 

1.1. Mark whether each sentence is correct or contains an error in pronoun use.

1) Originally fairy tales did not always end "happily ever after"; rather, they were often extremely violent.

2) In the original version of "Cinderella," for example, after the marriage between she and the prince, Cinderella has her step-sisters placed in spiked coffins and dragged around the city behind the wedding procession.

3) Similarly, in the authentic version of "Little Red Riding Hood" at the end of the story, the wolf attacks and kills the little girl whom was visiting her grandmother.

4) Both her and her grandmother lose their lives.

5) Some nineteenth-century artists were offended by this violence and refused to illustrate the tale; thus, it was them, not the publisher, who believed that a story for children should have a happier ending.

6) One illustrator, to whom modern versions of the tale are indebted, changed the ending by introducing a woodcutter whose appearance saved Red Riding Hood – and the tale.

 

UNIT 2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1.The personal pronouns are: I, he, she, it, we, you, they. The personal pronouns have the categories of person, case, number, and gender (the 3rd person singular).

The personal pronouns in the nominative case are used as the subject in the sentence and are called subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they): We are going there later..

2.The personal pronouns in the objective case can be used as the direct or indirect object of a verb. They are called object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them): John showed him the book. Did you give it to them?

Object pronouns are used rather than subject pronouns after the verb be: Who is it?’ – ‘It’s me’.

3. It can be used as an impersonal subject in general statements that refer to the time, the date, or the weather: ‘What time is it?’ – ‘It is half past three.’ It is January 19th. It is rainy and cold today.

It refers to a person when we are identifying him or her: ‘Is that our waiter?’ – ‘No, it isn’t.’ (Not ‘No, he isn’t.’)

E x e r c i s e s

 









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