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1. The suggested extract represents a 3rd Person Narration (a 1st Person Narration) interlaced (interwoven, intermingled) with a dialogue, character drawings, a description, a satirical portrayal of society, a historical event, the inner monologue of the leading character, with the author's digression where he speculates upon the problem of...

2. The author's digression reveals his vision of life...

3. The writer digresses from the plot of the story to reveal (convey) his attitude to... (his view on...)

4. The narration is done in the 1st (the 3rd) person.


5. The main character is the narrator of his own feelings, thoughts and intentions.

6. The story-teller portrays his characters by means of a convergence of SDs, such as.

7. The portrayal of literary personages is done skillfully (masterfully, with great skill).

8. The description (portray-' narration) may be vivid, convincing, powerful, meaningful. Highly emotional, unemotional, suggestive etc.

9. The 4th part is focused on John Smith.

10. The author focuses (his attention) on the character's inner world.

11. The author depicts the life of...

12. The subject of depiction in the 2nd part is...

13. The passage opens with the atmosphere of growing suspense (excitement, ervousness, fright etc.)

14. The paragraph abounds in ( is abundant in ) slang set-phrases

15. The writer makes an abundant use of

16. The compositional structure of the extract fragment) is based on parallelism.

17. Parallelism (parallel constructions are) is accompanied by anaphora (framing etc.)

18. These paragraphs stand in sharp contrast to each other.

19. The paragraph is built in sharp contrast to the following one. The contrast is reflected (manifested) in the language, both in syntactical and lexical means.

20. The paragraph is in full accord (accordance) with the preceding one as far as its idea goes.

21. The author (story-teller) draws a gloomy (majestic, miserable etc.) picture.

22. The writer uses ( makes use of, employs, resorts to ) common colloquial vocabulary juridical terminology (law terms) to give the narration (to lend) more authenticity and objectivity/ to lend the story a humorous ring /to make the story sound melodramatic (sentimental etc.).

23. It testifies to the writer's mastery (skill). This detail (fact, expression, device) is suggestive of ... is highly informative.

24. It suggests that...

25. It helps the reader guess (realize, come to the conclusion etc.)

26. It leaves much for the reader's guesswork.

27. The syntactical pattern of the sentence (paragraph) is suggestive (informative, meaningful).

28. The syntactical pattern (structure, design) is peculiar (is broken, is violated...) He resorts to high-flown (elevated) words to convey the inner tragedy of his personage.

29. There is a discrepancy between the bookish, elevated vocabulary and the trivial (banal) situation with ordinary men doing everyday things (or the daily routine of ordinary men).

30. It usually produces a humorous (ironical) effect. It reveals the writer's ironical attitude to... It is used as a means of irony. The writer makes use of various language means to depict (portray, convey, reveal etc.) The author digresses from the thread of narration (the topic of story).

31. To pursue his aim the author employs (resorts to, adheres to, uses). The author converses with the reader as if he has an interlocutor before him. (The reader is involved into the events of the text.) The author lays bare (exposes, unmasks, condemns, touches upon, dwells on, delineates, highlights, stresses, underlines, ridicules, mocks at, accentuates)... The author lays (puts, places) emphasis (stress) on... The writer carries the idea to the mind of the reader through... The SD is the indicator (signal) of the character's emotions (emotional tension, mixed feelings).

32. The SD stresses (underlines, discloses, accentuates, emphasizes, is meant to point out, throws light on, highlights, adds to, contributes to, (lightens, enhances, intensifies, gives an insight into, explains and clarifies, serves to provide the text with additional emphases). The satirical (humorous, ironical) effect is hightened (enhanced, intensified, augmented) by a convergence of SD and EM in the paragraph. The SD contributes (adds) to the same effect (the effect desired by the author, the effect the author strives for, a more colourful and emotional presentation of the scene). The SD adds importance to the indication of the place (time, manner) of action is suggestive (illustrative, expressive) (it indicates where and when the scene is laid). The SD is suggestive (illustrative, expressive, explicit, implicit) of...

33. The SD and EM are linked and interwoven to produce a joint impression (are aimed at achieving the desired effect). The SD wants (needs) interpreting, decoding. It prepares the ground for the next sentence (paragraph). The SD makes explicit what has been implied before (lends an additional expressiveness). It is implicit in nature, makes the utterance arresting, enables the author to convey the feelings and emotions of the character, reveals the character's low (high) social position, indicates the step the character occupies in the social ladder, serves best to specify the author's (character's) attitude to…

34. There is no direct indication of that. It is understood indirectly through (perceived through)... The title (SD) is highly informative (symbolic, emotive, emotionally coloured, emphatic).

35. The SD suggests a definite kind of informational design. It is to the word "..." that prominece must be given. If we analyse the intonational pattern of the sentence we see that to the word "..." is given a strong (heavy) stress. Looking deeper into the arrangement of the utterance we come to the conclusion that... The reader traces the marked partiality of the writer for his personage. In order to impose (impress) on the reader his attitude towards the character the author employs...

36. Leading gradually up to the hidden idea that he is pursuing the writer makes the reader feel... The most convincing proof of the idea is... We'll discuss the implication the following sentence suggests... Hints and suggestive remarks (implications and suggestions) are scattered all over the text. On a more careful observation it becomes obvious that...

37. It is worthwhile going a little deeper in (to) the language texture.

38. The idea is hidden between the lines in order to grasp the author's idea.

39. The word (sentence) is charged (loaded, burdened) with implication (connotation).

40. The SD suggests a touch of authenticity (plausibility) to the narrated events (it makes the reader believe that the narrated events have actually taken place in real life).

41. The episode is presented through the perception of the character (this type of presenting a picture of life as if perceived by a character that creates the so-called effect of immediate presence). The SD serves as a clue to the further development of the action. The plot unfolds (itself) dynamically ('slowly).



Supplement 4.

Examples of Linguistic Play

1. English Spelling

The text below represents a rather ironical attitude of its writer to the talks about hardships connected with learning English Spelling1}.

Having chosen English as the preferred language in the EEC, the European Parliament has commissioned a feasibility study in ways of improving efficiency in communications between Government departments.

European officials have often pointed out that English spelling is unnecessarily difficult — for example, cough, plough, rough, through and thorough. What is clearly needed is a phased programme of changes to iron out these anomalies. The programme would, of course, be administered by a committee staff at top level by participating nations.

In the first year, for example, the committee would suggest using's' instead of the soft 'c'. Sirtainly, sivil servants in all sities would reseive this news with joy. Then the hard 'c' could be replaced by 'k' since both letters are pronounced alike. Not only would they klear up konfusion in the minds of klerikal workers, but typewriters kould be made with one less letter. There would be growing enthusiasm when in the sekond year, it kould be announced that the troublesome 'ph' would henceforth be written 'f'. This would make words like 'fotograf twenty pre cent shorter in print.

In the third year, punlik akseptanse of the new spelling кап be expekted to reash the stage where more komplikated shanges are possible. Governments would enkourage the removal of double letters which have always been a deterent to akurate speling.

We would all agree that the horrible mes of silent 'e's in the languag is disgrasful. Therefor we kould drop thes and kontinu to read and writ as though nothing had hapend. By this tim it would be four years sins the skem began and peopl would be reseptive to steps sutsh as replasing 'th' by 'z'. Perhaps zen ze funktion of 'w' kould be taken on by V, vitsh is, after al, half a 'w'. Shortly after zis, ze unesesary 'o' kould be dropdfrom words containing 'ou'. Similar arguments vud ofkors be aplid to ozer kombinations of leters.

Kontinuing zis proses yer after yer, ve vud eventuli hav reli sensibl riten styl. After tventi yers zer vud be no mor trubls, difikultis and evrivun fin it ezi tu understand ech ozer. Ze drems of the Guvernmnt vud finali hav кит tru.


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