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Answer the questions on Text A.





1)What materialscan't be recycled?

2) What methods of making steel using recycled material do you know?

3) What goods can be produced using these methods?

4) What material is more difficult to recycle than metal, paper, or glass?

5) Do you know any hazardous wastes?

6) What wastes are not normally recycled? Why?

Look at the highlighted words in Text А. What do you think they mean in this context? Check in your dictionary and match the words from Text A (1-16) to the definitions (a-p).

A1) Precious; 2) reclaim; 3) appliance; 4) impurity; 5) bar; 6) crush; 7) shred; 8) ingots; 9) contaminant; 10) hazardous; 11) drain; 12) trash; 13) tire; 14) reducing; 15) emit; 16) disease.

В a) To obtain from a waste product or by-product; b) a solid piece or block of material that is longer than it is wide; c) a mass of metal cast into a convenient shape for storage or transportation to be later processed; d) to be squeezed or forced by pressure so as to alter or destroy structure; e) involving or exposing one to risk; f) to be of great value or high price; g) things that are no longer useful or wanted and that have been thrown away; h) an unwanted substance that is found in something else and that prevents it from being pure; i) an instrument or device designed for a particular use or function; j) something that makes a place or a substance (such as water, air, or food) no longer suitable for use: something that contaminates a place or substance; k) a rubber cushion that fits around a wheel (as of an automobile) and usually contains compressed air; l) to diminish in size, amount, extent, or number; m) to send (light, energy, etc.) out from a source; n) an illness that affects a person, animal, or plant; o) to cut or to tear (something) into long, thin pieces; p) something (such as a pipe) that is used for removing a liquid from a place or container.

Use these words in the correct forms to complete the sentences. Initial letters will help you.

1. This plant emits h………… chemicals that can cause death if inhaled.

2. They are working to stop the spread of d………. in rural areas.

3. This purified water is completely free of i……………….

4. Beyond signing higher fuel efficiency standards into law last week, he has invested $37 billion in research into alternative fuels and other technology, promoted construction of nuclear plants that do not e…….. greenhouse gases, and moved to require cleaner appliances and building codes.

5. Some p……… metals, such as gold and platinum, face supply challenges going forward, due to high global demand.

6. Residents are complaining that these workers often leave t………. they are supposed to pick up.

7. The t………….. consisted of an inner tube containing compressed air that was covered by an outer rubber casing to provide traction.

8. Environmental groups have been r………………. contaminated sites.

9. Steel i……………………… range in size from small rectangular blocks weighing a few pounds (or kilograms) to huge, tapered, octagonal masses weighing more than 500 tons (450 metric tons).



10. TCE is the most widespread water c…………………… in the country, seeping into aquifers across California, New York, Texas, Florida and elsewhere.

8. Read Dialogue 1.How can plastics be recycled?

Dialogue 1. RECYCLING

A: (1)… is big business these days, isn't it?

B: Yes, it's definitely a growing business.

A: What do you recycle in your plant?

B: Mainly plastics. Plastics aren't bio-degradable – they don't break down easily in the (2)… – so they shouldn't be thrown away.

A: How is plastic recycled, then?

B: Well, there are basically two methods. One is to break down the chemicals in the plastic into smaller chemical (3)… These can be used in the production of new chemicals.

A: Is that the method you use here?

B: No, we don't do that here. We recycle polyethylene and we make it into other products.

A: How do you do that?

B: By melting it down and then reforming it. Our main (4)… are bin liners for kitchen bins and carrier bags for supermarkets.

Fill in the blanks with the best word(s).

A recycling B machine-building C transportation
A air B environment C water
A elements B atoms C particles
A products B benefits C things

10. Read Dialogue 2.What goods can be called environmentally-friendly?

Dialogue 2. ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY PRODUCTS

A: You say your products are aimed at the green consumer. In what ways are theyenvironmentally-friendly?

B:We produce household cleaning products – detergents and so on. They are all phosphate-free, which minimizes damage to the environment.

A: What about the packaging?

B: We try to use as little packaging as possible. Also, all our bottles are made of recyclable plastic and we use recycled fibre in our boxes. That's what our customers want.

Think of the meanings of the highlighted words. Read the comments to Dialogue 2 to check your ideas.

1) Environmentally-friendly means not so damaging to the environment.

2)phosphate-free:not to contain phosphates (chemical compounds which are harmful to the environment).

Give your own examples with these constructions.

EXAMPLE:environmentally unacceptable, chlorine-free, lead-free.

13. Complete the sentences withare allowed to/ aren't allowed toorhave to.

a)We………….reduce our CO2 emissions by 5 per cent by next year.

b) Factories……………dump rubbish in the river. They can be fined if they do.

c) Manufactories…………… follow strict environmental guidelines.

d) The Governments sets strict limits on landfill. We………… send only 50 per cent of our waste to landfill sites. We……………… recycle the rest.

e) Paint producers……………… use lead in their paint any more because it's a health hazard.

f) We……………… exceed the permitted levels.

Match the two parts of the sentences.

1) You can be fined a) by using a heat recovery process.
2) Our products minimize damage b) for breaking pollution laws.
3) Most plastics don't bio-degrade c) to the environment.
4) We're hoping to use more energy d) in the environment.
5) We can save energy e) from alternative sources.

Complete each sentence with a preposition or leave blank if no preposition is needed.

a) We must get rid ……...our waste in an acceptable way (to, of, from).

b) Is it harmful…………the environment? (for, to, into)

c) Safe disposal..…...toxic substances is very important (of, – , from).

d) Ozone is not emitted……….the atmosphere (into, to, for).

e) Incineration is better……….the environment than landfill (for, to, into).

f) Wind power can be converted ….……energy (to, into, –).

g) We've reduced our energy bill …… investing in good insulation (by, with, –).

16. Complete the sentences with the proper word:recycling, pollution, environmentally, disposable, environmental, dispose, recyclable, pollutants.

a) Most types of paper are …………………...

b) We need to find a better way to………………..of our waste.

c) It's an………………………… friendly product.

d) ……………………..is having an effect on the world climate.

e) They manufacture cheap…………………cigarette lighters.

f) We have an office-paper……………………scheme in our company.

g) We are setting up an…………………….management system.

h) There are six main air…………………………

Complete the sentences with the correct verb.

a) When fossil fuels are burnt, they…………… give/take/send off CO2.

b) We need to…………… clear/take/clean up our production process.

c) We are trying to……… put/cut/bring down the amount of packaging we use.

d) It's better to recycle glass bottles than to………… throw/put/take them away.

e) Most hamburger boxes don't…… take/bring/break down in the environment.

In pairs, summarize the advantages and the disadvantages of recycling. Report to the rest of the class about the results of your work. Do your groupmates agree with you? Be ready to ask questions to them, too.

19. In small groups, work out a leaflet (150-200 words) which appeals to people and invites them to collect waste paper for recycling.Attract people’s attention to the points: the problem of deforesting, necessity of paper recycling and making our environment clean, importance of common activity, etc.









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