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What are the reasons for recycling? Read Text B to answer this question.


Rare materials, such as gold and silver, are recycled because acquiring new supplies is expensive. Other materials may not be as expensive to replace, but they are recycled to conserve energy, reduce pollution, conserve land, and to save money.

Resource Conservation.Recycling conserves natural resources by reducing the need for new material. Some natural resources are renewable, meaning they can be replaced, and some are not. Paper, corrugated board, and other paper products come from renewable timber sources. Trees harvested to make those products can be replaced by growing more trees. Iron and aluminum come from nonrenewable ore deposits. Once a deposit is mined, it cannot be replaced.

Energy Conservation.Recycling saves energy by reducing the need to process new material, which usually requires more energy than the recycling process. The amount of energy saved in recycling one aluminum can is equivalent to the energy in the gasoline that would fill half of that same can.

Pollution Reduction.Recycling reduces pollution because recycling a product creates less pollution than producing a new one. Recycling can also reduce pollution by recycling safer products to replace those that pollute. Some countries still use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to manufacture foam products such as cups and plates. Many scientists suspect that CFCs harm the atmosphere’s protective layer of ozone. Using recycled plastic instead for those products eliminates the creation of harmful CFCs.

Land Conservation.Recycling saves valuable landfill space, land that must be set aside for dumping trash, construction debris, and yard waste. Landfills fill up quickly and acceptable sites for new ones are difficult to find because of objections by neighbors to noise and smells, and the hazard of leaks into underground water supplies. The two major ways to reduce the need for new landfills are to generate less initial waste and to recycle products that would normally be considered waste.

Economic Savings.Recycling in the short term is not always economically profitable or a break-even financial operation. Most experts contend, however, that the economic consequences of recycling are positive in the long term. Recycling will save money if potential landfill sites are used for more productive purposes and by reducing the number of pollution-related illnesses.

Answer the questions on Text B.

1) What nonrenewable and renewable resources do you know?

2) How can recycling save energy?

3) Is it harmful to use chlorofluorocarbons to manufacture foam products?

4) What are the two major ways to reduce the need for new landfills?

5) Is recycling economically profitable?

Work in small groups and discuss the issues.

1) What environmental problems are there in your city (country)?

2) Which of them are the most important? Why?

3) How can they be solved?

Report the general idea of the group to the class.

In pairs, think of prospects of recycling business.

1) Is recycling a profitable business?

2) Would you like to set up in business like that?

3) What stages are essential to start your own recycling business?

4) What equipment do you need?

5) What do you have to know?

Work out a business-plan of starting your own recycling business and present it to your group.



Work in pairs. Make a list of all the means of transport you know. Discuss the questions.

1) What means of transport refer to air, seа, road, rail?

2) What kind of transport do you prefer?

3) Which is the most dangerous one?

4) Which is the quickest one?

5) Do you have your own car?

6) Does it help you to get everywhere on time?

7) Do you have any problems because of the car?

Work in small groups. Work out urban transport problems. Try to explain them.

3. Read Text A Part 1. How many urban transport problems are mentioned in the text? Is your list of the problems similar to those mentioned in the text?


Part 1

Cities are locations having a high level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas and take place when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility. Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labor, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations. Additionally, important transport terminals such as ports, airports, and railyards are located within urban areas, contributing to a specific array of problems. Some problems are ancient, like congestion (which plagued cities such as Rome), while others are new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts. Among the most notable urban transport problems are the following.

Traffic congestion and parking difficulties. Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban agglomerations, usually above a threshold of about 1 million inhabitants. It is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures. However, the supply of infrastructures has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Since vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, which has created space consumption problems particularly in central areas; the spatial imprint of parked vehicles is significant. Congestion and parking are also interrelated since looking for a parking space creates additional delays and impairs local circulation. Many delivery vehicles will simply double-park at the closest possible spot to unload their cargo.

Longer commuting. On par with congestion people are spending an increasing amount of time commuting between their residence and workplace. An important factor behind this trend is related to residential affordability as housing located further away from central areas (where most of the employment remains) is more affordable. Therefore, commuters are trading time for housing affordability. However, long commuting is linked with several social problems, such as isolation, as well as poorer health (obesity).

Public transport inadequacy. Many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users as the system copes with a temporary surge in demand. Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing (e.g. tolls) almost every public transit systems cannot generate sufficient income to cover its operating and capital costs. While in the past deficits were deemed acceptable because of the essential service public transit was providing for urban mobility, its financial burden is increasingly controversial.

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