Read the text and put the paragraphs (A-D) into the correct order (1-4).
Humans place themselves in the odd position of being
the only animals that consume milk after weaning.
A The harmful components of cow's milk include all the major parts of it, as well as some more minor elements. Lactose is a sugar meant for babies, but it's generally harmful to adults. The proteins in cow's milk are different from human milk proteins and cause problems of digestion, intolerance, impaired absorption of other nutrients, and autoimmune reactions. Few of the proteins meant for baby cows are found naturally in human mother's milk, and none are found in any natural adult human food. Even the high protein content in cow’s milk creates problems. Human babies need the saturated fats and cholesterol in mother's milk. Bovine milk fat is not appropriately composed for human babies and is only deleterious to the health of children and adults. Cow hormones are not meant for humans, and older children and adults are not meant to consume hormones. And, cows have been selectively bred over time to create high levels of these hormones – those being the cows that grow the fastest and produce the greatest amount of milk. Cows also concentrate pesticides and pollutants into their milk fat, from their high dietary food and water requirements. The high amount of drugs now given to cows adds to this chemical soup. But we need milk to build strong bones, don't we? Actually, heavy milk consumption leads to increased osteoporosis.
BToday, many of the problems parents have with their babies are linked to new parenting and feeding techniques that have been implemented during the recent century. Colic, for instance, is far more common in the U.S. than in many other places around the world. Two chief causes for its rise are the stress suffered by babies being regularly separated from their mothers, and the common difficulties babies have tolerating the large cow's milk proteins in infant formulas and breastfeeding mothers' diets. Cow's milk is a foreign substance that has pervaded every corner of our diets – starting with artificial infant feeds, but finding its way into mother's breastmilk through the foods she eats as well. As it turns out, health problems such as childhood diabetes, obesity, bowel disease, osteoporosis, heart disease, cataracts, colic, ear infections, hyperactivity, and cancer, on the rise in both children and adults, are strongly linked to infant feeding choices.
C Knowing and avoiding the potentially harmful effects that high dairy consumption and milk-sensitivity reactions can have on your child is just as important and loving as nursing, close bonding, and informed health care decisions. What we feed our children matters; how we parent them matters. These measures will lead to the best health, comfort and happiness available to a child. Parents have the power to create and enjoy healthier, happier children with brighter futures.
D While there are literally thousands of research studies, each revealing at least one of milk's hazards, the dairy industry goes to great lengths to stifle any damaging rumors. Blanket statements, such as, «There is simply no scientific research to back up these claims,» are easily made. With a long and successful history of dairy promotion, these are readily accepted by the public. More people need to go to the real research and learn the truth for themselves. They should be very suspicious of these foreign foods being pushed on their children. They should question motives as well as possible outcomes. Although some of the dangers of cow's milk consumption relate more to adults than to children, parents' actions form the basis for lifelong dairy-consuming habits in their children.
ROBOTS. HISTORY OF INVENTION
Read the text carefully and answer the question.
1) What is the origin of the word «robot»? When and by whom was it first used?
2) What tasks were robots primarily designed for? How can they perform these tasks?
3) How many and what steps were there in robot development?
4) Who developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as PUMA? What is its basic concept?
Robot is a computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move, manipulate objects, and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans. The term robot originates from the Czech word robota, meaning «compulsory labor». It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. The word robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work that humans find difficult or undesirable.
The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life. Automata, or manlike machines, also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical creatures.
Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level. When the water falls past a certain level, the float drops, opens a valve, and releases more water into the trough. As the water rises, so does the float. When the float reaches a certain height, the valve is closed and the water is shut off.
The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor, invented in 1788 by the Scottish engineer James Watt. This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam. As the engine speed increased, the balls swung out due to centrifugal force, closing the valve. The flow of steam to the engine was decreased, thus regulating the speed.
Feedback control, the development of specialized tools, and the division of work into smaller tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the automation of factories in the 18th century. As technology improved, specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire molds. These machines, however, had none of the versatility of the human arm; they could not reach for objects and place them in a desired location.
The development of the multijointed artificial arm, or manipulator, led to the modern robot. A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol, Jr., in 1954. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman, while a graduate student at Stanford University in California, developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA). PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a desired location within its reach. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template for most contemporary robots.
APPLICATION OF ROBOTS
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