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The Main Branches of Engineering





Engineering as a profession

 

Методические указания

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине

«Английский язык» для студентов I курса специальностей 6.050202 «Автоматизация и компьютерно-интегрированные технологии»,6.050502 «Инженерная механика» дневной формы обучения

 

Севастополь

УДК 629.123+656.61.052

 

Профессия инженер = Engineering as a profession. Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов I курса специальностей 6.050202 «Автоматизация и компьютерно-интегрированные технологии»,6.050502 «Инженерная механика» дневной формы обучения / Сост. Ю.А Колонова, А.В. Седунова. – Севастополь: Изд-во СевНТУ, 2008 – 36с.

 

Целью данных методических указаний является формирование у студентов умений и навыков чтения литературы по специальности, активизации навыков речевой деятельности, закрепление грамматического материала и введение нового лексического профессионально ориентированного материала.

 

Методические указания утверждены на заседании кафедры практики романских и германских языков (протокол № 3 от 29.11.08 г.).

 

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно – методическим Советом СевНТУ в качестве методических указаний.

 

Рецензент: Михайлова Е.В., кандидат филол. наук, доцент кафедры практики романских и германских языков СевНТУ.

 

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

 

Введение…………………………………………………………….………..4

1.Unit 1. History of Engineering……………………………………..…….…5

2.Unit 2. Engineering as a Profession…………………………………..……..9

3.Unit 3. The Future of the Engineering Profession…………………….…..…..13

4.Unit 4. Metals and Metalworking………………………………….……..…...17

5.Unit 5. Material Science ………………………………………………...……21

6.Unit 6. Machine Tools…………………………………………………...……25



Библиографический список……………………………………………….. 30

Приложение А.Vocabulary………………………………………………..…31

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

 

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов специальностей факультета ТАМПТ первого курса дневной формы обучения.

Целью данных практических занятий является развитие навыков чтения и понимания литературы по специальности, изучение лексического материала, повторение и обобщение грамматического материла, предусмотренного программой первого курса, развитие умения вести беседу по заданной теме.

Методические указания состоят из шести уроков, которые охватывают следующие темы: History of Engineering, Engineering as a Profession, The Future of the Engineering Profession, Metals and Metalworking, Materials Science and Technology, Machine Tools.

Каждый из уроков включает предтекстовые упражнения, тексты для чтения и пересказа, лексические упражнения профессионального содержания, грамматические упражнения и задания, связанные с активацией устной речи. Контроль осуществляется при выполнении упражнений на перевод с русского языка на английский и при проведении бесед на заданную тему.

 

Unit 1

History of Engineering

Exercise 1.Practice pronunciation of the following words and remember them. The stressed part is in bold type.

Engineering, invention, pulley, wheel, civil, mechanical, engine, discipline, electricity, industrial, revolution, vacuum, accelerate, specialized, chemical, weight, energy, torque, construction, further, development, design.

Exercise 2.Read and translate the following international words.

Mathematical, technical, principle, modern engineering, constructor, material, electric motor, experiment, positive, negative, vacuum, elements, process, computer engineer, atomic.

 

Exercise 3.Fill in the comparative and superlative form of each adjective and adverb as in the example.

Example: ancient - more ancient - the most ancient

1) modern

2) useful

3) old

4) late

5) far

6) rapid

7) famous

8) well, good

9) successful

10) much

 

Exercise 4.Match the terms with the definitions below:

Electric motor bridge vacuum tube invention search engine

 

1) service on the internet enabling users to search for items of interest.

2) a device that converts electrical energy to mechanical torque.

3) electron tube containing a cathode, anode, and, usually, one or more additional control electrodes.

4) a structure that gives a passage over a road, railway, river, etc.

5) the discovery or production of some new or improved process or machine

 

Try to explain one of the terms from exercise 1, 2 and ask your group mates to guess it.

 

Exercise 5.Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) maintenance tools a) быстрый рост

2) military projects b) за границей

3) date back c) прибор, устройство

4) specialized machines d) строения невоенного назначения

5) rapid growth e) массовое производство

6) civilian structures f) специализированный станок

7) mass production g) область, сфера

8) field h) военный проект

9) abroad i) датироваться

10) device j) эксплуатационный инструмент

 

Exercise 5.Read the text and tell what inventions were made in different fields of Engineering.

History of Engineering

Engineering has existed since ancient times when humans made inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is important for the modern engineering, using basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.

The term engineering dates back to 1325, when an engineer (one who operates an engine) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.” The word “engine” is of even older Latin origin, ingenium, meaning “invention.” Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings developed, the term civil engineering distinguished between the construction of such non-military projects and the older discipline of military engineering.

The first electrical engineer is William Gilbert, who was the author of the term "electricity".

Mechanical engineer Thomas Savery built the first steam engine in 1698. The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution and allowed the beginnings of mass production.

Electrical Engineering began with the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, George Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics.

The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering in Britain and abroad.

Chemical Engineering, like Mechanical Engineering, developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution. The role of the chemical engineer was the design of chemical plants and processes.

In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, computer engineer Alan Emtage built the first search engine.

 

Exercise 7.Read and translate the following words and word combinations.If necessary look at the Vocabulary.

Modern engineering, basic mechanical principles, useful tools, of Latin origin, civil engineering, industrial revolution, invention of the electric motor, transistor, in the nineteenth century, chemical plants and processes, computer technology.

 

Exercise 8.Find equivalents to the following words and word combinations in the text:

C древних времен, изобретать, разрабатывать оборудование (механизмы), первоначально, военный двигатель, военно-инженерное дело, инженер-электрик, первый паровой двигатель, более поздние изобретения, ускорить развитие электроники, быстрый рост машиностроения, химическое машиностроение, поисковая машина.

Exercise 9.Now use appropriate expressions from the last exercises to answer the following questions.

1) What is the origin of the term engineering?

2) What does civil engineering mean?

3) Who was the first electrical engineer? What invention did he make?

4) When was steam engine invented?

5) When did electrical engineering appear?

6) What inventions accelerated the development of electronics?

7) What inventions led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering?

8) What was the role of chemical engineering?

9) When was the first search engine built?

 

Exercise 10.Put in a/an or the.

1) a. This house is very nice. Has it got … garden?

b. It's a beautiful day. Let's sit in … garden.

c. I like living in this house but it's a pity that … garden is so small.

2) a. Can you recommend … good restaurant?

b. We had dinner in … very nice restaurant.

c. We had dinner in … most expensive restaurant in town.

3) a. She has … French name but in fact she's English, not French.

b. What's … name of that man we met yesterday?

c. We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can't remember … name now.

4) a. There isn't … airport near where I live. … nearest airport is 70 miles away.

b. Our plane was delayed. We had to wait at … airport for three hours.

c. Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to … airport?

5) a. “Are you going away next week?” “No, … week after next.”

b. I'm going away for … week in September.

c. George has a part-time job. He works three mornings … week.

 

Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with There is (are), there was (were), there will be.

1) …….. a young engineer in this laboratory next year.

2) …….. two engines in this machine.

3) …….. an electric motor in the automobile?

4) …….. a vacuum tube in the television.

5) …….. no electricity at home last night.

6) …….. Industrial revolution in the nineteenth century.

7) …….. several new universities in our city.

8) …….. 20 students in our group.

9) …….. no steam engines before the 17th century.

 

Exercise 12.Read the first sentence and then write a sentence beginning There is (are).

Example: The roads were busy today. There was a lot of traffic.

1) This soup is very salty. There … in the soup.

2) The box was empty. … in the box.

3) The film was very violent. …

4) The shops were very crowded. …

5) I like this town - it's lively. …

 

Exercise 13.Translate the sentences paying attention to one, that, those.

1) This tool is broken. Give me another one please.

2) The invention of the steam engine cannot be compared to that of the search engine.

3) The price of the transistor is higher than that of the resistor.

4) The radius of the Moon is smaller than that of the Earth.

5) There are many other famous places in the city besides those which you saw yesterday.

6) This method is an extension of that used by Bush.

7) The invention of the vacuum tube is one which accelerated the development of Electronics.

 

Exercise 14.Read the paragraph about famous people and select the correct words.

Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleyev(1834-1907) is one of (a/the) (most/more) famous Russian chemist. (He/she) is best/better known for (a/the) development of (the/a) periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements. The/a chemist classified the elements according to their atomic weight.

Sikorskiy Igor Ivanovich (1889-1972) was (a/the) (well/good) known aircraft engineer and manufacturer. (He/They) was the first to make experiments in helicopter design. He designed, built, and flew the first successful aeroplane. Later he built aircrafts for Russia and France. In 1919 he moved to (the/-) United States and helicopters designed by (him/her) were used most/much of all for US Army Air Forces during World War II.

Robert Stephenson (1803-1859) was a/an British civil engineer. He is (a/-) well-known for the construction of several notable bridges. He built several famous bridges, including (the/-) Victoria Bridge in Northumberland and two bridges across the Nile in Damietta in Egypt.

James Watt (1736-1819) was (a/an) Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, known for (his/their) improvements of the steam engine. Watt patented important inventions, including improvements of steam engine, rotary engine, double-action (двойного действия) engine. The watt, the unit of power, was named in (his/our) honour.

Exercise 15.Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary of the lesson.

1) На этом химическом заводе инженеры устанавливают разные специализированные станки.

2) Преподаватель попросил нас подготовить доклад об изобретении парового двигателя.

3) Этот производитель известен своими достижениями в промышленности.

4) Какие типы станков ты знаешь?

5) Мы превратили один тип энергии в другой.

6) Инженер запустил двигатель в 9 утра.

7) Студент никому не рассказал о своем изобретении.

8) Эта отрасль науки не так развита, как та.

9) Ты знаешь последние новости из отрасли самолетостроения?

10) Вес нового резистора меньше, чем вес старого.

 

Exercise 16.Speak on.

A famous inventor or an engineer and his contribution to world science.

 

Unit 2

Engineering as a Profession

 

Exercise 1. Match the pictures. There are some main branches of Engineering. Look at these photographs with different areas of engineering and match them with Texts 1-4 below.

 

a) b) c) d)

 

Text 1. This engineering branch deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the design of PDAs and the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Engineers may also work on a software system.

 

Text 2. This branch focuses on the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.

 

Text 3. In this field engineers design, test, build and operate machinery of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structure. Engineers use the main principles of mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy to design and analyze motor vehicles, aircraft, heating and cooling systems, watercraft, industrial equipment and machinery, robotics, medical devices and more.

 

Text 4. This branch of engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Engineers work with such devises as transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy.

 

Exercise 2. Match these captions with the pictures.

1) Structures and vehicles of all sizes...

2) The Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu engineers were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004.

3) Electrical Engineers design complex power systems...

4) Personal digital assistant

 

Exercise 3. There are some words which you can guess from the context. Look at them. Are they nouns, verbs or adjectives?

 

Engineering, deal with, machinery, design, maintenance, transmission, building, generator, include, industrial, variety, user, range, aircraft

 

Exercise 4. Match the following words with the Russian equivalents below. Translate the sentences containing them (Texts 1 – 4). If necessary look at the Vocabulary.

 

1) Hardware a) единая энергетическая система;

2) Robotics b) производственное оборудование;

3) Desktop computers c) робототехника

4) Power grid d) системы обогрева и охлаждения

5) Maintenance e) автомобиль

6) Distribution f) хардвер, "железо" детали компьютера

7) Digital g) настольный ПК

8) Heating and cooling systems h) судно

9) Motor vehicle i) цифровой

10) Watercraft j) распределение

11) Industrial equipment k) содержание и техническое обслуживание

 

Exercise 5. Refer back to the Texts 1-4 and discuss the questions:

 

What engineering branches have you read about?

What are their peculiarities?

 

Exercise 6. Write a list of as many branches of engineering as you can think of. Compare your list with groupmates’ ones.

 

Exercise 7. Read the text below and underline any engineering fields that are not in your list.

Unit 3

Unit 4

Metals and Metalworking

Exercise 1.Translate the words with prefix non- having negative meaning.

 

Nonatomic, noncontrolled, nonmilitary, nonnuclear, nonstandard, nonturbulent

 

Note: some words with prefix non- are hyphenated:

Conductor — (проводник теплоты, электричества); non-conductor (непроводник)

essential — (существенный); non-essential (несущественный)

ferrous — (содержащий железо, черный о металле); non-ferrous (не содержащий железо; цветной)

 

Exercise 2. Translate the following words and define their parts of speech (noun, adjective, and verb).

Deep, darkness, wide, width, broaden, depth, long, height, weakness, darken, high, strengthen, broad, deepen, weak, length, widen; breadth strong, lengthen, heighten, strength, short, weaken, shortness, dark, shorten.

 

Exercise 3.Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) to divide a) станки

2) ferrous metals b) свойства, качества

3) non-ferrous metals c) черные металлы

4) alloys d) плавкий

5) machine tools e) по характерному металлическому блеску

6) machinery f) относиться

7) to include g) цветные металлы

8) to refer tо h) машины

9) properties i) включать

10) by their specific metallic lustre j) сплавы (металлов)

11) fusible k) делить, разделять(ся)

 

Exercise 4.Learn the metals and match them with the explanations below. Translate the sentences. If necessary look at the Vocabulary.

 

Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), zink (Zn), mercury (Hg)

 

1) Is of reddish colour and has corrosion resistant qualities. Also is the best conductor of electricity.

2) A silvery metal which is not corroded by air. It is used for making tin plate.

3) A very expensive metal. A grey malleable metal used for roofing and battery plates, pipes.

4) Its color is yellow when hot and white when cold. It is used for making dry batteries.

5) Malleable ductile silvery-white metal. It is widely used for structural and engineering purposes.

6) The best known light metal. It does not rust in the air. It is soft and that is why it is used only when alloyed with other metals.

7) A heavy silvery-white toxic liquid metal used in thermometers, barometers, etc.

 

Exercise 5. Read the text and see if there are any facts about metals you did not know before.

 

Unit5

Materials Science

 

Exercise 1.Practice pronunciation of the following words and remember them. The stressed part is in bold type.

Material, technology, modern, physics, plastics, metallurgy, elastic, deformation, metal, vibration, engineering, cyclic, temperature, machine, component, weight, original.

 

Exercise 2.Fill in the correct prepositions Fill in the correct prepositions: on, from, of, in, at, for, on.

1) Silicon is the important material … an electronic computer chip. Your CD, DVD player, and telephone - all depend … semiconductors.

2) Creep is a slow, permanent deformation resulting … a steady force acting … a material.

3) Paints, plastics and most of the food you eat are made … of polymers.

4) Every part … your body is a material!

5) Material scientists work … labs and universities all over the world.

6) Materials … high temperatures usually suffer … this deformation.

7) Fatigue is the result … external forces.

 

Exercise 3.Translate the following words and define their parts of speech (noun, adjective, and verb):

Metal, compression, deform, technologist, scientific, vibration, scientist, metallic, compress, technology, chemistry, metallurgy, technological, chemist, deformation, science, chemical, vibrate.

 

Exercise 4.Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) laboratory techniques a) металлический брусок

2) exter­nal forces b) усталость металла

3) elastic deformation c) сжатие

4) compression d) ползучесть

5) bend­ing e) напряжение при растяжении

6) metal fatigue f) уменьшение в объеме

7) torsion (twisting) force g) лабораторные методики

8) rupture h) внешние силы

9) tensile stress i) разрыв

10) creep j) скручивающее усилие

11) metal bar k) упругая деформация

12) Decrease in vol­ume l)сгибание

 

Exercise 5.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences and translate them paying attention to Passive voice:

1) Ma­terials can are fabricated to have different properties.

2) Most materials is subjected to a torsion (twisting) force.

3) No deformation is saw during fatigue.

4) Rolling can be do either hot or cold.

5) Decrease in vol­ume shall be caused by compression.

6) New laboratory techniques has been used to find new metalworking methods.

7) The metal bar was subjects to a tensional (tensile) force.

8) New materials with the desired properties can be created.

 

Exercise 6.Read the text and underline all types of forces acting on materials.

Material Science

 

Materials Science and Technology is the study of ma­terials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to exter­nal forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bend­ing, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation returning their original size and form when the external force disap­pears. The materials may also have permanent deforma­tion or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in vol­ume. When a material is subjected to a bending, shear­ing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and comp­ressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is compressed.

Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding a weight. Under tension, a material usu­ally stretches, returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater forces the mate­rial ruptures.

Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It oc­curs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the ma­terial can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remain­ing cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Knowledge of tensile stress, elastic limits, and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering.

Creep is a slow, permanent deformation that results from steady force acting on a material. Materials at high temperatures usually suffer from this deformation. Loosening of bolts and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all the exam­ples of creep. In many cases the slow deformation stops because deformation eliminates the force causing the creep. Creep extended over a long time finally leads to the rupture of the material.

 

Exercise 7.Fill in the correct verb from the list below. Use the words only once. Translate the phrases.

 

Meet, suffer, return,propagate,eliminate, support, respond, fabricate, decrease, loosen, exceed

… original size, … the needs,bolts,vol­ume, … cracks, … the material's elastic limit, … to exter­nal forces,the maximum stress, … from deformation, … material, … the force

Exercise 8.Find the following word combinations in the text.

1) отвечать требованиям современной технологии

2) используя лабораторные методы

4) сжатие, растяжение, изгиб, кручение, срез

5) возвращать первоначальный размер и форму

6) внешняя сила

7) постоянная деформация

8) уменьшение объема

9) растягивающие и сжимающие силы

10) превышать предел упругости материала

11) повторяющиеся циклические напряжения

12) разрушение материала

13) развитие и распространение мелких трещин

14) сопротивление материалов ползучести и устало­сти

 

Exercise 9. Put the words in the correct order and answer the questions:

1) What size change materials the form and forces of?

2) What of results external are the forces?

3) What compression cause does?

4) What of tension result is the?

5) What we do fatigue call? When occur it does? What of are the fatigue results?

6) What call do creep we? When this does take place deformation? What of results creep are the?

 

Exercise 10. Translate into English the following sentences paying attention to Participle I:

1) Скручивая материал, мы можем его деформировать.

2) Усталость и ползучесть материалов являются результатом внешних сил, воздействующих на материал.

3) Внешние силы вызывают постоянную деформа­цию и разрушение материала, изменяя его свойства.

4) Растягивающие и сжимающие силы работают одновременно, когда мы изгибаем или скручиваем материал.

5) Растягивая материал выше предела его упру­гости, мы вызваем постоянную деформацию или разрушение.

6) Применяя современные технологии, мы можем получать новые материалы с нужными свойствами.

7) Человек, измеряющий ползучесть и усталость металла, является инженером нашего института.

8) Сжатие – это давление, приводящее к уменьшению объема.

9) Ползучесть – это деформация, которая является результатом постоянной силы, действующей на материал.

10) Превысив предел упругости материала, они разорвали материал.

 

Exercise 11.Translate the words from Russian into English to complete the sentences.

1) Деформированный material was not used in the production of tools.

2) One side of погнутый metal bar was compressed.

3) The material растянутый did not return to its original length.

4) Вылитый metal into a mold was cooled.

5) Оставленные machine tools were in bad condition.

6) Вымытые instruments were in the laboratory.

 

Exercise 12.Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Participle II:

1) Hydrogen is the lightest element known.

2) The work performed showed good results.

3) The substance obtained contained some admixtures.

4) Unless heated, this substance does not melt.

5) Gold does not rust not even when heated.

6) This substance does not dissolve in water whether heat­ed or not.

7) The temperature of the liquid obtained remained con­stant.

8) This reaction will be of little service unless catalyzed or carried out at high temperature.

9)Metals do not melt until heated to a definite temperature.

10) Given the weight and gravity of a body you can calculate its volume.

 

Exercise 13.Speak on

What subjects are the most important for you as a future engineer? Prove your reply.

 

 

Unit 6

Machine Tools

 

Exercise 1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Practice the pronunciation of the following.

[ ] conventional, machine, operation, shape; [ ] unconventional, among, number, punch, production, ultrasonic, industry, ultrathin; [aι] either, classified, grinder, die, light, primarily, device, microprocessor; [ ] saw, auxiliary, forming, drawing; [eι] lathe, shaper, planer, laser, capable, aerospace, range; [æ] gas, ram, alloy, plasma, category, [ι:] beam, superheated; [α:]arc, discharge, particle, ultrahard.

 

Exercise 2. Match these words with their initial forms and Russian equivalents.

1) shaper, shaping a) drill 1) строгать

2) milling b) bore 2) придавать форму

3) planer c) grind 3) вытягивать, волочить

4) drilling d) draw 4) штамповать

5) boring e) shape 5) срезать

6) grinder f) shear 6) бурить

7) shearing g) press 7) формировать, обрабатывать

8) drawing h) plane 8) шлифовать

9) pressing i) form 9) сверлить

10) forming j) mill 10) фрезеровать

 

Exercise 3. Explain the meaning of these expressions taking into account the value of the prefix and ending and the sense of the base form.

Example: the drilling machine

The drilling machine is used to create holes.

1) ultrahard alloys

2) ultrathin materials

3) a tricycle

4) a microprocessor

5) a multi-user configuration

6) ultrasonic machines

7) a minicomputer

8) a multispindle unit

Exercise 4. Before you read the text, try to answer the following questions.

What is a machine tool?

What is it used for?

What kinds of machine tools do you know?

 

Read the texts and match them with the headings in the list.

ü Machine tools are stationary power-driven machines

ü Presses

ü Unconventional machine tools

ü Conventional machine tools

1……………………………..They are used to shape or form solid materials, especially metals. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Nowadays most machine tools are electrically driven. Machine tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools. They form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machines and tool parts. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional machine tools, presses, and unconventional machine tools.

2……………………………. Among the basic machine tools are the lathe, the shaper, the planer, and the milling machine. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines, grinders, saws, and various metal-forming machines.

3.…………………………….They employ a number of different shaping processes, including shearing, pressing, or drawing. Presses are equipped with dies and punches. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed for only one stroke of the ram.

4……………………………..They employ light, electrical, chemical, and sonic energy; superheated gases; and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electro discharge, electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as microprocessors. Numerical control of machine tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made it possible for complete systems of machine tools to be used for the manufacture of a range of products.

 

Exercise 5. Read the following active words and word combinations. Can you guess their meanings? Compare your ideas with other students.

Stationary power-driven machines; electrically driven; hand tools; unconventional machine tools; metal-forming machines; boring machines; shaping processes; rapid production; operation time; superheated gases; high-energy particle beams; electron-beam machines; aerospace applications; numerical control; flexible manufacturing systems; range of products.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

Станки с ручным управлением; авиакосмическая промышленность твердый материал; бурильный молоток; токарный станок; деталь; фрезерный станок; шлифовальный станок; строгальный станок; вытравливать; сверлильный станок; машина для обработки металлов давлением; волочение; срез; звуковая энергия; пучок частиц высокой энергии; плазменно-дуговая установка; электроразрядные; сверхзвуковой; специальные станки; тяжелая промышленность; цифровое программное управление; гибкая производственная система; продольно-строгальный станок; поперечно-строгальный станок.

 

Exercise 7. Using the information from the text “Machine tools”, complete these statements. Translate them. If necessary look at the Vocabulary.

1) Modern machine tools are used to………………………..

2) There are three main categories of machine tools:…..................................................

3) Drilling, boring machines, grinders, saws and various metal-forming machines may be referred to…………………………….

4) Presses shape the workpieces without cutting away material that’s why they are equipped with……………………..

5) A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, ……….. and a power source.

6) ………………………………to shape the exotic materials and alloys.

7) Unconventional machine tools include……………………..

Exercise 8. Match the terms from the list below with the explanations and definitions.

Planer, lathe, drilling machine tool, ultrasonic machine, portable circular saw, grinder, laser.

1) It is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. It can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece.

2) Unlike the shaper, which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece, this device moves the workpiece past a fixed tool.

3) It holds and rotates the workpiece while cutting tools shape it.

4) It employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities.

5) It removes metal with rotating abrasive wheel.

6) Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed.

7) They are classified into three general types, according to the kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines (ленточная пила).

Exercise 9. Answer the questions to the text “Machine tools”.

1) What are machine tools used for?

2) How are most machine tools driven nowadays?

3) What does “workpiece” mean?

4) What categories are machine tools classified under?

5) What machine tools are among the basic ones?

6) Are there any auxiliary machine tools?

7) Dies and punches are designed for such operations as forming, punching, and shearing, aren’t they?

8) What do unconventional machine tools employ to shape the materials?

9) What machine tools are used in heavy industry? What kinds of alloys do they shape?

10) What is numerical control of machine tools used for?

 

Exercise 10. From the noun “machine”we can form other words:

 

Machined, machinery, machineman, machines, machining, machinist

 

Decide which part of speech each word is and complete the following word combinations.

1) Diamond …... part

2) Metal-working ……

3) Skilled ……

4) …….'s kit

5) Electric rotating ……

6) ……. by chip removal

Exercise 11. Put the words given in the brackets into the proper order. Translate the sentences without a preliminary preparation.

1) In general, the shaper can produce almost any surface composed of (straight-line elements).

2) The planer is the largest of (the machine reciprocating tools).

3) Drilling machines vary in size and function, multispindle units, (production automatic machines), and (drilling-hole-deep machines).

4) Plasma-arc machining employs a (high jet velocity) of (gas high-temperature) to melt and displace material.

5) Extremely fine wires can also be welded using (laser machining beam equipment).

6) (A high-frequency pulsating electric current) is applied between the tool point and the workpiece.

7) The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by (molecules gas) in the atmosphere.

8) (Drive motor) is usually used to power (larger guns machine) on vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels.

9) (Operated-machine device) employed in engineering, manufacturing, woodworking, and metalwork to cut or shape metal or wood parts.

10) Important (power-machine or operated tools) include lathes, dies, presses, and equipment used for boring, milling, and welding.

Exercise 12. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary of the lesson.

1) Станки с механическим приводом применяются для обработки твердых материалов, особенно металлов.

2) Станки с электроприводом более быстрые и точные, чем с ручным управлением.

3) Токарные, поперечно-строгальные, продольно-строгальные и фрезерные станки относятся к станкам с ручным управлением.

4) Шлифовальные станки имеют вращающийся абразивный инструмент.

5) Прессы, оснащенные пуансонами и штампами, сокращают время выполнения операции, что способствует значительному увеличению объемов производства.

6) Специальные станки используют световую, электрическую, химическую, звуковую энергию, перегретые газы, пучки частиц высокой энергии для обработки материалов, обладающих необычными свойствами.

7) Плазменно-дуговые и лазерные станки были спроектированы для работы со сверхжесткими сплавами, которые используются в тяжелой и аэрокосмической промышленности.

8) С помощью лазера можно сделать отверстия в тугоплавких или керамико-металлических материалах, не нанеся урон самой детали.

9) Деталь, обработанная алмазным инструментом, имеет законченный вид.

10) Благодаря цифровому программному управление и гибкой производственной система станки используются почти на всех уровнях производства.

 

Exercise 13. Speak on.

What main categories of machine tools do you know? Describe each of them.

 

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык для технических вузов: учебное пособие / И.П. Агабекян, П.И. Коваленко. – Изд. 9-е. – Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 2007. – 349 с.

2. Куклина И. П. Energy is the Source of Life Пособие по английскому языку для техникумов, колледжей, профессионально-технических училищ / И. П. Куклина. – Санкт-Петербург: КАРО, 2000. – 508 с.

3. Турук И.Ф. Пособие по переводу технических текстов с английского языка на русский / И.Ф. Турук. – М.: Высш.шк.,1966. – 97 с.

4. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia

5. http://en.wikipedia.org

6. http://www.multitran.ru

 

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ А

(справочное)

Vocabulary

 

Unit 5. Material Science

Silicon – кремний

Semiconductors – полупроводник

Creep - ползучесть, крип

Permanent – постоянный

Steady –постоянный

Paint – краска

Suffer from – страдать от

Fatigue – усталость

Technique - методика

Metal fatigue - усталость металла

Compression - сжатие

Bend­ing- сгибание, гибка

Bar – брусок

Rupture - разрыв

Tensile stress - напряжение при растяжении

Torsion (twisting) force - скручивающее усилие

Respond – реагировать, отвечать

Exter­nal – внешний

Tension - растяжение; растягивающее усилие

Compression – сжатие

Torsion - кручение; деформация кручения

Shear - сдвигающее усилие

Fracture - разрыв; трещина

Simultaneously – одновременно

Stretch – растягивать

Pull – тянуть

Elastic limit - предел упругости

Rupture - разрыв; разрушение, трещина

Crack - трещина; разрыв

Stress - нагрузка; усилие

Cyclic – циклический

Loosen – ослаблять

Bolt – болт

Mold – форма

Hydrogen – водород

Admixture – примесь

Rust – ржаветь

Dissolve – растворяться

Catalyze – катализировать

Gravity - сила тяжести, плотность

 

 

Unit 6. Machine Tools

Machine tool – станок, машина

Solid material – сплошной материал; монолитный материал

Workpiece – обрабатываемая деталь; заготовка

Electrically driven – с электроприводом

Accurate – верный, правильный, точный

Hand tools – слесарно-монтажный инструмент

Conventional machine tool – станок с ручным управлением

Unconventional machine tool – специальный станок

lathe - токарный станок

Shaper – строгальный станок

Planer – продольно-строгальный станок

Milling machine – фрезерный станок

Drilling machine – сверлильный станок

Boring machine – бурильная машина

Grinder – шлифовальный станок

Shear – резать; срезать

Draw – волочить, тянуть

Die – штамп, пуансон, фильера

Punch – штемпель

Stroke – такт; взмах; удар; ход

Ram – поршень

Sonic energy – акустическая энергия

Superheated gases – перегретые газы

High-energy particle beam – пучок частиц высокой энергии

Plasma-arc – плазма дугового разряда

Laser-beam – лазерный луч

Electro discharge – электро разряд

Ultrasonic – сверхзвуковой, ультразвуковой

Ultrahard alloy – сверхжёсткий сплав

Ultrathin material – ультратонкий материал

Numerical control – цифровое программное управление

Flexible – гибкий

Stationary bed – неподвижная станина

Refractory metals – тугоплавкий металл

Warp – деформировать(ся)

Cavity – углубление

Reciprocating – возвратно-поступательный

Band-sawing machines – ленточная пила

Scattering - рассеивание; рассыпание; разбрасывание, разброс, рассредоточение

 

 

Заказ № от « » 20 г. Тираж экз.

Изд-во СевНТУ

Engineering as a profession

 

Методические указания

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине

«Английский язык» для студентов I курса специальностей 6.050202 «Автоматизация и компьютерно-интегрированные технологии»,6.050502 «Инженерная механика» дневной формы обучения

 

Севастополь

УДК 629.123+656.61.052

 

Профессия инженер = Engineering as a profession. Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов I курса специальностей 6.050202 «Автоматизация и компьютерно-интегрированные технологии»,6.050502 «Инженерная механика» дневной формы обучения / Сост. Ю.А Колонова, А.В. Седунова. – Севастополь: Изд-во СевНТУ, 2008 – 36с.

 

Целью данных методических указаний является формирование у студентов умений и навыков чтения литературы по специальности, активизации навыков речевой деятельности, закрепление грамматического материала и введение нового лексического профессионально ориентированного материала.

 

Методические указания утверждены на заседании кафедры практики романских и германских языков (протокол № 3 от 29.11.08 г.).

 

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно – методическим Советом СевНТУ в качестве методических указаний.

 

Рецензент: Михайлова Е.В., кандидат филол. наук, доцент кафедры практики романских и германских языков СевНТУ.

 

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

 

Введение…………………………………………………………….………..4

1.Unit 1. History of Engineering……………………………………..…….…5

2.Unit 2. Engineering as a Profession…………………………………..……..9

3.Unit 3. The Future of the Engineering Profession…………………….…..…..13

4.Unit 4. Metals and Metalworking………………………………….……..…...17

5.Unit 5. Material Science ………………………………………………...……21

6.Unit 6. Machine Tools…………………………………………………...……25

Библиографический список……………………………………………….. 30

Приложение А.Vocabulary………………………………………………..…31

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

 

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов специальностей факультета ТАМПТ первого курса дневной формы обучения.

Целью данных практических занятий является развитие навыков чтения и понимания литературы по специальности, изучение лексического материала, повторение и обобщение грамматического материла, предусмотренного программой первого курса, развитие умения вести беседу по заданной теме.

Методические указания состоят из шести уроков, которые охватывают следующие темы: History of Engineering, Engineering as a Profession, The Future of the Engineering Profession, Metals and Metalworking, Materials Science and Technology, Machine Tools.

Каждый из уроков включает предтекстовые упражнения, тексты для чтения и пересказа, лексические упражнения профессионального содержания, грамматические упражнения и задания, связанные с активацией устной речи. Контроль осуществляется при выполнении упражнений на перевод с русского языка на английский и при проведении бесед на заданную тему.

 

Unit 1

History of Engineering

Exercise 1.Practice pronunciation of the following words and remember them. The stressed part is in bold type.

Engineering, invention, pulley, wheel, civil, mechanical, engine, discipline, electricity, industrial, revolution, vacuum, accelerate, specialized, chemical, weight, energy, torque, construction, further, development, design.

Exercise 2.Read and translate the following international words.

Mathematical, technical, principle, modern engineering, constructor, material, electric motor, experiment, positive, negative, vacuum, elements, process, computer engineer, atomic.

 

Exercise 3.Fill in the comparative and superlative form of each adjective and adverb as in the example.

Example: ancient - more ancient - the most ancient

1) modern

2) useful

3) old

4) late

5) far

6) rapid

7) famous

8) well, good

9) successful

10) much

 

Exercise 4.Match the terms with the definitions below:

Electric motor bridge vacuum tube invention search engine

 

1) service on the internet enabling users to search for items of interest.

2) a device that converts electrical energy to mechanical torque.

3) electron tube containing a cathode, anode, and, usually, one or more additional control electrodes.

4) a structure that gives a passage over a road, railway, river, etc.

5) the discovery or production of some new or improved process or machine

 

Try to explain one of the terms from exercise 1, 2 and ask your group mates to guess it.

 

Exercise 5.Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) maintenance tools a) быстрый рост

2) military projects b) за границей

3) date back c) прибор, устройство

4) specialized machines d) строения невоенного назначения

5) rapid growth e) массовое производство

6) civilian structures f) специализированный станок

7) mass production g) область, сфера

8) field h) военный проект

9) abroad i) датироваться

10) device j) эксплуатационный инструмент

 

Exercise 5.Read the text and tell what inventions were made in different fields of Engineering.

History of Engineering

Engineering has existed since ancient times when humans made inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is important for the modern engineering, using basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.









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