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Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals

All metals are divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of which is iron. The classification of ferrous metals includes iron, steel and its alloys. Metals in general and especially ferrous metals are of great importance in various construc­tions. Machine tools and machinery, steamships and locomotives, automobiles and bridges are produced by the steel industry. Non-ferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of which is not iron but some other element such as copper, aluminium and others.

Some characteristics of non-ferrous metals are: high electric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, non-magnetic qualities, light weight and easiness to fabrication. Zink, copper and lead sulphides, aluminium and tin oxides, magnesium, are the naturally occurring minerals from which these metals are extracted.

There are some properties of metals:

a) They can be known by specific by their specific metallic lustre.

b) Metals can be forged.

c) Metals can be pulled.

d) All metals, except mercury, are hard substances.

e) Metals are fusible andcan be melted.

f) Metals are good conductors of electricity.


Exercise 6.Explain the following words from the text.

Ferrous metals, alloys, machinery, non-ferrous metals, non-magnetic qualities, electric conductivity, corrosion resistance, steel industry.


Exercise 7.Retell the text answering the following questions.

1) What groups are all metals divided into?

2) What is the main component of ferrous metals and alloys?

3) Do ferrous metals include iron, steel and its alloys?

4) Are metals of great importance in machine-building?

5) Are automobiles made of ferrous metals?

6) Where else are ferrous metals used?

7) What's the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals?

7) How can all metals be known (distinguished)?

8) Can metals be forged and pulled?

9) Are all metals hard substances?

10) What are the main properties of metals?


Exercise 8. Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) metal product a) формовка

2) ore b) деформировать

3) malleable c) лить

4) forming d) руда

5) cutting e) литейная форма

6) to deform f) литниковый остаток

7) pour g) ковкий; пластичный

8) mold h) молоток

9) hammer i) резание

10) forging temperature j) продукция металлообработки

11) excess material k) температура горячей ковки

12) finished part l) обработанная деталь

13) die m) стружки

14) chips n) штамп, пуансон, матрица

15) smelt o) подвергать плавке


Exercise 9. Before reading the text learn the following metalworking processes.

Casting- литьё, отливка

Sheet metal forming - листовая штамповка

Hot forging - горячая ковка

Drawing - волочение

Welding - сварка


Exercise 10.Read the text and underline all the cases of the Passive Voice.

Metalworking Processes

Metalworking is industry of working with metals to create individual parts or big structures. In the distant past people discovered that rocks now called ores could be smelted, producing metal. Further, they discovered that the metal product was malleable and ductile and thus able to be formed into various tools and put to other practical uses.

Metalworking generally is divided into the following categories, forming, cutting, and, joining. Each of these categories contains various processes.

Forming processes modify the shape of the object by deforming it, that is, without removing any material. Casting is an example of achieving a specific form by pouring metal into a mold and allowing it to cool. Sheet metal forming is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. The metals are stretched in order to obtain the new shape. Hot forging is deformation with such tools as hammers while the material is at forging temperature. Drawing consists of pulling metal through a die.

Cutting is a collection of processes of removing excess material using tools. The result of cutting is two products, the excess material, and the finished part. The excess material is chips and excess metal. One of the most common examples of a chip producing process is drilling a hole in a metal part.

One of joining processes is welding. It is a fabrication process when metal parts are joined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both. Heat welding is the most common welding process used today.


Exercise 12. Translate the following words and word combinations from text “Metalworking processes” into Russian.

Rocks called ores, to be smelted, malleable, casting, mold, allowing it to cool, parts of certain shape and size, at forging temperature, chips or swarf, drilling, the most common examples, metals are stretched, hot forging, obtain the new shape.


Exercise 13. Translate into English.

В далеком прошлом, строения, ковкий, соединение, формовка, резание, удалять метал, выливать металл, листовая штамповка, штамп, отходы, обработанная деталь, литниковый остаток, металлическая деталь, сварка, применение тепла или давления.


Exercise 14.Rewrite the sentences in the Passive.

1) We will create individual parts and structures.

Individual parts ………………………………….…….

2) Further people discovered new properties of metals.

New properties of metals …………………………….

3) Three metalworking categories include various processes.

Various processes ……………………………………..

4) These processes modify the shape of the object by deforming it.

The shape of the object ……………………………...

5) The engineer poured metal into a mold and cooled it.

The metal ……………………………………………….

6) The student deformed the material with hammers while it was at forging temperature.

The material ……………………………………………

7) They must remove excess material using tools.

Excess material ………………………………………..

1) Scientists will drill a hole in a metal part.

A hole ……………………………………………………

9) People use heat welding very often today.

Heat welding …………………………………….……..

10) We need to obtain a new shape of the material.

A new shape of the material ………………………...


Exercise 15. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary of the lesson.


1) Во время горячей ковки металл может сильно деформироваться.

2) Листовая штамповка может быть горячей и холодной.

3) Алюминиевые и медные сплавы очень пластичны при деформации.

4) Много различных методов металлообработки было разработано для определенных целей.

5) Металлы важны в промышленности, так как они могут легко принимать разные формы.

6) В процессе ковки применяются технологии для увеличения пластичности металла.

7) Процесс сварки сильно зависит от свойств металлов, целей применения и оборудования.


Exercise 16. Speak on.

The importance of metalworking processes in our life.



Materials Science


Exercise 1.Practice pronunciation of the following words and remember them. The stressed part is in bold type.

Material, technology, modern, physics, plastics, metallurgy, elastic, deformation, metal, vibration, engineering, cyclic, temperature, machine, component, weight, original.


Exercise 2.Fill in the correct prepositions Fill in the correct prepositions: on, from, of, in, at, for, on.

1) Silicon is the important material … an electronic computer chip. Your CD, DVD player, and telephone - all depend … semiconductors.

2) Creep is a slow, permanent deformation resulting … a steady force acting … a material.

3) Paints, plastics and most of the food you eat are made … of polymers.

4) Every part … your body is a material!

5) Material scientists work … labs and universities all over the world.

6) Materials … high temperatures usually suffer … this deformation.

7) Fatigue is the result … external forces.


Exercise 3.Translate the following words and define their parts of speech (noun, adjective, and verb):

Metal, compression, deform, technologist, scientific, vibration, scientist, metallic, compress, technology, chemistry, metallurgy, technological, chemist, deformation, science, chemical, vibrate.


Exercise 4.Match the words and expressions on the left with those on the right.

1) laboratory techniques a) металлический брусок

2) exter­nal forces b) усталость металла

3) elastic deformation c) сжатие

4) compression d) ползучесть

5) bend­ing e) напряжение при растяжении

6) metal fatigue f) уменьшение в объеме

7) torsion (twisting) force g) лабораторные методики

8) rupture h) внешние силы

9) tensile stress i) разрыв

10) creep j) скручивающее усилие

11) metal bar k) упругая деформация

12) Decrease in vol­ume l)сгибание


Exercise 5.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences and translate them paying attention to Passive voice:

1) Ma­terials can are fabricated to have different properties.

2) Most materials is subjected to a torsion (twisting) force.

3) No deformation is saw during fatigue.

4) Rolling can be do either hot or cold.

5) Decrease in vol­ume shall be caused by compression.

6) New laboratory techniques has been used to find new metalworking methods.

7) The metal bar was subjects to a tensional (tensile) force.

8) New materials with the desired properties can be created.


Exercise 6.Read the text and underline all types of forces acting on materials.

Material Science


Materials Science and Technology is the study of ma­terials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to exter­nal forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bend­ing, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation returning their original size and form when the external force disap­pears. The materials may also have permanent deforma­tion or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in vol­ume. When a material is subjected to a bending, shear­ing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and comp­ressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is compressed.

Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding a weight. Under tension, a material usu­ally stretches, returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater forces the mate­rial ruptures.

Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It oc­curs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the ma­terial can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remain­ing cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Knowledge of tensile stress, elastic limits, and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering.

Creep is a slow, permanent deformation that results from steady force acting on a material. Materials at high temperatures usually suffer from this deformation. Loosening of bolts and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all the exam­ples of creep. In many cases the slow deformation stops because deformation eliminates the force causing the creep. Creep extended over a long time finally leads to the rupture of the material.


Exercise 7.Fill in the correct verb from the list below. Use the words only once. Translate the phrases.


Meet, suffer, return,propagate,eliminate, support, respond, fabricate, decrease, loosen, exceed

… original size, … the needs,bolts,vol­ume, … cracks, … the material's elastic limit, … to exter­nal forces,the maximum stress, … from deformation, … material, … the force

Exercise 8.Find the following word combinations in the text.

1) отвечать требованиям современной технологии

2) используя лабораторные методы

4) сжатие, растяжение, изгиб, кручение, срез

5) возвращать первоначальный размер и форму

6) внешняя сила

7) постоянная деформация

8) уменьшение объема

9) растягивающие и сжимающие силы

10) превышать предел упругости материала

11) повторяющиеся циклические напряжения

12) разрушение материала

13) развитие и распространение мелких трещин

14) сопротивление материалов ползучести и устало­сти


Exercise 9. Put the words in the correct order and answer the questions:

1) What size change materials the form and forces of?

2) What of results external are the forces?

3) What compression cause does?

4) What of tension result is the?

5) What we do fatigue call? When occur it does? What of are the fatigue results?

6) What call do creep we? When this does take place deformation? What of results creep are the?


Exercise 10. Translate into English the following sentences paying attention to Participle I:

1) Скручивая материал, мы можем его деформировать.

2) Усталость и ползучесть материалов являются результатом внешних сил, воздействующих на материал.

3) Внешние силы вызывают постоянную деформа­цию и разрушение материала, изменяя его свойства.

4) Растягивающие и сжимающие силы работают одновременно, когда мы изгибаем или скручиваем материал.

5) Растягивая материал выше предела его упру­гости, мы вызваем постоянную деформацию или разрушение.

6) Применяя современные технологии, мы можем получать новые материалы с нужными свойствами.

7) Человек, измеряющий ползучесть и усталость металла, является инженером нашего института.

8) Сжатие – это давление, приводящее к уменьшению объема.

9) Ползучесть – это деформация, которая является результатом постоянной силы, действующей на материал.

10) Превысив предел упругости материала, они разорвали материал.


Exercise 11.Translate the words from Russian into English to complete the sentences.

1) Деформированный material was not used in the production of tools.

2) One side of погнутый metal bar was compressed.

3) The material растянутый did not return to its original length.

4) Вылитый metal into a mold was cooled.

5) Оставленные machine tools were in bad condition.

6) Вымытые instruments were in the laboratory.


Exercise 12.Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Participle II:

1) Hydrogen is the lightest element known.

2) The work performed showed good results.

3) The substance obtained contained some admixtures.

4) Unless heated, this substance does not melt.

5) Gold does not rust not even when heated.

6) This substance does not dissolve in water whether heat­ed or not.

7) The temperature of the liquid obtained remained con­stant.

8) This reaction will be of little service unless catalyzed or carried out at high temperature.

9)Metals do not melt until heated to a definite temperature.

10) Given the weight and gravity of a body you can calculate its volume.


Exercise 13.Speak on

What subjects are the most important for you as a future engineer? Prove your reply.



Unit 6

Machine Tools


Exercise 1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Practice the pronunciation of the following.

[ ] conventional, machine, operation, shape; [ ] unconventional, among, number, punch, production, ultrasonic, industry, ultrathin; [aι] either, classified, grinder, die, light, primarily, device, microprocessor; [ ] saw, auxiliary, forming, drawing; [eι] lathe, shaper, planer, laser, capable, aerospace, range; [æ] gas, ram, alloy, plasma, category, [ι:] beam, superheated; [α:]arc, discharge, particle, ultrahard.


Exercise 2. Match these words with their initial forms and Russian equivalents.

1) shaper, shaping a) drill 1) строгать

2) milling b) bore 2) придавать форму

3) planer c) grind 3) вытягивать, волочить

4) drilling d) draw 4) штамповать

5) boring e) shape 5) срезать

6) grinder f) shear 6) бурить

7) shearing g) press 7) формировать, обрабатывать

8) drawing h) plane 8) шлифовать

9) pressing i) form 9) сверлить

10) forming j) mill 10) фрезеровать


Exercise 3. Explain the meaning of these expressions taking into account the value of the prefix and ending and the sense of the base form.

Example: the drilling machine

The drilling machine is used to create holes.

1) ultrahard alloys

2) ultrathin materials

3) a tricycle

4) a microprocessor

5) a multi-user configuration

6) ultrasonic machines

7) a minicomputer

8) a multispindle unit

Exercise 4. Before you read the text, try to answer the following questions.

What is a machine tool?

What is it used for?

What kinds of machine tools do you know?


Read the texts and match them with the headings in the list.

ü Machine tools are stationary power-driven machines

ü Presses

ü Unconventional machine tools

ü Conventional machine tools

1……………………………..They are used to shape or form solid materials, especially metals. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Nowadays most machine tools are electrically driven. Machine tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools. They form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machines and tool parts. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional machine tools, presses, and unconventional machine tools.

2……………………………. Among the basic machine tools are the lathe, the shaper, the planer, and the milling machine. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines, grinders, saws, and various metal-forming machines.

3.…………………………….They employ a number of different shaping processes, including shearing, pressing, or drawing. Presses are equipped with dies and punches. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed for only one stroke of the ram.

4……………………………..They employ light, electrical, chemical, and sonic energy; superheated gases; and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electro discharge, electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as microprocessors. Numerical control of machine tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made it possible for complete systems of machine tools to be used for the manufacture of a range of products.


Exercise 5. Read the following active words and word combinations. Can you guess their meanings? Compare your ideas with other students.

Stationary power-driven machines; electrically driven; hand tools; unconventional machine tools; metal-forming machines; boring machines; shaping processes; rapid production; operation time; superheated gases; high-energy particle beams; electron-beam machines; aerospace applications; numerical control; flexible manufacturing systems; range of products.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

Станки с ручным управлением; авиакосмическая промышленность твердый материал; бурильный молоток; токарный станок; деталь; фрезерный станок; шлифовальный станок; строгальный станок; вытравливать; сверлильный станок; машина для обработки металлов давлением; волочение; срез; звуковая энергия; пучок частиц высокой энергии; плазменно-дуговая установка; электроразрядные; сверхзвуковой; специальные станки; тяжелая промышленность; цифровое программное управление; гибкая производственная система; продольно-строгальный станок; поперечно-строгальный станок.


Exercise 7. Using the information from the text “Machine tools”, complete these statements. Translate them. If necessary look at the Vocabulary.

1) Modern machine tools are used to………………………..

2) There are three main categories of machine tools:…..................................................

3) Drilling, boring machines, grinders, saws and various metal-forming machines may be referred to…………………………….

4) Presses shape the workpieces without cutting away material that’s why they are equipped with……………………..

5) A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, ……….. and a power source.

6) ………………………………to shape the exotic materials and alloys.

7) Unconventional machine tools include……………………..

Exercise 8. Match the terms from the list below with the explanations and definitions.

Planer, lathe, drilling machine tool, ultrasonic machine, portable circular saw, grinder, laser.

1) It is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. It can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece.

2) Unlike the shaper, which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece, this device moves the workpiece past a fixed tool.

3) It holds and rotates the workpiece while cutting tools shape it.

4) It employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities.

5) It removes metal with rotating abrasive wheel.

6) Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed.

7) They are classified into three general types, according to the kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines (ленточная пила).

Exercise 9. Answer the questions to the text “Machine tools”.

1) What are machine tools used for?

2) How are most machine tools driven nowadays?

3) What does “workpiece” mean?

4) What categories are machine tools classified under?

5) What machine tools are among the basic ones?

6) Are there any auxiliary machine tools?

7) Dies and punches are designed for such operations as forming, punching, and shearing, aren’t they?

8) What do unconventional machine tools employ to shape the materials?

9) What machine tools are used in heavy industry? What kinds of alloys do they shape?

10) What is numerical control of machine tools used for?


Exercise 10. From the noun “machine”we can form other words:


Machined, machinery, machineman, machines, machining, machinist


Decide which part of speech each word is and complete the following word combinations.

1) Diamond …... part

2) Metal-working ……

3) Skilled ……

4) …….'s kit

5) Electric rotating ……

6) ……. by chip removal

Exercise 11. Put the words given in the brackets into the proper order. Translate the sentences without a preliminary preparation.

1) In general, the shaper can produce almost any surface composed of (straight-line elements).

2) The planer is the largest of (the machine reciprocating tools).

3) Drilling machines vary in size and function, multispindle units, (production automatic machines), and (drilling-hole-deep machines).

4) Plasma-arc machining employs a (high jet velocity) of (gas high-temperature) to melt and displace material.

5) Extremely fine wires can also be welded using (laser machining beam equipment).

6) (A high-frequency pulsating electric current) is applied between the tool point and the workpiece.

7) The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by (molecules gas) in the atmosphere.

8) (Drive motor) is usually used to power (larger guns machine) on vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels.

9) (Operated-machine device) employed in engineering, manufacturing, woodworking, and metalwork to cut or shape metal or wood parts.

10) Important (power-machine or operated tools) include lathes, dies, presses, and equipment used for boring, milling, and welding.

Exercise 12. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary of the lesson.

1) Станки с механическим приводом применяются для обработки твердых материалов, особенно металлов.

2) Станки с электроприводом более быстрые и точные, чем с ручным управлением.

3) Токарные, поперечно-строгальные, продольно-строгальные и фрезерные станки относятся к станкам с ручным управлением.

4) Шлифовальные станки имеют вращающийся абразивный инструмент.

5) Прессы, оснащенные пуансонами и штампами, сокращают время выполнения операции, что способствует значительному увеличению объемов производства.

6) Специальные станки используют световую, электрическую, химическую, звуковую энергию, перегретые газы, пучки частиц высокой энергии для обработки материалов, обладающих необычными свойствами.

7) Плазменно-дуговые и лазерные станки были спроектированы для работы со сверхжесткими сплавами, которые используются в тяжелой и аэрокосмической промышленности.

8) С помощью лазера можно сделать отверстия в тугоплавких или керамико-металлических материалах, не нанеся урон самой детали.

9) Деталь, обработанная алмазным инструментом, имеет законченный вид.

10) Благодаря цифровому программному управление и гибкой производственной система станки используются почти на всех уровнях производства.


Exercise 13. Speak on.

What main categories of machine tools do you know? Describe each of them.



1. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык для технических вузов: учебное пособие / И.П. Агабекян, П.И. Коваленко. – Изд. 9-е. – Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 2007. – 349 с.

2. Куклина И. П. Energy is the Source of Life Пособие по английскому языку для техникумов, колледжей, профессионально-технических училищ / И. П. Куклина. – Санкт-Петербург: КАРО, 2000. – 508 с.

3. Турук И.Ф. Пособие по переводу технических текстов с английского языка на русский / И.Ф. Турук. – М.: Высш.шк.,1966. – 97 с.

4. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia

5. http://en.wikipedia.org

6. http://www.multitran.ru






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