System of National Accounts (SNA). Gross national product (GNP), gross domestic product (GDP). Characteristics indicator of GNP. Methods for calculating GNP
Starting with GDP and subtracting the depreciation we obtain net domestic product (NDP): NDP = GDP - Depreciation
The next adjustment in the national income accounts is for indirect business taxes, such as sales taxes, excises, tariffs. This kind of taxes place a wedge between the price that consumers pay for a good and the price that firms receive. Once we subtract indirect business taxes from NNP, we obtain a measure called national income- a measure of how much everyone in the economy has earned. National income may be divided into five components, depending on the way the income is earned. The components of national income are:
- Compensation of employees: the wages and fringe benefits earned by workers.
- Proprietors' income: the income of noncorporate businesses, such as small farms, mom-and-pop stores, and law partnerships.
- Rental income: the profit that individuals earn as landlords, including the profit from imputed rent they "pay" to themselves.
- Corporate profits: the income of corporations after the payment to their workers and creditors.
- Net interest: the interest domestic businesses pay minus the interest they receive, plus interest earned from foreigners.
A series of adjustments takes us from national income to personal income. First, we reduce national income by the amount of corporate profits, social insurance contributions, and net interest. Second, we increase national income by the amount of dividends, government transfers to individuals, and personal interest income (including the interest on the government debt).
If we subtract personal tax payments and certain nontax payments to the government, we obtain disposable personal income.Disposable personal income is the amount households have available to spend on consumption and saving.
As we have already mentioned all the GDP components are estimated by their market value reflecting not only changes in output but changes in prices as well. To get an idea of real tendencies in economic performance one should look not at nominal(calculated in current, i.e. last year prices) but at real, i.e. adjusted to inflation, GDP. To find real GDP one should divide nominal GDP by a price index (GDP deflator).
The table Macroeconomic parameters of Republic Kazakhstan
Таблица Взаимосвязь между основными показателями СНС РК
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