Lecture 2. The concept of norms and deviations from the norm in pedagogy. Characteristic features of the child's body.
Objective: to give information about the concept of norms and deviations from the norm in pedagogy. Describe characteristic features of the child's body.
1. The concept of norms and deviations in pedagogy
2. Characteristic features of the child's body
The concept of norms and deviations in pedagogy
In any society, no matter at what stage of development it is - whether it is a thriving, economically developed country or a developing society, there are people who need special attention. This is - people with any deviations in the physical, mental or social development. Such people have always stood out as a special group in society and the state evolved a special relationship to them. However, at various times, depending on the specific cultural and historical circumstances related to this category of people it was very different: in some societies, such as in ancient Sparta, it features extreme cruelty up to their physical destruction, in others it was merciful, the compassionate.
In the modern United States and Western European countries is almost realized the concept of integration of people with certain deviations in society, according to which these people are regarded as normal and equal members of it, only having certain problems or disabilities. The concept of "people with problems" is widely used in the United States, and the concept of "people with disabilities" is more typical for European countries.
Today the problem of attitudes towards people with disabilities, especially health, is becoming increasingly important due to the fact that their number is around the world, and in the Republic of Kazakhstan, has a strong tendency to increase, change which, according to UNESCO projections, the world community soon not be able to. Therefore, increase in the number of persons with disabilities, and particularly children, should be seen as a permanent factor that requires no separate, private, and systematic social decisions.
But even in terms of integration, when the isolated nature of various problems or limitations in the capabilities of people, thus already believe that the external circumstances in which they are located, or their state of health does not correspond to the definition adopted in the society norms. Scope of the normal is always in the minds of its borders, and all that is beyond them, is defined as "abnormal", "pathological." In practice - consciously or unconsciously - going evaluation of individuals on the basis of conformity or non-conformity, which defines the border.
The concept of standards widely used in medicine, psychology, pedagogy, sociology, and other sciences. Trying to give a precise and only true definition of this concept is likely doomed to failure. For example, medical scientists only count up to 200 its definitions.
The difficulty in defining the concept of "normal" is not only terminology, but also meaningful. For example, moral standards can not be fixed once and for all in all the communities, because they are, first of all, have a national identity, but also over time, transformed, changed. For example, in the United States after World War II for two or three decades, smoking was common, "normal" phenomenon, to which the company concerned is quite loyal. At the same time, when the company was involved in the fight against this harmful habit for human health, smoking is considered a sign of bad taste.
Moreover, the more democratic a society is, the more tolerant it relates to non-standard forms of manifestation of personality, while totalitarian regimes tend to strictly regulate human behavior, severely punished, if the deviation from the prescribed norms.
It is important to remember that the rule - is a kind of ideal education, the symbol of the objective reality, a certain average measure of the reality, but does not exist in it. Using the concept of the norm in the social sciences can be compared using the concept of "ideal gas" in physics. The nature of the gas is not, however, thanks to the concept of physicists managed to make a lot of discoveries. Laws are identified for an ideal gas, but in each, the actual case is certain amendments, introduced a specific rate for one or another of a real gas.
In medicine, psychology, sociology has its own indicators, parameters, characteristics of rules. That is not correct, indicated by another word - "deviation".
For pedagogic concept of "normal" and "abnormal" - is very important. They are used to describe the process of development and social behavior of the child.
Deviations can be both negative and positive. For example, abnormalities in child development and mental retardation are and talent. Such negative deviations in behavior, crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc., Have a negative impact on the process of social formation of the person, and the development of society as a whole. Positive as behavioral problems, which include all forms of social creativity:. Economic entrepreneurship, scientific and artistic creativity, etc., on the other hand, serve the development of the social system, replacing the old with new standards.
The pedagogy of the concept of "norm" and "deviation" allow to select a specific point of reference against which to clarify the causes of those or other deviations, to find out how they affect the process of socialization of the child, and on this basis to build practical socio-educational activities.
Characteristic features of the child's body.
Growth and development. The child is different from an adult, above all, that it grows and develops. The processes of growth and development of children are deeply affected the child's body, they affect the entire look of the child - physically and mentally.
"Growth" and "development" - the concept is similar, but still they should not be confused, as they do not coincide with one another.
Height, from a biological point of view, represents a multiplication of cells that make up our body tissue.
With incredible speed cell proliferation occurs in the uterine period of existence of the child. But after the birth the growth of its cellular elements is very rapid. It is known that in the first year of life the child three times their weight increases and grows to 25 cm, which is 50% of the original length of his body. In the future, the growth of energy gradually fades. Fabric Growth slows and finally stops completely. This does not mean that adult tissue elements are frozen form. In some tissues and organs for life does not stop cell proliferation. So, constantly die upper epidermis cells; they are transformed into the horny layer exfoliated from the skin and replaced. Continuously destroyed and the red blood cells are replenished with new coming from the bone marrow. But in all these cases, the multiplication of cells is replenished only decline. In the young organism same number of new cells increases, and this increase is greater than younger organism.
Under development is necessary to understand the qualitative changes in the structure of organs and tissues, leading to their more advanced work.
In contrast to the growth, development can occur without increasing the number of cells. It is found for example that the growth of brain cell elements terminate much earlier than other organs. A prisoner in the tight skull, the brain is already in pre-school age small increases in size. But the qualitative changes occur in nerve cells and nerve fibers: processes of nerve cells become more branched fibers covered by myelin sheath, etc.
Huge development path, which runs a child during the first years of his life, would be impossible without these subtle changes in the structure of the nervous tissue.
The growth and development of the organism have their own pattern. After rapid growth in the first years of life there comes a relatively quiet - the child grows annually by about 6 cm and gaining weight about 2 kg. After 7 years of growth in the growth is set to 5 cm per year, so that the date] a new rise in the period of sexual maturation of the (12-15 years).
Thus, the physical development of the child can not be represented in the form gradually and smoothly rising curve. It has rather waveform.
Waveform growth to a greater extent connected with the activity of the glands secretion. At the beginning of the pre-school age even more influenced by the thymus (or thymus) gland located behind the breast bone. It is considered gland growth and is the more important the younger the child. It affects the overall nutrition of the child, skeletal growth, the ability of tissues to retain water. With age, it gradually shrinks and completely cease to have effect to the beginning of puberty.
In the second half of preschool age joins influence brain cancer appendage (gipofizis). There is a growing feet growth alive the process of oxidation. By the end of preschool age is gradually increasing the influence of the sex glands and the thyroid gland. Under the influence of hormones of these glands become more energetic metabolism, decreases the amount of fat tissue, the child loses its rounded shape is drawn.
On the growth and development has a great influence power. It is clear that if the child will receive food in amount, it will not be able to replenish the body's spending on the construction of new tissue, to improve their structure. In fact, studies carried out on the physical development of preschool children in the years of war and devastation, we found a significant lag in their height, weight and other indicators. But it's not just quantity. Food should encompass all substances that make up the cells. Taking care of the usefulness of food, we thus have an impact on the growth and development of the child.
Growth and development may be delayed not only by lack of power. Sometimes the body under the influence of a disease is feeding poorly or decreases its ability to assimilate the individual elements. Thus, when the disease rickets poorly absorbed calcium, resulting in growth of development goes wrong, long bones are soft, easy to bend. In diseases of the thyroid (myxedema) observed stunting, slow metabolic processes, decrease in mental abilities. With such diseases must be addressed in a timely application of therapeutic and preventive measures.
Systematic observation of the growth and development of the child is important.
In assessing the physical development of children must take into account the possibility of individual variations, common in preschool age. Repeated measurements at regular intervals give a more complete picture of the physical development of each child.
A characteristic feature of the child's body should be considered as well as its flexibility. By plasticity refers to the ability to easily change under the influence of different conditions - favorable and unfavorable. Tissues and organs of young growing organism are still as if in a state of unstable equilibrium; even a slight deviation from the normal conditions of life can have a significant impact, slow down their pace of development. We know how easy to lose the baby weight under the influence of errors in the diet of an abnormality. We often observe a temporary delay in development after any infectious disease. Sometimes, for example, that the child already knew how to move around freely without assistance, he loses this ability, and he had to learn to walk again.
The plasticity of the child's body, its lack of resistance to adverse conditions, or, as is usually said, "vulnerability", obliges us to ensure that particular attention and approach to the child's life circumstances, and to methods of educational influences. All educational work should be constructed so that not only violate the processes of growth and development, but using plasticity child's body, to guide this development on the right track.
1. The concept of standards in pedagogy, physiology and psychology?
2. Features of the development of children up to 1 year?
3. Differences of growth and development?
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