Lecture 5. Classification of the ontogenetic development of the child (NP Gundobin).
Objective: familiarization with the classification of the ontogenetic development of children.
1. Classification of the ontogenetic development
2. Classification by N.P.Gundobin
The processes of growth and development take place continuously, but their pace has a nonlinear dependence on age. This pattern is clearly illustrated, for example, a change in children's body length. So for the first year of life the newborn body length is increased by 47%, for the second - 13%, the third - by 9%. At the age of 4 - 7 years annually body length is increased by 5 - 7%, and the age of 8 - 10 years - only 3%. During puberty marked growth spurt at the age of 16 - 17 years and a decrease in the 18 - 20 years, an increase in body length practically stops.
Changes in body weight, chest circumference, as well as the development of individual organs and the organism as a whole are subject to the same law of uneven. Therefore, this law is the basis for the development of scientific principles of periodization. The fact that the children of the same calendar (passport) age respond differently to the load; at the same time their performance may be higher or lower, which is important for solving a number of practical issues of organization of the educational process at school, the child's environment. Therefore, all human maturation stage it is advisable to divide into several age periods. Although between defined periods no clearly defined boundaries, and they are largely conventional and their isolation is necessary, since it is necessary to properly set the age limit, such as your child enters the nursery, kindergarten and school, to determine the possibility of starting the intellectual, sports, work and al.
The concept of "age period" is the period of time within which the process of growth and development and physiological characteristics of an organism are identical, and the reaction to stimuli more or less clear. At the same time, the age period - the time it takes to complete a certain stage of development of the organism morphofunctional and achieve readiness for a particular activity.
Because there is definitely a clear idea of what kind of biological changes should form the basis of age periodization (taken as a basis the maturation of the sex glands, rate of growth and differentiation of tissues and organs, skeletal maturity (bone age), when the X-ray in the skeleton determines the time of appearance of ossification points and occurrence of a fixed connection of bones;. the degree of development of the central nervous system, especially of energy processes at different ages, the process of interaction of the organism with the appropriate environmental conditions, etc.), the current widespread age periodization with the release of the neonatal period, toddlers, preschool and school age children reflects most existing child care system, rather than the true age features.
Widespread another classification proposed N.P. Gundobin. In his scheme, distinguish:
· During fetal development;
· The neonatal period (2 - 3 weeks);
· Period of infancy - up to 1 year;
· Pre-preschool, toddlers -from 1 to 3 years; > │ period
· Pre-school age - from 3do 7 years; > │ milk teeth
· Primary school age - from 7 to 12 years;
· Medium, or adolescence, age - from 12 to 15 years'
· Senior school, or youth, age - from 14 to 18 years of age in girls, from 15 - 16 years 19 - 20 years for boys.
In modern science, there is no generally accepted classification of periods of growth and development and their age limits.
· Newborn - 1 - 10 days;
· Infancy - 10 days - 1 year;
· Early childhood - 1 - 3 years;
· First childhood - 4 - 7 years;
· Second childhood - 8 - 12 boys, 8 - 11 year old girls;
· Teens - 13 - 16 years Boys 12 - 15 years old girl;
· Youth age - 17 - '21 young men, 16 - 20 years old girl;
· Mature age, I of the period - 22 - 35 years old male, 22 - 35 years old woman;
· Mature age, II of the period - 36 - 60 years old male, 36 - 55 years old woman;
· Advanced age - 61 - '74 male, 56 - 74 Women's Year;
· Old age - 75 - 90 years;
· Centenarians - 90 years and above.
Each age period is characterized by its specific features. The transition from one age period to the next is referred to as a critical stage of development of the individual, or the critical period. The duration of individual age periods is largely subject to change. As the chronological framework of the age, and its characteristics are determined primarily by social factors.
The uneven pace of growth and development at the stage of maturation is a general law. However, in this period are shown and some individual features. There are individuals, the rate of development of which is accelerated and the level of maturity they are ahead of their own chronological (calendar) age, can be observed an inverse relationship. In this regard, the term "age of the child" needs to be specified: a chronological or biological age is meant. .. Chronological age, the period lived from birth until the survey has a clear temporary border - day, month, year. Biological age is also a function of time, but it is determined by a set of morphological and functional characteristics of the organism and depends on the individual growth and development. The difference between chronological and biological age can be up to 5 years.
Non-simultaneous growth and development of individual organs and systems. The body of the child is considered as a whole, however, its individual organs and systems grow and develop asynchronously (heterochronically). Periods of accelerated growth replaced him some slowdown, due to the manifestation of active processes of differentiation of organs, tissues, cells in this time.
In the normal development of the child, both of these processes are closely related, but intensive growth periods may not coincide with periods of intense differentiation. Strong differentiation causes growth retardation. For example, the growth of the brain and spinal cord mass generally ends by 8-10 years, almost reaching the adult weight; functional improvement of nervous system is still in a very long time. Maturation of the motor analyzer comes mainly in the 13 - 14 years, through a series of stages of improving motor function, at the same time in the 15 - 18 years there is a further, intensive growth and differentiation of muscle tissue.
Thus, intensive development and final formation of individual organs and systems is not parallel. There is a definite sequence of growth and development of various structural formations and functions. This development is a prerequisite for the implementation of the most important biological and social functions at different stages of human life. This pattern Anokhin, the author of the doctrine of heterochrony and deriving from it the doctrine of systemogenesis, explains the necessity of the election and the accelerated maturation of the structural formations and functions that ensure the survival of the organism.
Functional systems ripen unevenly, included in phases, take turns providing the device body at different periods of ontogenetic development. The structures, which together should make the time of the birth of a functional system that performs vital laid and mature rapidly and selectively. For example, the orbicularis oris muscle, which provides sucking act innervated long before others are innervated muscles. Of all the hand nerves, primarily and most fully develop those that provide muscle contraction, flexor digitorum involved in grasping reflex. This selective and rapid development of morphological formations that make up a complete functional system that ensures the survival of the newborn, was named systemogenesis.
Uneven development enables rapid and selective growth and differentiation of the structures and their functions, which first of all necessary for the body at this stage of ontogenesis. This pattern is associated with symptoms of advanced maturation of vital functional systems.
The level of maturation of the relevant functional systems defined by the ability of the child's organism to different types of activities, its resistance to various environmental factors. So if, associative sections of the cerebral cortex, providing its integral function and readiness for school, mature in the course of individual development of the child for 6 - 7 years, the accelerated training of early childhood adversely affect their subsequent development. The system provides transportation of oxygen from the air to the tissues, develops gradually and reaches maturity in 16 - 17 years, therefore, necessary to ensure limitation of physical activity for children. Only upon reaching adolescence morphological and functional maturity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems may be long-term performance of strenuous exercise and exercise endurance.
Consequently, the functional readiness to certain types of training, employment and sports activities formed simultaneously. Therefore, we should be normalized and differentiated activities and environmental factors affecting the different analyzers or functional systems. Hygiene standards throughout the maturation phase of the body will change in accordance with changes in sensitivity to age factor. Consequently, heterochrony growth and development of individual organs and systems is a scientific basis for a differentiated valuation of environmental factors and activities for children and adolescents.
1. Classification features a child's body development for NP Gundobin taking into account the biological characteristics of the growing organism.
2. The main periods of child development allocated to science.
3. Physiological characteristics of puberty adolescents.
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