Lecture 3. The periodization of childhood.
Objective: to give information about the periodization of childhood.
1. The concept of norms and deviations in pedagogy
2. Characteristic features of the child's body
The body of the child biologically is not something permanent. He is in the process of growth and development, and the growth and development take place continuously in a definite pattern sequences. From birth until the child has turned into an adult, it goes through certain stages, or periods of childhood, and as such a transition change its morphological and physiological characteristics, also changes the environment external environment, among which he lives.
Differentiated approach to the allocation of the child helps in childhood individual periods. Naturally, it is impossible to draw a strict line between these periods of child development.
Most conveniently in a practical division of prenatal period, is divided into embryonic phase and the fetus, and extrauterine period consisting of periods:
For the developing fetus the mother is the environment, and health, conditions of life of the mother during pregnancy are essential for normal physiological development of the fetus.
The prenatal period is divided into two main stages: embryonic, including the first 11 - 12 weeks. Fetal and - until the end of pregnancy. The first of these is characterized by the highest rate of differentiation of tissues, formation of organs and systems. At this stage, the embryo turns into a fetus with organs and systems inherent in the early period of human ontogenesis. In the fetal stage of development processes carried out intensive ripening of all tissues, and increasing the length of the body weight. Fruit prepared for extrauterine life.
For example, the gestation 3 - 6 weeks, he formed the beginnings of the most important organs, the brain begins to develop, and at the 3rd month of intrauterine life already clearly defined cortex of the brain, where intensive development continues in the next few months of life.
By the 12th week, the type of megaloblastic hematopoiesis is completely replaced normoblasticheskim in peripheral blood leukocytes appear, and at 13 weeks of gestation begins to form hemoglobin of the adult, there is formation of a blood antigen systems. From 20 th to 28 th week instead of hepatic hematopoiesis established bone marrow.
To 16 17th week develops inspiratory portion of the respiratory center. When the term of 20 weeks, spontaneous fetal movement is so well defined that felt a mother and doctor. The fruit of 22 - 24 weeks of age can breathe and suck. Somewhat later in the adrenal glands of the fetus begins the synthesis of hydrocortisone. With the 28-week-old fetus is considered viable, but the morphological and functional development was not completed. So, the brain resembles a newborn brain, the cortex is not yet operational. The most rapidly growing, fast and mature myelinating brain stem and spinal cord, that is, those parts of the brain that perform vital functions. In normal pregnancy at the time of birth the fetus reaches a level of maturity that under favorable external conditions ensures proper development of the newborn.
The embryonic phase of a variety of diseases of women can lead to spontaneous abortion. In the phase of fetal placenta is sufficient biological barrier between mother and fetus. However, the permeability gradually increases and it may become passable for viral infection, bacterial toxins, and various drugs, including antibiotics. Therefore, the mother's viral diseases - influenza, rubella and OE are extremely harmful to the fetus and may affect the physical and mental development of the newborn.
neonatal period, or the neonatal period (lat neonatus -. a newborn). This period starts from the first child of inhalation and lasts until the end of the 4th week of life (28 days). The duration of this period is determined by the adaptation of the newborn to adult conditions. The transition to independent, ectopic existence characterized by a number of significant morphological, functional and biochemical changes. Begins pulmonary respiration, included small and large circulation, zapustevayut umbilical vessels, the ductus arteriosus closes, established independent, but very imperfect thermoregulation. This period is characterized by the immaturity of all organs and systems of tissues, especially the central nervous system. Externally, the child is helpless: hanging head, does not hold back, he always makes erratic movements with his hands and feet. Here, the upper and lower limbs are in a state of hypertonus, indicating the predominance of this period and subcortical spinal regulation. Because of the cerebral cortex undifferentiated child is born with only unconditioned reflexes (sucking, swallowing, proboscis, and others.) And almost constant, except for feeding periods, it is in a state of sleep.
Such processes as respiration, circulation, excretion, are performed with maximum intensity (number of breaths in 1 min 40, a pulse 160 in 1 min). A newborn rapidly increases body weight. During the first month of life, he is gaining weight around 800 Activity plastic processes and rapid weight gain provides more functionality voltage of the gastrointestinal tract (assuming a low enzymatic activity), and most importantly - the nature of power. Most of the physiological food for this age group is breast milk.
At birth, always evaluates the state of health of the newborn Apgar. In the first minute of life is determined by the 5 major characteristics: frequency and rhythm of the heartbeat, breathing patterns, muscle tone, reflex irritability, color of the skin. Each sign is evaluated two possible points, the resulting values are added. Assessment of the state is made on a score. 1 - 3 marks indicate a serious condition. Healthy children are estimated to be 8-10 points. After 5 min Apgar score is repeated. In this case, it is more accurately correlated with the neurological status of the child's first day of life and can be used to predict the degree of neurological disorders.
PERIOD CHEST OF THE CHILD
Thoracic period. This period begins with 3-4 weeks of age and conditionally ends in 12 months. It is characterized by higher than in the following years, the pace of physical and mental development. the child's body weight by the end of the first year of life is tripled. Height increases by 25 cm, head circumference - 12 cm, and the circumference of the chest -. 13-15 cm significantly change proportions of the body, closer to that of an adult, which is reflected in the vast extension of the limbs and to a lesser extent the body and head. In addition, the body of the child undergoes a noticeable qualitative changes.
Pre-preschool period (from 1 year to 3 years, toddlers). It is characterized by the rapid improvement of the child's motor skills, speech and mind, the continued strong growth. the child is very agile, inquisitive, the basic form of a game through which he learns the environment and becomes the first labor skills. Rapidly growing vocabulary, the child begins to speak, making first primitive phrases. For 2 - 3 years of suggestions are verbose. children imitate adults, so it is especially important to talk to him properly. Since 2 years, children sleep in the afternoon about 3 hours, and at night - 11 hours.
In the pre-preschool period it is also important to organize the child mode, so as not to overload his impressions, to protect against negative environmental influences.
In connection with the increasing contacts between themselves, and with the loss of this time of innate immunity in pre-preschool period increases the possibility of spreading acute childhood infectious diseases (measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, scarlet fever, dysentery, and others.).
Preschool period (from 3 to 7 years). At this age, some slowing down the growth process, but actively improving the functionality of organs and systems. In 5 to 6 years, begins the change of milk teeth for permanent. child goes to an adult diet. Daytime sleep one-time - 2 hours a night - 10-11ch. baby will sleep soundly and peacefully, if he was not brought before bedtime, not playing in the noisy games. In this age are developing subtle skills: the ability to ride a bicycle, skating, dancing, embroidery, knitting. Thanks to the good memory of the children is extremely easy to memorize verses, retell fairy tales, stories, learn a foreign language. This is the age of imitation both good and bad, so it is especially important clear organization of educational work at home and in kindergartens. By the end of this period, the child is ready for school. Visibly reduces the tendency to generalize the process and toxic reactions. During this period, there are diseases in development of which plays a major role allergies (asthma, rheumatism and others.).
The period of primary school age (7 to 12 years). The improvement of the child's body functions. Strongly developed and stronger muscular system and skeleton. Baby teeth are completely replaced by permanent. School life rhythm promotes perseverance necessary work skills. It is necessary to strictly monitor the child's posture, as the wrong position at a desk or table, carrying in one hand a heavy portfolio and a number of other factors could lead to curvature of the spine.
The period of school age. It lasts from 12 to 16 years and is the period of puberty. It is characterized by severe restructuring of the endocrine system, enhance growth. Girls secondary sexual characteristics usually develop earlier than boys. During this period, there are often functional disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems caused by, on the one hand, the rapid increase disproportionate to the whole body and individual organs, on the other - instability autonomic endocrine system.
1. The main age periods of the child?
2. Features of prenatal period?
3. Features of the newborn period?
4. Features of pre-preschool age?
5. Features of pre-school period?
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