Lecture 4. Mental and physical development of the child.
Objective: to give information about the mental and physical development of the child.
1. The concept of norms and deviations in pedagogy
2. Characteristic features of the child's body
Disturbances in psycho-physical development of children - is the general name of various difficulties of children of any age, which is gradually replacing the drink before the term "abnormal development in children" (as synonymous now also uses the term "deviations in psychophysical development").
For violations in psychophysical development are various difficulties associated with hearing, vision, speech, with the musculoskeletal system, with mental retardation, emotional, intellectual problems, etc. In a broad sense, children with disabilities in the psycho-physical development of all children can be considered as having a more or less pronounced difficulty. In practice, this term (as previously, the term "abnormal children") is used to identify the category of children in need, as a result of mental and physical disorders, in special conditions of training and education. (See. Also "Children with special educational needs").
In the scientific tradition established by L.S. Vygotsky in defectology, distinguish primary and secondary developmental disorders.
Primary disorders - are biological in nature damage (defects) or organ system (for example, breach of the auditory analyzer visual analyzer, local or massive violations of various parts of the central nervous system). They may howl congenital and acquired. In the occurrence of congenital disorders are important genetic factors, harmful effects on the fetus during pregnancy (infection, intoxication, trauma), as well as birth trauma and asphyxia. Acquired disorders are the consequences of child transferred infectious diseases, injuries, intoxications, etc.
Correction of the primary violations carried out by means of medicine. An important role is played by advances in medical technology development (such as hearing aids and cochlear implants in the correction of hearing impairment, visual impairment correction glasses or lenses). Great expectations in preventing the occurrence of primary disorders in the development of the children associated with the development of immunology and genetic engineering, etc.
Secondary abnormalities in nature are qualitatively different from the primary, although derived from them. Their relationship is not unique organic nature and not as unconditional as it seemed earlier researchers of children's defectiveness. (For example, numbness - is possible, but not necessarily a consequence of deafness, and "morally defective" - a possible, but not necessarily a consequence of mental retardation.)
Secondary violations occur only when the primary cause of "falling" child of compulsory for any society public broadcasting system of historical experience. Calling such loss "social dislocation", L.S. Vygotsky emphasized that they can be prevented, if you find a "workaround" to allow access to the abnormal child culture as a source and a means of development of higher mental functions and specific human abilities. In these cases, secondary violations are not an inevitable consequence of the primary.
In those cases where the education system is focused, primarily, on the development of the normal type, no such "detours", organic disorders lead to the formation of a complex pattern of deviating from the norm.
One organic disorder can cause a range of "social dislocation" and, accordingly, - a set of secondary violations. Not corrected secondary violations that would lead to "social dislocation" of the next order, as a result of which there are tertiary and others. Disorders in development. For example, hearing loss causes problems of development of age-appropriate forms of communication, not correlation these problems causes underdevelopment of verbal speech, which in turn entails a violation of the child's cultural development lines of higher mental functions.
Since the secondary (tertiary, etc.) are not directly disorders organic nature, they do not require medical correction means (for example, does not need a medical treatment of a deaf mutism birth and specifically trained person). Prevention and correction of such social in nature are violations in the field of competence of special educators and psychologists and education is carried out by means of using "workarounds" to address the challenges of cultural development, which in normal conditions are achieved by conventional means.
In domestic defectology developed special approaches and gained experience of successful practice of correction and prevention of secondary disorders in mental development in children. So, in the conditions of specially organized early learning in deaf child (even in the case of congenital sensorineural deafness), can form a complete verbal speech, in both oral and written form; Blind children can learn to read and write freely, without assistance, orientation in space, etc.
To describe the origin, and the combination of relationship (interdependence) of various disorders in the development of each individual child L.S. Vygotsky proposed the use of the term "defect structure" and "structure of violations." Determining violations structure - one of the most important tasks of a comprehensive health-psycho-pedagogical diagnostics. The accuracy of its solution depends on the effectiveness of comprehensive care for the child.
To determine the strategy and tactics of such assistance is crucial to distinguish between a combination of primary and secondary and tertiary complex disorders of the various possible combinations of multiple (two or more) different primary disturbances in development. In these cases, they talk about difficult, complex, or combined disorders (hearing loss and vision, hearing and intelligence, hearing and musculoskeletal system, etc.).
Differentiation of primary and secondary disturbances in the development of the child, their complex relationship logic is quite clearly presented and interpreted in various branches of modern defectology, but not yet sufficiently reflected in its terminological apparatus. At the present stage, the term "violations in psychophysical development" is used to describe both primary and secondary disturbances in the mental development of the child. So, apply in relation to a visually impaired child, the term "child with a visual impairment" professionals may have in mind as a malfunction of one of the departments of the visual analyzer (retina, optic nerve, etc.), violation of visual perception as the higher mental functions, as and certain complex features of mental development of children with visual impairment, specific to certain of its system of education and training.
1. Children with special needs?
2. Factors affecting the psycho-physical development of the child?
3. Violations of psycho-physical development of the child?
4. Age features of psychophysical development of the child?
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