Lecture 13. Methods of examination children with disabilities.
Objective: to give information about the methods of examination children with disabilities
1. Psychological, medical and pedagogical examination
2. Complex examination
Psychological, medical and pedagogical examination of children with disabilities
For the success of the education and training of children with disabilities requires a correct assessment of their capabilities and identifying special educational needs. In this regard, a special role for psychological, medical and pedagogical diagnostics, which allows:
• timely identification of children with disabilities;
• identify the individual psycho-pedagogical features of a child with disabilities;
• determine the optimal pedagogical path;
• ensure individual support for each child with disabilities in preschool;
• corrective action plan to develop the program of corrective work;
• to evaluate the dynamics of development and the effectiveness of correctional work;
• determine the conditions of education and training of the child;
• advise the parents of the child.
One of the basic principles of the diagnosis of the development of a comprehensive approach, which includes a comprehensive examination, assessment features of development of the child with disabilities by all experts and covers the cognitive activity, behavior, emotions, the will, the state of vision, hearing, motor areas, medical condition, neurological status . Consequently, the study includes the child's medical and psychological-pedagogical examination.
Medical examination begins with the study of medical history. History is going to the doctor and made on the basis of acquaintance with the documentation of the child and talk with parents (or persons in loco).
The personal history of the child contains the following information: features of the mother's pregnancy; the duration of medication and the influence of harmful factors for pregnancy; delivery characteristics; nature of assistance during childbirth; that a child has congenital malformations, seizures, etc .; birth weight, start feeding it, stay in the hospital. Lists transferred child diseases, especially the treatment, the presence of complications. Specify where, how and by whom a child is brought up to the moment of admission to preschool. "The family history analyzes data about the child's family and heredity; It describes family structure, age and educational level of each of its members, characterological features of the parents; fixed mental, neurological, chronic somatic diseases relatives pathological features of their physical appearance. It describes the family and living conditions in which the child is brought up, place and nature of the work of parents; assesses the relationships in the family, the relationship to the child; recorded cases of commitment of one or both parents to alcohol or drugs.
Teachers and educators familiar with the results of the medical examination on documentation: study the history of development of the child, the conclusions of experts. This will help them navigate the existing problems of the child and to create the necessary conditions for its development in preschool.
Psycho-pedagogical examination is one component of an integrated approach to the study of mental development of children with disabilities. The results can be read in conjunction with other information about the child.
The organization of education and training of children with disabilities study raises questions and identify the characteristics of cognitive activity, to establish the nature of violations, the potential of the child and makes it possible to predict its development.
The main purpose of psychological diagnosis is to determine the level of intellectual development and the state of intelligence of children with disabilities, as this category of preschool children is an exceptional variety. Psychological examination carries a psychologist. Psychodiagnostic examination of the child with developmental problems should be systematic and include the study of all aspects of the mind (cognitive activity, speech, emotional and volitional, personal development). As a diagnostic tool, you can use the sources of scientific and practical developments, SD Zabramnaya, IY Levchenko EA Strebeleva, MM Semago et al. Qualitative analysis involves assessing the features of the process performance and the child tasks of mistakes on the basis of a system of quality indicators.
There are the following qualitative indicators that characterize the emotional state and behavior of the child:
• particular contact of the child;
• emotional response to survey the situation;
• reaction to the approval;
• reaction to failure;
• emotional state during the execution of tasks;
• emotional mobility;
• peculiarities of communication;
• reaction to the result.
Qualitative indicators characterizing the activity of the child:
• the availability and stability of interest in the job;
• understanding of the instructions;
• independence of the job;
• The nature of the activities (the focus and activity);
• the pace and dynamics of activities, especially the regulation of activities;
• aid organization.
Qualitative indicators characterizing features of the cognitive sphere and motor function of the child:
• particular attention, perception, memory, thinking, speech;
• especially motor function.
The comprehensive assessment of mental development and the potential of children with complex disorders to determine the content of further training is an important pedagogical examination. Pedagogical study involves obtaining information about the child, revealing the knowledge, skills, skills that he should have at a certain age level, the establishment of the major problems in learning, the rate of assimilation of the material, revealing the features of the educational activities of preschoolers with disabilities. Information of interest can be obtained by using techniques such as direct conversation with the child and parents, work analyzes preschooler (drawings, crafts, etc..), Pedagogical supervision. Teacher observation should be specifically planned, precisely oriented and systematic. It allows you to assess the degree of formation as a whole - its focus, organization, and randomness, the ability to plan actions. Especially important to monitor the child's cognitive activity, during which the celebrated motivational aspect of testifying to the personal maturity preschooler.
During pedagogical monitoring child has:
• to give his full name, age, home address;
• talk about family, give the name and patronymic of the mother, father; work place of their parents;
• to name and patronymic close adults, peer names;
• Explain the basic rules of behavior in the street, in public places; a favorite activity at home, and others.
The data obtained allow further purposefully make adjustments to the organization of the process of upbringing and education of children with disabilities.
In the process of psychological diagnosis of children with disabilities is necessary to observe a number of principles:
1. The activity principle, aimed at conducting psychological examination in the context of available child with disabilities: subject-practical, gaming, learning.
2. The principle of qualitative analysis of the psychological examination of data, built on the concept of LS Vygotsky of the decisive role of education in the process of child development. For the psychologist is important not only the result of the test task, but also a method of operating a child and his ability to transfer the skills learned in the new job, the attitude to the job, self-assessment results.
3. The principle of the personal approach. Psychologist analyzes not single symptom, and personality of the child as a whole.
4. The principle of comparative approach. In the study of impaired development psychologist must correctly navigate the features of mental development of a healthy child.
5. The principle of an integrated approach. The account number of factors underlying the violations of child with disabilities: clinical, educational, psychological, social.
According to the results of psychodiagnostics should be identified:
1) violations of mental activity, their mechanisms for determining the prospects for rehabilitation
2) the most well preserved mental function, to use compensatory mechanisms
3) it must be carried out evaluation of the features of mental activity that will contribute to successful social integration of the child at different stages of age development.
Advanced psychodiagnostic examination of children with disabilities should provide
1) assessment of psychomotor development
2) a comprehensive assessment of intellectual development
3) assessment of emotional and volitional
4) assessment of the nature and characteristics of the whole person
5) an assessment of the behavior and psychological mechanisms of its regulation
The main difficulties of the psychologist in the survey lies in the fact that many of the techniques can not be used in whole or in part due to the nature of violations.
The psychologist must possess a large number of methods and interchangeable techniques and examination of the patient before carefully select the most suitable for inspection, taking into account disorders.
due to exhaustion should be attentive to the dosing test loads (up to 5-7 years - 20-30 minutes)
To assess the intelligence used, for example, the Wechsler test (sometimes partially, graphics tests, the technique subjects exceptions, etc.
Basic requirements for psychological diagnostics of children with disabilities
1) Psychodiagnostics should be as early as possible, they take place immediately after the installation of medical diagnosis
2) should ensure the validity of the development of psycho-correction programs, ongoing monitoring of its performance in the process of tracking the mental development of the child, providing him psychological help
3) Psychodiagnostics to be not only the children but also their parents
4) The program should determine all possible violations of mental development, and the methods and techniques must differ reliability, validity, and be appropriate to age and degree of severity of the disease the child
5) The results are confidential and only the professionals can be involved in the conduct of
The structure and content of work of psychological, medical and pedagogical consultation.
The value of psycho-diagnostic research in the selection of children in different kinds of special (correctional) educational institutions and integrated education in mainstream schools.
Vygotsky spoke about how the investigation should proceed:
1. The principle of an integrated approach to the examination of the child at the PMPC.
(Examination by different specialists)
Psychological examination is an integral part of the PMPC.
1) The data of the social teacher
- The composition of the family
- Age, education
- Professional employment of parents,
- Material and living conditions (presence of the workplace of the child, how much time it spends for a work stereotype - if not, the instability of attention)
- Psychological climate
- Who is raising a child in addition to parents
- Medical history of all family members, deviations, course of pregnancy and childbirth, illness, treatment; -History of the child
- Pediatrician - at the time of the survey is necessary to conclude a pediatrician on the general somatic condition of the child
- Optometrist - visual acuity, fundus, the breadth of the field of view
- Otolaryngologist - the sharpness of hearing, the state of the entire system
- Orthopedic surgeon - conclusion
- Neurologist (+ EEG)
3) Educational characteristics
Do educational institutions -poseschal (how much and what kind of), if not, who is involved in raising a child, the possible impact
-What are the difficulties encountered in the educational process
Experts discuss the psychiatrist diagnoses
2. The principle of comprehensive and holistic examination of a child at the PMPC
(Child should be examined by a psychologist comprehensively - all aspects of the personality)
1) cognitive (-Attention, -Memory, -imagination, representation, -intellection)
3) willed (Maturity of arbitrary regulation of activity)
7) individual-typological features - features of behavior
3. The principle of the age and content validity of the methods used
Methods must be appropriate to the age, level of development and the subject of research
4. The principle of the dynamic approach and examination of the child.
5. The principle of the activity approach.
Considers Maturity leading activity.
6. The principle of correlating the results of examination of a child with the rules.
At the moment, there is a problem with the regulations, so support goes to mean group performance, if the child's rates are lower, then it is worth paying attention to teachers and psychologists, or whether it falls into the risk group.
7. The principle of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the survey results
The value of quantitative and qualitative analysis very well complement each other (intelligence profile)
8. Compliance with the conditions of the psychodiagnostics
The purpose of PMPC - an organization helping children with developmental disabilities on the basis of a comprehensive diagnostic examination and determination of special provisions for their education and essential health services, promotion of healthy lifestyles among pupils, parents, teachers.
The main objectives are PMPC:
• Timely detection of and follow-up of children with developmental disabilities;
• Integrated, comprehensive, dynamic diagnosis of abnormalities in the child's development and potential opportunities;
• Identify special conditions of development, education, education of children with developmental disabilities;
• Promoting and initiating the organization for the development and education, adequate individual needs of the child;
• Introduction of modern technologies of diagnostics and correctional work with children;
• Formation of data bank on children and adolescents with developmental disabilities;
• Timely sending children to research, treatment and prevention, health, rehabilitation and other institutions in the event of diagnostic difficulties, ineffective aid;
• Advising parents (legal representatives), teachers and health workers, directly representing the interests of the child in the family and the educational institution;
• Coordination of the psychological, medical and pedagogical consultation of educational institutions;
• Participation in educational activities aimed at improving the psychological, educational, medical and social culture of the population;
• Preventive work with children and adolescents for the prevention of substance use;
• Development and implementation of programs that promote the acquisition of knowledge and skills needed to build a sustainable motivation for a healthy lifestyle;
• Promoting the integration processes in the society of children with developmental disabilities.
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