Lecture 11. General characteristics of children with disabilities. Classification of children with disabilities by Lapshin V.A., Puzanov B.P. Factors affecting the development of children with OB.
Objective: familiarization with the general characteristics of children with disabilities and classification of children with disabilities.
1. General characteristics of children with disabilities.
2. Classification of children with disabilities by Lapshin VA, Puzanov BP
3. Factors affecting the development of children with disabilities.
Children with disabilities - children with various deviations of mental or physical plane, who are responsible for violations of the overall development, not allowing children to enjoy a full life.
Synonymous with this concept may make the following definitions of these children: "children with problems", "children with special needs", "atypical children", "children with learning difficulties", "abnormal children", "exceptional children".
The presence of a defect (lack of) is without prejudice to the wrong from the point of view of society development.
Hearing loss in one ear or loss of vision in one eye does not necessarily lead to a deviation in the development, since in these cases may be possible to perceive the sound and visual signals intact analyzers.
Thus, children with disabilities may be considered a violation of children's developmental needs in need of special (correctional) education and training.
According to the classification by V.A.Lapshin B.P.Puzanov to major categories of abnormal children include:
1. Children with hearing impairments (deaf, hard of hearing, late deafened);
2. Children with visual impairment (blind, visually impaired);
3. Children with speech impairments (lalopathy);
4. Children in violation of the musculoskeletal system;
5. Children with mental retardation;
6. Children with mental retardation;
7. Children with behavioral and communication;
8. Children with complex disorders psychophysical development, the so-called complex defects (deaf-blind, deaf or blind children with mental retardation).
Depending on the nature of the breach some defects can fully overcome in the process of development, training and education of the child such as the children of the third and the sixth group), others only to flatten, and some are just compensated. The complexity and nature of the breach of the normal development of the child is determined features of formation of the required knowledge and skills, as well as various forms of educational work with him. One child with developmental disabilities can only acquire basic general knowledge (reading by syllables and write simple sentences), and the other - are relatively limited in their capabilities (a child with mental retardation or hearing impaired).
The structure of the defect affects the practical activities of children. Some atypical children in the future have the opportunity to become highly qualified, others a lifetime will perform low-skilled work (for example, binding Cardboard manufacture, metal stamping).
Socio-cultural status of the child is largely determined by biological factors as heredity, and social environment of the child life. The development of personality characterized by unity and interaction of systems of biological and socio-cultural factors. Each child has their own unique inherent properties of the nervous system (strength, balance, mobility of the nervous processes, speed of formation, strength and dynamism of conditioned connections ...). From these individual characteristics of higher nervous activity (hereinafter - GNI) depend on the ability to master the social experience, the knowledge of reality, ie biological factors create prerequisites of human mental development.
Obviously, blindness and deafness have biological factors rather than social. "But the thing is - wrote Vygotsky - that the educator has to deal not so much with these biological factors, but to their social consequences" atypical complexity of the structure is the presence of a primary defect caused by biological factors, and secondary disorders arising under the influence of a primary defect in the subsequent kind of development on the pathological basis of example, damage the hearing aid to speech acquisition is the primary defect, and which came as a consequence of dumbness -. a secondary defect Such a child will be able to master the speech only in special education and education, making maximum use of intact analyzers: vision, kinesthetic sensations, tactile and vibration sensation.
Intellectual deficiency, which arose as a result of a primary defect - an organic lesion of the cerebral cortex, generates secondary disorders - deviations in the activity of higher cognitive processes (active perception and attention, arbitrary forms of memory, abstract logical thinking, connected speech), which become visible in the process of socio-cultural child development.
An important rule is the ratio of primary and secondary defect. Therefore LS Vygotsky wrote: "The further away a symptom of the underlying cause, the more susceptible the educational and therapeutic modality turns seemingly paradoxical situation:. Underdevelopment of the higher psychological functions and higher characterological structures, is a secondary complication of mental retardation and psychopathy, in fact, turns out to be less stable more amenable to more disposable than the underdevelopment of the lower or elementary processes directly caused by the defect. "Under this provision, Vygotsky, the further divorced between a primary defect of biological origin and secondary symptoms (disturbance in the development of mental processes) , the more effective the correction and compensation of the latter with the help of psycho-pedagogical and socio-cultural resources.
In the course of atypical development are manifested not only the negative aspects, but also the positive possibility of a child, which is the way the child's personality to adapt to a particular secondary defect. For example, children deprived of acutely developed sense of distance (the sixth sense), the distinction between a distant object while walking, auditory memory, touch, etc. Deaf children - mimic gestural communication.
This positive assessment of certain manifestations of the kind of atypical development - the necessary foundation for the development of the system of special training and education, building on the positive opportunities for children. Source of children with disabilities to adapt to the environment have stored are psychophysical function. Dysfunction of the analyzer are replaced by intensive functional capacity intact systems. Deaf child is using visual and motor analyzers. To become blind leading the auditory analyzer, tactile, olfactory sensitivity. Given the specificity of thinking of mentally retarded children, and relatively intact reserves of perception, in the educational process, preference is given visual materials, material and practical activities.
Thus, in the development of children with disabilities will be influenced by four factors.
1. Type (type) violations.
2. The extent and quality of the primary defect. Secondary deviation depending on the degree of violation may be - pronounced, mild and almost unnoticeable. The degree of severity of the deviation determines the uniqueness of atypical development. There is a direct correlation of quantitative and qualitative identity of secondary violations of atypical child on the extent and quality of the primary defect.
3. The period (time) of occurrence of a primary defect. The sooner we have the pathological effects, and as a consequence - the damage of speech, sensory or mental systems, in order to be more pronounced rejection of psychophysical development. For example, a child born blind no visual images. Representations about the world he will be accumulated using intact analyzers and speech. In the case of vision loss in preschool or early school age, the child will retain visual images in the mind that gives him the opportunity to explore the world, comparing their new experience with preserved images of the past. When vision loss in older school age are characterized by sufficient representation vividness, brightness and stability that makes life easier for such a person.
4. Operating conditions of socio-cultural, psychological and pedagogical environment.
The success of the development of abnormal child largely depends on prompt diagnosis and early initiation (from the first months of life) correction - rehabilitation work with him.
The cause for the development of children
What can affect the appearance of abnormalities in the child's development? Experts identify two main factors that are considered the main causes of defects in the child's development:
If a hereditary disease medicine tries to identify in the early stages, then environmental factors complicated, since they foresee is very difficult. Below them is meant, firstly, various infectious diseases, trauma and poisoning. By the time their impact on the body experts define the pathology:
-Natal (in childbirth);
-postnatal (after birth).
Secondly, on the development of the child significantly affects such factors as the social environment in which it grows. If it is unfavorable, then at some point we can say in the child's development of such problems:
So what is the deviation in a child's development? This violation had psychomotor functions, which arise at the adverse effects of various factors on his brain. As a result, these types of isolated abnormalities in the development of children:
The group of children with physical disabilities include those who have illnesses that hinder their activities, as well as children with impaired vision, hearing and musculoskeletal system.
The group with mental disabilities include children with mental retardation, mental retardation, speech disorders and emotional and volitional.
Group with teaching disabilities are those children who for some reason have not received secondary education.
Group with social disabilities are those children who are the result of education has not been vaccinated function significantly affect their entry into the social environment, which is very evident in the behavior and consciousness while in a social group. Unlike the first three groups of social deviations (anger, phobias, apathy, hyperactivity, significant suggestibility) difficult to distinguish between the natural manifestation of the child's character. It is in these cases is very important therapeutic intervention not on it, and the prevention of possible deviations from the rules and regulations.
By the way, a gifted child - is also a deviation from the norm, and such children form a separate group.
So what is the norm for a child? It is primarily:
Its level of development corresponds to the majority of peers, among whom he is growing.
His behavior meets the requirements of society: the child is not antisocial.
It develops according to individual inclinations, with clearly overcomes negative influences on the part of your body, and environment.
Thus, the conclusion can be drawn as follows: not every child with disabilities from birth development are already the norm, and not the contrary, a healthy baby at birth is not always falls short of the standards as a result of development.
The child develops normally respectively at:
-proper operation of the cerebral cortex and;
-normal mental development;
-preservation of the sense organs;
The question may arise under these items for children with disabilities have available. Just define a moment that a child with a physical or mental defect should take full rehabilitation from the first days. This includes not only medical intervention, but also pedagogical correction. Through the combined efforts of parents (especially!), Doctors and teachers, many correctional pathology in mental development can be circumvented through compensatory processes which may have children with disabilities.
Not everything will be easy and smooth. However, a child with physical disabilities can and should be developed according to their age. To this end, it is only needed the help of experts and boundless love and patience of parents. Some progress possible in children with mental pathologies. Each case thus requires an individual approach.
WHAT PERIODS best demonstration Variations in physical and mental development of the child?
Each sensitive period determines the amount of knowledge and skills required to operate a child. Most experts believe that special attention should be given to the children during periods of crisis in their lives that fall on this age:
WHAT child's behavior should be alerted to prevent the deviation in its development?
At preschool age:
As a result of pathogenic effects on the brain and the cortex disrupts the normal ratio of excitatory and inhibitory processes. If the child is difficult to control the brake reaction to the ban, he can not organize their behavior even in the game, this may be one of the signals that a child has developmental disorders.
The child fantasizes over or, on the contrary, is rather primitive in their stories when trying to get out of the predicament.
The child prone to simulate abnormal behaviors that may indicate mild suggestibility.
Infantile (immature) emotional manifestations in the form of loud screaming, crying or movements are not age-appropriate (popping feet).
Quick-tempered, impulsive behavior of any insignificant occasion, which leads to a quarrel or fight.
Full negativity, disobedience to a senior with a pronounced aggression, anger at the remark, prohibition or punishment.
In the early school years:
Low cognitive activity, which is combined with personal immaturity.
The negative attitude to the lessons, refuse to perform tasks with a desire to draw attention to themselves by means of rudeness, disobedience.
Available by the end of primary school age considerable knowledge gaps, which are accompanied by the unwillingness to learn.
Link and interest in what carries the aggression and brutality. Antisocial behavior.
On any prohibition or requirement of a violent response, which carries a conflict may runaways.
The desire for thrills as a result of increased thirst sensor.
Infantile judgment, weak self-control and self-control functions, the lack of willpower.
The complex behavior, which is accompanied with infantile affective excitability.
Early sexual desire, propensity to alcoholism, vagrancy.
Full negative attitudes to learning.
Antisocial behavior that mimics inappropriately adult life.
Antisocial behavior in a child can cause not only birth defects, but the wrong upbringing, which is accompanied by a lack of control, antisocial behavior of family members or their brute authoritarianism.
the concept of "psyche" and "personality" is widely used in educational practice. Presenting an indissoluble unity as human personality suggests a highly organized mind, they have a different content. Mind - it is property of the brain, the subjective image of the objective world, on the basis and by means of which the orientation and behavior management. It is inherent in all living beings. But the man in the process of evolution, in addition to a direct reflection of external factors, there was a reflection mediated by concepts expressed by words, developed the ability to operate with these words, there was a consciousness as the leading level of regulation of behavior and activity and the basis of the formation of personality.
Personality, in contrast to the concept of "psyche" - the quality of the social system of man as the subject of human relationships, acquired in ontogenesis. Personality, as well as the psyche develops with varying degrees of intensity throughout life. The development - a common property shared nature and society as a whole and each person individually. Under development means a change, which is characterized by the transition from one state to a qualitatively different and more perfect. The process of personality development is inseparable from the development of the mind, but it is not limited to an aggregate of developing cognitive, emotional and volitional components characterizing the individuality of the person. The development of personality in its most general form is considered in psychology as a process of entering into a new social environment and integration therein.
Human personality begins to form in the first months of life. In the first year of life, personal characteristics of the child does not openly manifest, but they become visible by the end of the third year. In some of his actions and the actions focus appears, there is a need to bring it started to end. For example, during the game or performing other actions he can take independent decisions to abandon the proposed assistance, which is reflected in the saying "I myself."
By the beginning of school the child is already fully formed person. He is able to understand other people and to fulfill their requests, has standards of conduct, he develops self-esteem and aspirations, have become more pronounced characterological qualities.
In school, the process of personality development continues. Formed interests, abilities, needs, outlook, beliefs, life goals are defined, they will become resistant and character. By the end of schooling student identity becomes essentially complete character.
The decisive condition for the development of human personality is its multifaceted activities and communication with the child's personality is formed in a specific activity for him - the game, communication, teaching work. At the same time / activities are implemented developmental function only if it is provided motivational side, if a child develops sufficiently informed, persistent and strong internal motivation. Due to the fact that the activities of multifaceted, there are plenty of motives, different in content, is arbitrary and awareness, to encourage its implementation. The single interconnected system of activities and motives of their implementation constitute the psychological basis of personality development. Depending on the motivation of the child, formed and developed different personality traits. stable structure prevailing motifs system characterizes the orientation of the individual activity.
According to the views LS Vygotsky, the process of development of the child - is the process of interaction between real and ideal forms. The child is not just mastering the spiritual and material wealth of mankind. But the process is the development of ideal forms of development impossible.
Physical, mental and personal development of a child is a complex dynamics of the formation of organic, psychological and personality traits, which are interrelated and interdependent process. Along with the physical changes in the child's body is deep restructuring of the psyche, not only due to physiological factors, but largely psychosocial.
The formation of personality in adolescence and early adulthood particularly affected by situations of sexual maturation and are specific to each gender issues. Thus, the image of himself in the adolescent is formed depending on the degree of social reaction to the change in its physical appearance from others (approval, admiration, disgust, ridicule, contempt). Many crises in puberty in adolescence are associated with awkward or offensive attitude towards the youth of adults and peers. Teens feel more confident if they have a sense of personal identity. They want them to have anything like the others. It is estimated that about half of women and one third of young people in adulthood are concerned about the size of his body, figure and weight, fearing to remain too small or too large to become.
Of equal concern are the violations of body proportions. And boys and girls are concerned, for example, what their nose, short or long, seemingly long arms and much more. Knowledge of development helps to get rid of the feeling of inferiority. For this age is typically also the reluctance to admit such feelings because of the fear of being ridiculed by adults.
The above features of the psychosocial impact on children, and especially teenagers, between the age of maturation of different influence on the formation of their personality traits. In some cases, children successfully cope with the challenges of the transition period, in others - there are difficulties due to the different personality disorders moral and ethical, neurotic character, and so on..
A special role in the formation and development of personality plays its own activity. Moreover, the more developed a person is, the more active role it plays in the correction of internal and external factors affecting it. As emphasized known domestic psychologist SL Rubinstein, any effective educational work has its own internal condition educability work ethic and success of the work on the formation of human spiritual aspect of this depends on the inner workings of how he is in a position to encourage and guide.
This activity is manifested in self-education. Self-education is the highest form of the individual's participation in its development along with the more simple forms of self-development and self-improvement. Sources of self is not only external but also internal factors: the pursuit of any activity or follow any ideal, etc. The methods can be self-requirements of morality, desire to win recognition in the group, an example of influential people, etc....
A very productive concept of personality development suggested B.C. Mukhina. She believes that people as a historical subject in the ontogenetic development of the social heritage * * mental properties and the ability to actively * assigns the "spiritual culture that was created by humanity, whereby it becomes a personality. Central to this process is the formation of self-consciousness, so it is always at all stages of development of the individual phenomena should be involved that determine the construction of its structure.
According to her views, human consciousness evolves as follows: • 1 - a proper name plus a personal pronoun (of which there are identification with the body, with the physical appearance and the spiritual essence of the individual person); 2 - claim to recognition; 3 - gender identity; 4 - psychological time personality: self-existence in the past, present, future; 5 - a social space: the duty and right.
The structure of the universal consciousness of the person (although the representatives of different peoples at every historical stage, it has its own specific content and its methods of its transmission to a new generation) and is formed as follows.
- Name your own in the process of individual development is the first crystal of personality around which later formed the conscious man own essence.
- The claim for recognition. It starts at an early age and gradually takes for a person personal sense, which contributes to self-development, the assertion of individuality, diverse achievements. -
- Gender identity. Each culture has its own specific focus on education of the child identity themselves as male or female. His sex of the child begins to assimilate with the family. The stereotypes of male and female behavior are included in the self-consciousness through the experience and identification with the same sex.
- Psychological time of personality - the ability to present the correlation of itself with itself in the past and the future - the most important positive education developing personality, providing its full existence. Highly individual in his personal past, present and future, and includes historical past of his people, and the future of their country. Man as if it incorporates an addition to their individual destiny and individual life.
- The social space of the person includes the rights and responsibilities - that directs us to live in society. Being in the social space provided moral sense, which is summarized in the everyday relations between people in the word "should".
As for the disabled children, the violation of their existing physical or mental disabilities make to the process of becoming a child as a person considerable originality. Each type of abnormal development has its own specific features, but for all kinds of variations is a violation of the dominant verbal communication, ability to receive and process information. For this reason, children with developmental disabilities experience great difficulties in learning, particularly in the study of the native language, reading, development of various skills and abilities that affect their intellectual development and formation of the communicative qualities.
Have abnormal children and adolescents is often seen as the revaluation of their own forces and capabilities, and their underestimation. For this reason, people with developmental disabilities is easy to fall under foreign influence. Man with developmental disabilities are almost always in some form feels his disadvantage arising from his fault, which exacerbates his feeling of inferiority.
On the qualitative characteristics of the child's development affects the degree, time of occurrence of a primary defect and the age at which it was purchased. The general rule here is that the sooner the damage occurred, the greater manifested malformation. Therefore, it is important to promptly detect a deviation in the personal development of the child and to provide the necessary assistance.
It should also be borne in mind that the development of a child with disabilities takes place in a confined space is full communication with peers and adults, that promotes the development of secondary autiza-tion and development of egocentric installations. Children with developmental disabilities are often brought up in the conditions of overprotection by parents and close relatives. Due to the fact that the child has broken one or another vital function, he attributed the phenomena of "PLO-hosts", "weak", no attention is paid to the development of his interests, desires, that ultimately leads to a psychological disability, which in its turn aggravates his physical defects. Growing up, a child is not capable of independent life, but not in connection with the presence of a defect, but because of the delay in the formation of necessary personal qualities.
Children and adolescents with life's limits, including in the social environment, faced not with an idealized and with reality, which appear as a natural phenomenon, and casual, both positive and negative, both moral and immoral, to perceive which they are unprepared. Hence the importance and specific focus, issues of formation and development of their resilience to traumatic situations and raise the psychological immunity immunity to negative behaviors of others.
The development of the human person - a complex, multifaceted process of assimilation of its social and historical experience, in which there are constant changes in the physical, social, moral, and other areas. Despite the fact that the dynamics of normal and abnormal development of the child the individual is subordinated to one general laws, every kind of anomaly is different. The development of the child's personality affect the character of the existing defect, the severity of violations of individual mental processes and functions, age and compensatory abilities of the child, the living conditions and education and a number of other factors.
At the same time, from the point of view of modern scientific approach, the child's body, his health, personality traits - a single, holistic education. Therefore, an expert on social rehabilitation should have a clear understanding of the laws governing the development of mind and personality as a system approach to the development of the individual child with disabilities in the process of social rehabilitation of the complex, student-centered, present in his mind the personal qualities that should have a child, as an adult and to apply in this regard, adequate exposure.
1. List the major categories of abnormal (atypical) children.
2. What is the complexity of atypical patterns of development?
3. What factors influence the psycho-physical development of children with special educational needs?
4. Main factors and conditions of mental and personality development of the child
5. Secondary violations in the psyche as a result of the impact of social factors
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