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The British Educational System





 

(1) State Education

 

All state schools in Britain are free and provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Education is compulsory from 5 till 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a preschool playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue studying until they are 11. Most children are taught together, boys and girls at the same class. At 11 most pupils go to se-
condary schools (comprehensives) which accept a wide range of children from all religious and ethnic groups.

At the age of 16 pupils take a national exam called "G.C.S.E." (General Certificate of Secondary Education), after that they can leave school if they wish. Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called "A" level (advanced level) at 18. You need "A" level to enter a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for diplomas relating to the chosen profession.

Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with "A" levels from the age of 18 years old. After four years of study students get the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. To get the Master’s degree1 they must study one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy (Doctor of Arts). Most students graduate at the age of 21 or 22, and they are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony. The most famous universities of Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge.

(2) Private Education

 

Seven percent of British schoolchildren go to private schools called independent schools. They have been growing in number and popularity since the mid-1980's2. Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from about
250 pounds a term for a private nursery to 3.000 pounds a term or more for
a secondary boarding school. Most independent schools are called preparatory schools because they prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam which they take at the age of 11. This exam is for entry into the best schools.

The most famous schools are called "public schools" and they have a long history and traditions. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents. Eton and Harrow are the best known of these schools.

The majority of independent secondary schools, including public schools, are single-sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join the sixth forms of boys' schools.

Independent schools also include religious schools and schools for ethnic minorities.

______________________

1 to get the master’s degree – чтобы получить учёную степень магистра

2mid- – (прист.) выражает значение "находящийся в середине": since the mid-1980's начиная с середины 80-х



 

Names:

Eton [`i:tən] – Итон – старейший английский колледж, основанный в 1440 г. в городке Итон, расположенном недалеко от Лондона.

Harrow [`hærəu] – школа Харроу, основанная в 1571 – одна из старейших престижных мужских привилегированных частных средних школ, находится в пригороде Лондона Харроу-он-те-Хилл.

 

Cambridge University [`kæmbrid3 ,ju:ni`və:siti] – Кембриджский университет – один из крупнейших и старейших в Великобритании, расположен в городе Кэмбридж, графство Кэмбриджшир. Основан в 1284 г.

Oxford [`oksfəd] University – Оксфордский университет – старейший в Великобритании, расположен в городе Оксфорд, графство Оксфордшир. Основан в 1249 г.

Vocabulary:

аdvanced [əd`va:nst] level – продвинутый уровень

boarding [`bo:diŋ] school – школа-интернат

co-educational [,kəuedju`kei∫(ə)nəl] schools – школы совместного обучения

compulsory [kəm`pΛls(ə)ri] – обязательный

Common Entrance Exam [`komən `entrəns ig`zæm] – общий вступительный экзамен

entry – зд.: поступление, зачисление в учебное заведение

ethnic [`eθnik] – этнический

equipment [i`kwipmənt] – оборудование, оснащение

fee [fi:] – плата за обучение

form – класс

full-time study – очное отделение

General Certificate [`d3en(ə)rəl sə`tifikit] of Secondary Education – аттестат об общем среднем образовании

graduation ceremony [,grædjuei∫(ə)n `ceriməni] – церемония окончания обучения в учебном заведении

highest academic degree [`haiəst ,ækə`demik dig`ri:] – высшая учёная степень

minority [mai`noriti] – меньшинство

nursery [`nə:s(ə)ri] school / preschool [,pri`sku:l] playgroup – детский сад

diploma [di`pləumə] – диплом, аттестат

independent [,indi`pendənt] school – независимая в финансовом отношении (частная) школа

preparatory [pri`pærətəri] school – подготовительная школа (готовит к поступлению в престижный колледж)

primary [`praiməri] – начальный

private [`praivit] – частный

public [`pΛblik] school – привилегированное частное учебное заведение для мальчиков (в Англии); бесплатная средняя школа (в США и Шотландии)

relating to – имеющий отношение к, связанный с

religious [ri`lid3əs] – религиозный

secondary school (comprehensive) [,kəmpri`hensiv] – общеобразовательная школа

single-sex school – школа раздельного обучения (для учащихся одного пола)

to accept [ə`ksept] – принимать

to be taught [to:t] – обучаться

to be given a degree – получать диплом (учёную степень)

to take an exam – держать, сдавать экзамен

to choose [t∫u:z] – выбирать, chosen [t∫əuzn] (прич. прош. вр. от choose) – выбранный

to graduate [`grædjueit] from – заканчивать что-л. (об учебном заведении)

to grow [grəu] – расти, увеличиваться

to provide [prə`vaid] – обеспечивать, предоставлять, снабжать

to vary [`veəri] – различаться

wealthy [`welθi] – обеспеченный, зажиточный

 

For self-examination

Answer the questions:

1. What do state schools in Britain provide their pupils with?

2. When do children start the primary school?

3. When do pupils take a national exam called GCSE?

4. What prepares pupils for a national exam called "A" level?

5. How long do students study for a degree?

6. Why are the most independent schools called preparatory schools?

7. What school is the best known public school?

8. What are the most famous universities of Great Britain?

 

Fill in the blanks:

1. Children start ______ school at 5 and continue studying until they are 11.

2. At the age of 16 pupils take a national exam called "______".

3. After four years of study students get the Bachelor of _____ or _____of _____ degree.

4. The highest academic degree is the ______of ______ (Doctor of Arts).

5. The most famous universities of Great Britain are ______ and ______.

6.Most independent schools are called _______schools because they prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam.

7.______and ______ are the best known of "public schools".

Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) children, most, are, together, taught;

2) universities, students, and, colleges, from, accept, 18 years old, the age of ;

3) the, academic, degree, highest, Doctor, is, the, of, Philosophy;

4) the, schools, most, are, called, famous, "public schools";

5) religious, schools, independent, include, schools, also.

 

4. Make up a plan (logical scheme) and then summarize the content of the text "The British Educational System" in writing.

The US Educational System

Reading and Writing

1. Scan the text "Education in the USA" to get the full idea of it. Find the paragraphs about:

- the funding sources of the US education;

- the US elementary education;

- the US secondary education;

- the higher education of the USA.

 

2. Find in the text the English equivalents to:

особенностью американского образования является отсутствие государственного управления;

продолжать образование в одной из общеобразовательных (средних) школ;

являться промежуточным звеном между подготовительными классами начальной и старшими классами средней школы;

продолжать образование в высшем учебном заведении;

выбирать по меньшей мере один курс из каждой основной предметной области.

 









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