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The other English-speaking countries

(1) Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. It covers the northern part of North America and its total area is 9,975,000 square kilometres. Canada's only neighbour is the USA. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.

Canada's motto, "From Sea to Sea", is appropriate because the country is bounded by three oceans – the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic.

Canada's name comes from an Indian word "kanata", which means "village". The first French settlers used the Indian name for the colony, but the official name was "New France". When the area came under the British rule in 1897, the new country was called the Dominion of Canada, or simply Canada.

Compared with other large countries, Canada has a small population, only about 27,300,000. The country, however, is one of the world’s most prosperous. Canadians have achieved a high standard of living.

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and Queen Elizabeth II is its official head of state. Although the Queen holds this high position, she doesn't rule. She serves as a symbol of British tradition. Her representative in Canada is the Governor General. The Governor's duties are limited to symbolic, mostly ceremonial acts.

The real power belongs to the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Canadian Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the Senate.

There are two official languages in the country: English and French. All Canadian children have to learn both French and English at school. "We have two races, two languages, two systems of religious belief, two sets of laws... two systems of everything", said one Canadian journalist.



Dominion of Canada [də’minjən əv ’kænədə] – Доминион Канада (административно-территориальная единица)

Governor General [‘gΛvənə ‘d3en(ə)r(ə)l] – губернатор колонии или доминиона, генерал-губернатор

the Commonwealth [‘komənwelθ] of Nations – Содружество наций

the House of Commons and the Senate [‘senit] – Палата Общин и Сенат

Queen Elizabeth II [‘kwi:n e’lizəbəθ ðə ‘secənd] – королева Елизавета II


appropriate [ə‘prəupriət] – подходящий, соответствующий

Canadians – канадцы

Ceremonial [,seri’məuniəl] acts – церемониальные, протокольные действия

chamber [‘t∫æmbə] – зд.: палата парламента

to hold (held, held) – зд.: удерживать, сохранять

motto – девиз, лозунг

neighbour [‘neibə] – сосед

official language – официальный, государственный язык

prosperous [‘prosp(ə)rəs] – процветающий, успешный, благоприятный

representative [‘repri’zentətiv] – представитель

to achieve a high standard of living – достигать высокого уровня жизни

to be limited – быть ограниченным


Questions for self-examination:

1. What is the total area of Canada?

2. What is its capital?

3. What oceans is it boarded by?

4. What is the population of Canada?

5. What do you know about the political system of Canada?

6. How many official languages are there in the country?

(2) Australia


If you go to Australia it will seem to you rather an upside-down world. The seasons are the other way round. Summer is from December to February, autumn is from March to May, winter is from June to August and spring is from September to November.

New Year is celebrated at midsummer, and midwinter is in June. Hot winds blow from the north; cold winds blow from the south…

Australia is the world's largest island and its smallest continent. People often call Australia the "land down-under" because it lies entirely south of the equator. The capital of Australia is Canberra.

Australia is the oldest of all continents and the driest continent on earth. The four great deserts of central Australia cover 2,000,000 square kilometres. There are few rivers there.

Australia is also the flattest of all continents. Its most significant mountain chain is the Great Dividing Range running down most of the east coast. Because of its overall flatness and regular coastline, Australia is often called a "sprawling pancake".

An island continent, Australia was cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. As a result, it was the last continent to be discovered and settled by Europeans.

Australia is the only continent that is also a country. As a country, it has the sixth largest area in the world after Russia, Canada, China, the United States and Brazil. It is famous for the magnificent landscapes and unusual plants. It will seem strange to you that trees lose their bark, but not their leaves, and a lot of flowers have no smell. Many of the Australian animals are found nowhere else in the world. There live kangaroo, koala, echidna, platypus and a lot of rare birds.

The country is the least populated of the continents. Only 0,3 per cent of the world's population live there. However, Australia is the most urbanized country in the world.



Australia [os’treiliə] – Австралия

the Great Dividing [di’vaidiŋ] Rangе – "Грейт Дайвинг Рейндж" – ряд горных хребтов и плато


bark – кора дерева

echidna [e’kidnə] – ехидна

entirely [in’taiəli] – совершенно, полностью

flatness – зд.: плоскость, пологость, гладкость

kangaroo [,kæŋgə‘ru:] – кенгуру

koala [kəu’a:lə] – коала

landscape – ландшафт, пейзаж

leaves [li:vz] (от leaf ) – листва

magnificent – великолепный, изумительный, величественный

midsummer – середина лета

midwinter – середина зимы

overall [‘əuvəro:l] – полный, общий, всеобщий

plant [pla:nt] – зд.: растение

platypus [‘plætipəs] – утконос

rare [reə] – редкий

regular coastline [‘kəustlain] – постоянная береговая линия

sprawling [‘spro:liŋ] pancake – растянувшийся, расползшийся блин

the equator [i’kweitə] – экватор

to be the least populated of the continents – быть наименее населённым среди других континентов

to be urbanized [‘ə:b(ə)naizd] – быть урбанизированным

to seem strange – казаться странным

unusual [ən’ju:3(ə)l] – необычный

upside-down world – мир, перевёрнутый вверх дном


Questions for self-examination:

1. How do the people often call Australia? Why?

2. What is the total area of the country?

3. What do you know about its landscape?

4. What Australian animals do you know?



British Educational System

Reading and Writing

1. Scan the text "The British Educational System" to get the full idea of it. Find the paragraphs about:

- the state primary and secondary schools;

- the private preparatory schools;

- the independent secondary schools;

- the higher education.


2. Find in the text the English equivalents to:

– обеспечивать учеников литературой и учебным оборудованием;

– принимать широкие слои детей разных религиозных и этнических групп;

– учиться в течение дополнительных одного или двух лет;

– получать диплом на церемонии выпуска;

– включать в себя религиозные школы и школы для этнических меньшинств.

3. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content. Before reading study the following school subjects and academic degrees:

algebra [`æld3əbrə] – алгебра

arithmetic [ə`riθmətic] – арифметика

chemistry [`kemistri] – химия

drawing [`dro:wiŋ] – рисование, черчение

foreign language [`forin `læŋgwid3] – иностранный язык

geometry [d3i`omətri] – геометрия

geography [d3i`ogrəfi] – география

literature [`lit(ə)rət∫ə] – литература

mathimatics [,mæθə`mætiks] – математика

modern languages [`mod(ə)n `læŋgwid3iz] – современные (иностранные) языки

natural sciences [`næt∫ərəl `sainsiz] – естествознание

physical education (training) [`fizikəl ,edju`kei∫n] – физическая культура (подготовка)

physics [`fiziks] – физика

singing [`siŋiŋ] – пение

Bachelor’s degree [`bæt∫ələz dig`ri:] – учёная степень бакалавра (первая учёная степень)

Bachelor of Arts (Science [`saiəns]) – бакалавр искусств (обладатель степени бакалавра по одной из гуманитарных или математических наук)

Master’s [`ma:stəz] degree – учёная степень магистра (степень, промежуточная между бакалавром и доктором, присваиваемая после одного года учёбы в аспирантуре)

Master of Arts (Science) – магистр искусств (обладатель степени магистра по гуманитарным наукам)

Doctor of Philosophy [fi`losəfi] (Arts) – доктор философии (степень, которая присваивается при успешной защите диссертации после двух-трёх лет обучения в докторантуре по гуманитарным наукам. Может присваиваться и тем, кто далее специализируется в естественных или точных науках. Примерно соответствует степени кандидата наук в России.)


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