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Unit 2. COUNTRIES AND CITIES





2.1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain

and Northern Ireland

 

Reading and Writing

1. Scan the text "Great Britain" to get the full idea of it. Find the paragraphs about:

- geographical location of the UK;

- landscape of the UK;

- weather in the UK;

- its industry.

 

2. Find in the text the English equivalents to:

– состоять из двух больших островов;

– в повседневной речи;

– "драгоценный камень в серебристом море";

– быть умеренным круглый год (о климате);

– "такой же изменчивый, как погода";

– одна из ведущих отраслей промышленности страны.

 

Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

Great Britain

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Bri-tain and Ireland and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Shakespeare called Britain a "precious stone set in the silver sea" because of its natural beauty. It has a varied countryside where you can find mountains, plains, valleys and sandy beaches. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain, but it is only 1343 meters high.

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round. The British often say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather". The weather in Britain is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That's why it is natural for the British to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something.

The British also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.

The UK is one of the world's smallest countries. Its population is over
58 million. About 80% of the population lives in cities.



The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft, and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. But in practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British
Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative, and the Liberal parties.

 

Names:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [ði ju`naitəd `kiŋdəm əv greit britn ənd `no:ðən `ailənd] – Соединённое Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии

the British Isles [ðə `briti∫ `ailz] – Британские острова

Edinburgh [`edinbuə] – Эдинбург

Cardiff ['ka:dif] – Кардифф

Belfast [`belfa:st] – Белфаст

the North Sea [ðə `no: θ `si:] – Северное море

the English Channel [ði `i:ŋgli∫ `t∫æn(ə)l] – Английский канал (принятое в Великобритании название пролива Ла-Манш)

the Atlantic Ocean [ði ət`læntik `əu∫(ə)n] – Атлантический океан

the Irish Sea [ði `airi∫ `si:] – Ирландское море

the Severn ['sevən] – река Севен

the Thames [`temz] – река Темза

the Gulf Stream [ðə `gΛlf `stri:m] – Гольфстрим

the House of Lords [ðə `haus əv `lo:dz] – палата лордов

the House of Commons [ðə `haus əv `komənz] – палата общин

the Labour [‘leibə], the Conservative [kən`sə:vətiv] and the Liberal [`liberəl] parties – Лейбористская, Консервативная и Либеральная партии

 

Vocabulary:

chamber ['t∫æmbə] – палата Парламента

changeable ['t∫eind3əbl] – изменчивый, неустойчивый

comparison [kəm'pæris(ə)n] – сравнение

government ['gΛvənmənt] – правительство

highly developed [`haili di`veləpt] – высокоразвитый

machinery [mə'∫inəri] – машинное оборудование

mild [maild] – мягкий, умеренный

nasty ['na:sti] – мерзкий, противный

navigation [,nævi'gei∫n] – зд.: судоходство

plain [plein] – равнина

population [,popju`lei∫(ə)n] – население

respectively [ri'spektivli] – соответственно

sandy – песчаный

total area [`toutl `eəriə] – общая площадь

the whole year round [`houl `jiə `raund] – круглый год

to be situated ['sitjueitid] – быть расположенным

to consist of – состоять из

to include [in'klu:d] – включать в себя

to mean [mi:n] (meant [ment], meant) – означать

to separate ['sepəreit] – разделять

to wash [wo∫] – омывать

to reign [rein] – царствовать

to rule [ru:l] – править

to elect [i`lekt] – выбирать

to influence ['influəns] – влиять

varied [`veərid] – разнообразный, меняющийся

valley ['væli] – долина

For self-examination

Answer the questions:

1. The UK is an island state, isn't it? Where is it situated?

2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?

3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European continent?

4. What's the highest mountain on the British Isles?

5. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain? What are they?

6. What is the climate on the British Isles? What do Britons say about their weather?

7. What's the UK's population?

8. What does the UK produce and export?

9. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?

 

Fill in the blanks:

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and ________ is situated on the________.

2. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, _______, _______, and Northern Ireland.

3. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea and the _______.

4. The ______is the longest river, while the ______is the deepest and the most important one.

5. The weather in Britain is very ________.

6. The UK is a highly _______ industrial country.

7. One of the chief industries of the country is _______.

8. The UK is a _______ monarchy.

9. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and _______.

 

Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) the, is made up, United Kingdom, of, countries, four;

2) in, there are, rivers, Great Britain, a lot of;

3) a nasty, to, a fine, morning, afternoon, can change;

4) the, UK, is, smallest, one of, the world's, countries;

5) UK, is, the, industrial country, a highly developed;

6) the Queen, in practice, but, does not rule, reigns.

 

4. Make up a plan (logical scheme) and then summarize the content of the text "Great Britain" in writing.

5. Read and translate the texts about London and its traffic. Write the annotations to them in Russian.

 

London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It's one of the largest, oldest and most interesting cities in the world. Its population is about 8 million.

Traditionally it's divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End, and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns.

The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it's a museum.

Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London. Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. It is a place of burying of many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets, and painters.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big bell, known as "Big Ben".

Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It's the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.

On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away there is the British Museum – the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc., and is famous for its library.

The East End was once the poorest district of London with lots of factories and docks, narrow streets and unimpressive buildings. Today the district is changing very fast. There are huge offices and new blocks of flats in the East End.

 

Names:

Big Ben – "Биг Бен", "Большой Бен" (колокол часов-курантов на здании парламента, бой которых звучит ежедневно как сигнал точного времени)

Buckingham Palace [`bækiŋgəm `pælis] – Букингемский дворец (главная королевская резиденция в Лондоне)

Julius Caesar [`dju:liəs 'si:zə] – Юлий Цезарь

Nelson's Column [`nelsnz 'koləm] – колонна Нельсона (памятник адмиралу Нельсону)

St. Paul's Cathedral [,sənt `po:lz ka'θi:drəl] – собор св. Павла (главный собор англиканской церкви)

Sir Christopher Wren [sə: `kristəfə `rеn] – Кристофер Рен

Trafalgar Square [,tra`fælgə 'skweə] – Трафальгарская площадь

the Bank of England – Английский банк

the Stock Exchange [ik`st∫eind3] – Лондонская фондовая биржа

the Old Bailey [ði `əuld `beili] – Центральный уголовный суд, находящийся в Олд-Бейли

the Tower of London [ðə `tauə əv `lΛndən ] – Лондонский Тауэр

the National Gallery [ðə `næ∫ənl 'gæləri] – Национальная галерея (крупнейшее в Великобритании собрание картин)

the National Portrait [`po:trit] Gallery – Национальная портретная галерея

the British Museum [mju`siəm] – Британский музей

William the Conqueror [`wiljəm ðə `koŋkərə] – Вильгельм Завоеватель (первый король из норманнов в Англии)

Westminster Abbey [`westminstə `æbi] – Вестминстерское аббатство

Westminster Palace [`westminstə 'pælis] (the Houses of Parliament [`hauziz əv `pa:ləmənt]) – Вестминстерский дворец (здание английского парламента)

 

Vocabulary:

ancient ['ein ∫ənt] – древний

church [t∫ə:t∫] – церковь

commercial [kə`mə:∫əl] – торговый

column ['koləm] – колонна

financial [fai'næn∫əl] – финансовый

fortress ['fo:tris] – крепость

huge [hju:d3] – огромный

in memory of – в память о

luxury ['la:k∫əri] – роскошь

manuscript ['mænjuskript] – рукопись

numerous ['nju:m(ə)rəs] – многочисленный

outstanding [aut`stændiŋ] – выдающийся

painter ['peintə] – художник

prison ['prizn] – тюрьма

priceless ['praislis] – бесценный

royal palace ['rəujəl `pælis] – королевский дворец

statesman ['steitsmən] – государственный деятель

striking ['straikiŋ] – поразительный, замечательный

splendid ['splendid] – великолепный

to crown [kraun] – короновать

to bury ['beri] – хоронить, place of burying – место захоронения

to contain [kən'tein] – содержать

to be famous [`feiməs] for – быть знаменитым чем-л.

to found [faund] – основывать

to rebuild [,ri:'bild] – перестраивать

unimpressive [,Λnim'presiv] – невпечатляющий, невыразительный

wealth [welθ] – богатство, wealthy – богатый

 

London Traffic

 

London is so large that visitors must learn to use buses and the underground to get about. London taxis are too expensive for any but the rich. You can get a map of the underground and the bus routes at any ticket office. The London underground is called the "tube".

Bus stops are marked clearly. In the suburbs buses do not stop unless there are passengers who wish to get on or off. These stops are marked "request stops". Inside some buses you will see the notice: "Please, state your destination clearly and have the exact fare ready". It is easy enough to tell the conductor where you want to go to, but not always possible to have the exact fare. The conductor will always give you the change.

The London buses are very large. They have seats both upstairs and downstairs. English children like to sit on the front seats of a big London bus. They can see everything that is happening in the streets.

Here are some of the phrases which you may hear on a bus in London:

"Fares, please". (Плата за проезд, пожалуйста.)

"Four pence, please". (Четыре пенса, пожалуйста.)

"Full up inside; plenty of seats on top". (Внутри автобус полный. Много свободных мест наверху.)

"No more seats on top; five seats inside". (Наверху все места заняты; есть пять мест внутри.)

"Standing room only". (Места только стоячие.)

"No, sir, this bus does not go to Victoria Station". (Нет, сэр. Этот автобус не следует до станции "Виктория".)

"You need a number 11". (Вам нужен автобус № 11.)

In Great Britain traffic keeps to the left. Cars, buses and cyclists must all keep to the left side of the road. In most other countries traffic keeps to the right. There is heavy traffic in London and you must observe traffic rules.

 

Vocabulary:

bus route [ru:t] – маршрут автобуса

change [t∫eind3] – зд.: сдача

conductor [kən`dΛctə] – зд.: кондуктор

cyclist [`saiklist] – велосипедист

exact [ig`zækt] – точный

expensive [iks`pensiv] – дорогой

front seat [`frΛnt si:t] – места, расположенные в передней части автобуса

passenger [`pæsənd3ə] – пассажир

reguest stop [ri`kwest stop] – остановка по требованию

suburb [`sΛbə:b] – пригород

the rich – богатые, обеспеченные люди (for any but the rich – для всех, кроме богатых)

the Tube [tju:b] – название лондонского метро

the underground [`Λndəgraund] – метрополитен

traffic [`træfik] – движение, heavy [`hevi] traffic – интенсивное, плотное движение

ticket office [`tikit `ofis] – билетная касса

to mark [ma:k] – обозначать, to be marked – быть обозначенным

to state [steit] – формулировать, утверждать, заявлять

to get about – зд.: распространяться

to get on / off – зд.: входить / выходить из автобуса

to keep to the left / right – придерживаться левой / правой стороны

to observe [əb`zə:v] – наблюдать, замечать, следить

upstairs [Λp`steəz] / downstairs [`daun`steəz] – зд.: на верхнем / нижнем ярусе автобуса

 

Language practice









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