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Exercise 8.5. Choose the correct item.





1. John said, "I’m sorry to disturb you, Eliza".

a) John told that he was sorry to disturb Eliza.

b) John told Eliza he was sorry to disturb her.

c) John said to Eliza he had been sorry to disturb her.

 

2. He said, "Where is Jill going?"

a) He askes where was Jill going.

b) He askes where Jill went.

c) He askes where Jill was going.

 

3. "If I had any instructions, I would know what to do", said Mag.

a) Mag said that if she had had any instructions she would have known what to do.

b) Mag said if she had any instructions she knew what to do.

c) Mag said that if she had any instructions she would know what to do.

4. "Will you be free tomorrow?" Colin asked Richard.

a) Richard asked would Colin be free the next day.

b) Colin asked Richard if he would be free the following day.

c) Colin asked if Richard will be free tomorrow.

 

5. "Why hasn’t he locked the car door?" the policeman said.

a) The policeman asked why he hadn’t locked the car door.

b) The policeman asked why hadn’t he locked the car door.

c) The policeman asked why he didn’t lock the car door.

 

6. The students said, "We wish our exams were over".

a) The students said they wished their exams had been over.

b) The students said that they wished their exams have been over.

c) The students said they wished their exams were over.

7. Tom said, "Jerry has been my best friend since our early childhood".

a) Tom told Jerry that he had been his best friend since their early childhood.

b) Tom said that Jerry has been my best friend since our early childhood.

c) Tom told Jerry that he had been his best friend since their early childhood.

 

8. "Where is the nearest bus stop?" the old man addressed a policeman.

a) The old man asked where was the nearest bus stop.

b) The old man asked a policeman where the nearest bus stop was.

c) The old man told a policeman where the nearest bus stop was.

 

9. The teacher said to us, "Be quiet, please".

a) The teacher asked us to be quiet.

b) The teacher told us to be quiet.

c) The teacher said to us to be quiet.

 

10. "If I were you, I’d stop smoking", Jeff said.

a) Jeff said that if he were him he would have stopped smoking.

b) Jeff said that if he had been him he would stop smoking.

c) Jeff advised him to stop smoking.

Section 3. Grammar Reference

Present simple

 

We use the present simple to talk about actions we see as long term or permanent. It is a very common tense. Here, we are talking about regular actions or events.

They drive to the office every day.

He doesn't come here every day.

The news usually starts at 8.00 P.M.

Do you usually have porridge and eggs for breakfast?

Here, we are talking about facts.

Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F.

What does his dead-pan expression mean?



The Tsna flows through Tambov.

Here, we are talking about future facts, usually found in a timetable or a chart.

Christmas Day falls on a Monday this year.

The plane leaves at 6.00 tomorrow morning.

The working day doesn't start at 5.00.

Here, we are talking about our thoughts and feelings at the time of speaking. Although these feelings can be short-term, we use the present simple and not the present continuous.

They don't ever agree with us.

I think you are right. He doesn't want you to do it.

Present continuous

 

The present continuous is used to talk about present situations which we see as short-term or temporary. In these examples, the action is taking place at the time of speaking.

Who is Bob talking to on the phone?

I'm not looking. My eyes are closed tightly.

In these examples, the action is true at the present time but we don't think it will be true in the long term.

I'm looking for a new separate apartment.

He's thinking about leaving his job.

They're considering making an appeal against the judgment.

In these examples, the action is at a definite point in the future and it has already been arranged.

I'm meeting him at 7.30.

They aren't arriving until Sunday.

We are having a special dinner at a top restaurant for all the senior mana-
gers. Isn't she coming to the dinner?

 

Present perfect

 

We use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present to the past.

We can use it to look back on the recent past.

I've broken my phone so I don't know what time it is.

We have cancelled the meeting.

He's taken my project. I don't have one.

When we look back on the recent past, we often use the words 'just', 'already' or the word 'yet' (in negatives and questions only).

They've already talked about that.

She hasn't arrived yet.

We've just done it.

We don't know yet.

Have they spoken to him yet?

It can also be used to look back on the more distant past.

We've been to Novgorod a lot over the last few years.

She's done this type of project many times before.

When we look back on the more distant past, we often use the words 'ever' (in questions) and 'never'.

Have you ever been to France?

Has he ever talked to you about the trouble?

I've never met Jim and Sally.

We've never considered investing in Pakistan.

 

Past simple

 

We use the past simple to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past.

We can use it to talk about a specific point in time.

She came back last Monday.

I saw them in the street.

It can also be used to talk about a period of time.

She lived in London for five years.

They were in New York from Monday to Thursday of last week.

When I was living in St. Petersburg, I went to all the art exhibitions
I could.

You will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these:

Yesterday ● three weeks ago ● last year ● in 2009

● from May to July ● for a long time ● for 7 weeks

 

Past continuous

 

We use the past continuous to talk about past events which went on for a period of time.

We use it when we want to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the period of that activity. (If we just want to talk about the past event as a simple fact, we use the past simple.)

Were you expecting any visitors?

Sorry, were you having a rest?

I was just making some coffee.

I was thinking about him last night.

In the 1990s few people were using mobile phones.

We often use it to describe a "background action" when something else happened.

I was walking in the street when I suddenly saw him.

She was talking to me on the phone and it suddenly went dead.

They were still waiting for the bus when I spoke to them.

We were just talking about it before they arrived.

I was making a presentation in front of 100 people when the microphone stopped working.

 

Future

Going to

There is no one 'future tense' in English. There are 4 future forms. The one which is used most often in spoken English is 'going to', not 'will'.

They're going to launch it next month.

I'm not going to talk for very long.

Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future.

When I retire I'm going to go back to Barbados to live.

In ten years time, I'm going to be boss of my own successful company.

We use 'going to' when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now.

Look out! That cup is going to fall off.

We can replace 'going to go' by 'going'.

They are going out later.

He's going to the exhibition tomorrow.

Will (shall)

Some people have been taught that 'will' is 'the future' in English. This is not correct. Sometimes when we talk about the future we cannot use 'will'. Sometimes when we use 'will' we are not talking about the future.

We can use 'will' to talk about future events we believe to be certain.

The sun will rise over there tomorrow morning.

Next year, I'll be 50.

That train will be late. It always is.

Often we add 'perhaps', 'maybe', 'probably', 'possibly' to make the belief less certain.

I'll probably come back later.

He'll possibly find out when he sees Jenny.

Maybe it will be OK.

The Passive

We use the active form to say what the subject does.

For example:

I speak English every day at work.

We use the passive form to say what happens to people and things, to say what is done to them.

For example:

English is spoken here.

We use the passive form when we don't know who did the action.

For example:

The car was damaged while it was parked on the street.









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