II. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.
1. Some say that the purpose of business is to make …….; others say that it must have social aims.
2. If you are late for a business meeting, just say that you were stuck in the ……
3. Levels of ……. are so high that we can’t find the people we’re looking for.
4. Those who really need…….usually don’t like it and, anyway, they are not able to
5. We regularly win industry awards for our levels of customer …….
6. The…….of a product is very important: the company has to think carefully about
how the product should look.
7. If you want to know what people think about a product, you do some market …….
8. You employ an advertising …….to create a product image.
III. These are confused pairs of words. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.
1. ADVERTISING / ADVERTISEMENT
a) Our ………… budget is 10% less than last year.
b) Did you see the big ……… for a new Managing Director for Acme in this
2. LINE / STAFF
a) A………… manager works directly on the production of goods.
b) A………… manager gives service support to the managers in production.
3. PERSONNEL / PERSONAL
a) Many of her.......belongings had been stolen.
b) Smith’s company has a ………… problem: their employees want a 20% pay
4. RAISING / RISING
a) Prices are…….at a rate of about 4% per year.
b) The company is ……its prices by 5% this year.
IV. a) КОПР № 3,4
B) Choose the correct option a-c to complete the sentences.
1. I..........hard, so I felt very tired.
a) had worked b) have worked c) had been working
2. I........ my money into real estate.
a) invested b) have invested c) invest
3. We already........the goods when your telegram arrived.
a) have shipped b) had shipped c) shipped
4. The invoice........ by the end of the week so we sent them a strong reminder.
a) had arrived b) hasn't arrived c) hadn't arrived
5. Our distributor called while I........to Jim.
a) was talking b) have been talking c) would be talking
6. This strategy seems to be good. Sales of our products......... for
a) have increased b) have been increasing c) had been increasing
7. The price of petrol......down by about 1%.
a) had gone b) has gone c) has been gone
8. Mark........at a company for seven years before he started his own business.
a) was working b) has been working c) had been working
V. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
1. Kerrie has paid the bill.
The bill......... by Kerrie.
a) was paid b) has been paid
2. Our boss will sign the contract.
The contract.........by our boss.
a) will sign b) will be signed
3. Sales were rising fast when our sales manager left the company.
Sales were rising fast when the company........ by our sales manager.
a) was left b) left
4. They sell the gold on international markets.
The gold........on international markets.
a) is sold b) sells
5. When I came, they were signing the contract.
When I came, the contract.........
a) was being written b) was written
VI. а) КОПР № 1
b)) Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form, - ing or to...
1. I enjoy....... to work - it gives me time to be by myself and to think.
a) to drive b) driving
2. I am good at......... with colleagues.
a) to communicate b) communicating
3. Julia is interested in........ her own business.
a) starting b) to start
4. After hours of negotiating, we managed........an agreement.
a) to reach b) reaching
5. They came........a new car.
a) purchasing b) to purchase
6. If we don't constantly innovate, we risk........behind our competitors.
a) to fail b) failing
VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.
1. Though many economic laws, formulas, theories and concepts often seem
far removed from everyday life, economic policies affect the life of society, families
and individuals. Welfare economics considers issues of equity or fairness.
2. Economists examine how income and wealth are distributed among
the population. And equity is realized through taxation.
3. According to those economists who share the concept of welfare
economics, any economic system is unfair.
A. Read this text.
Inflation – Causes and Effects
1. Older people often talk about how cheap things were when they were young. A brand new car may have cost only $5,000 compared to $20,000 today, or petrol that cost only a few cents in the 60s costs over a dollar today. Inflation happens when money loses some of its value. We measure the rise of inflation in percent. For example, 2% inflation means that a $1 bottle of milk will cost $1.02 next year.
2. Inflation has many causes. In times when the economy is good and people have enough money they want to buy more products than factories can produce, so the prices go up. Inflation can also happen when worker’s demand more money or when the raw materials that producers need rise in price. The end product becomes more expensive and has to be sold at a higher price.
3. Some economists say that central banks do not do enough to control how much money there is in a country. There may be more money around than there are goods. Consumers want to buy more products, the demand gets higher and prices go up. Sometimes low interest rates on loans make people borrow money to buy houses or cars. These prices go up as well. Inflation is not produced by one country alone. Sometimes a country cannot control the prices of certain goods as it would like to. A country that does not have any energy supplies of its own has to import energy. It has to pay a high price for oil and gas.
4. Inflation is a sign that the economy is growing. It is normal when prices go up only a few percent every year. High inflation, on the other hand, leads to uncertainty in the population. Industries may not want to borrow money and invest when inflation is high. People don’t want to buy goods any more. Factories may get stuck with products they cannot sell and as a result workers get unemployed. It is very difficult to fight inflation. Governments have an effect on inflation when they raise or lower taxes. They can also try to control wages and prices as far as possible.
B. Mark the sentences a) T (True)
B) F (False)
C) NG (Not Given)
1. Inflation occurs when money loses some of its value.
2. Sometimes low interest rates on loans make people lend money to buy houses or cars.
3. People with fixed incomes suffer most of all from rising inflation.
I. Match the words with the definitions.
1) earnings a) financial protection
2) consumption b) income
3) recession c) the members of the population able to work
4) workforce d) the amount of a product that people buy or use
5) imports e) the people who control a country and make
6) insurance f) when there is not enough of something
7) government g) goods and services a country buy abroad
8) shortage h) a serious slowing down of the economy
II. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.
1. There is a lot of ……. for organic fruit and vegetables these days.
2. If there is only one producer in the market, there is no …….
3. There has been a huge ……. in demand for air conditioners due to the hot weather.
4. ……. produce new goods from raw materials.
5. Companies usually have a ……with senior managers at the top and employees at the bottom.
6. In an ……., the item for sale is sold to the customer who offers the highest price.
7. In the winter sales the shops often give a……. of up to 50%.
8. Because retired people usually receive a pension, they are often called…….
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