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B) Choose the correct option a-c to complete the sentences.

1. We........ to an agreement on the terms of payment before you arrived.

a) have come b) had come c) came


2. The company representatives.......... a contract for 2 hours.

a) have been negotiated b) have been negotiating c) have negotiated


3. They were one of our biggest competitors, but they.........bankrupt last year.

a) went b) have gone c) had gone


4. I.......working as a freelance consultant in 2004.

a) start b) started c) have started


5. We......... any final decisions yet.

a) didn't make b) haven't made c) have made


6. My boss was in a very good mood today because he........a better price for some components.

a) negotiated b) had negotiated c) has negotiated


7. We.........this product since the beginning of the year.

a) were producing b) produced c) have been producing



8. She....... here for long.

a) hasn't worked b) hasn't been working c) wasn't working




V. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1. We arranged a meeting.

A meeting........by us.

a) is arranged b) was arranged


2. She didn't sign the contract yesterday.

The contract.......by her.

a) wasn't signed b) isn't signed


3. Henry Ford invented the assembly line.

The assembly line.......by Henry Ford.

a) is invented b) was invented


4. They have just adopted the annual budget.

The annual budget........by them.

a) was just adopted b) has just been


5. This international company publishes these books.

These books........by this international company.

a) publish b) are published




VI. a) КОПР № 1

b) Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form, - ing or to...

1. After hours of negotiating, we managed........an agreement.

a) to reach b) reaching


2. Younger people prefer........for items electronically.

a) to pay b) paying


3. There is no need..........a chief marketing officer.

a) to hire b) hiring


4. We determined.......... the project by the end of the next year.

a) finishing b) to finish


5. He is interested in........his own business.

a) starting b) to start


6. They guarantee.........the work before 5 o'clock.

a) to finish b) finishing




VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. The interest rate is usually set by the central bank of a country, which also

serves as a lender for commercial banks.

2. When buying houses many people take out mortgages from commercial

banks. If the interest rate increases, the mortgage becomes more expensive.


3. If the interest rate is low, companies invest and expand their business, the

national currency value falls and national goods and services become cheaper

for foreign buyers. Export begin to grow and more money comes into the





A. Read this text

Banks and Banking

1. A bank is a financial institution that works with the money that the people give it. If you give your money to a bank, it not only protects it but pays you interest rates so that it can work with the money. This is one of the reasons why people save their money in a bank. Without banks the world’s economy would not be able to grow. Investors would not find the money they need for new projects. Industries could not buy new machines and modern technology.

2. Banking has a long tradition. In Mesopotamia bankers kept gold and silver for people and lent it to others. Ancient Rome and Greece had similar banking systems to the ones we have today. During the Middle Ages Italy was the centre of European banking. Florence and Venice became known as two cities in which many people earned their money through banking. The Medici family dominated Florence for over two centuries and set up Europe’s largest bank in the 15th century.

3. The first worldwide banking crisis emerged during the Great Depression in 1929. Many citizens lost their jobs and their savings as banks crashed. In 1933 American president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill in which the government guaranteed the savings of depositors if a bank went bankrupt. In 2008 a banking crisis hit America and spread throughout the world. Banks gave homeowners mortgages without checking their financial backgrounds. House prices began to drop and banks lost a lot of money. Governments in many countries had to give them money and prevent them from becoming bankrupt.

4. The world’s largest banks are located in Europe, the United States and Japan. In most cases they operate in many countries of the world. Modern banks offer their customers many other services as well. They tell them how they can make money with investments in stocks and bonds. Credit cards are given to customers as a cash-free way of buying things.


B. Mark the sentences a) T (True)

B) F (False)

C) NG (Not Given)


1. If you keep your money in a bank, it not only protects it but pays you interest rates.

2. The first worldwide political crisis emerged during the Great Depression in 1929.

3. The banks give customers cheque books and credit cards to use instead of cash.




Variant № 6

I. Match the words with the definitions.

1) agreement a) an amount of money that must be paid

2) reduction b) a person, bank, or company that you owe

money to

3) creditor c) the amount of money that something is worth

4) value d) a decrease in the size, price or amount of smth.

5) loan e) an arrangement or promise to do something made by two or more people, companies, organizations, etc.

6) payment f) an amount of money that you borrow from a bank

7) investor g) the money that is available to an organization or person

8) budget h) someone who gives money to a company, business or bank in order to get a profit.



II. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.

market leader rules delivery department online shopping boost campaign employees  


1. Many people use the web for........... or banking.

2. In formal situations it’s a good idea to follow standard.......... when making new contacts.

3. A company that has the biggest sales or the best selling product in the market is the...........

4. The company hopes that its new strategy will give sales a...........

5. Some retailers have found it difficult to guarantee.......... times: goods may arrive late.

6. A.......... is a part of company where people do a particular kind of work.

7. One recent advertising ……. lasted for over a year.

8. Our ……. are the best trained in the country.


III. These are confused pairs of words. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.


a) The firm agreed that increasing client satisfaction was our........goal.

b) It was in the parties'.........interest to reach an agreement quickly.


a) There were........hours logged than the company expected.

b) The amount of gasoline was.......than we had budgeted for.


a) The.......reason we didn't pursue it was the cost.

b) We didn't want to continue the case, mostly because of..........


a) The cost will.......the final contract.

b) We know that the.......of the merger will create problems.


IV. a) КОПР №3,4.

B) Choose the correct option a-c to complete the sentences.

1. The company........ in car sales for many years.

a) has dealt b) has been dealing c) was dealing


2. Вefore John celebrated his 26th birthday, he....... his own company.

a) started b) has started c) had started


3. By the end of the month I.........this project.

a) will finish b) will have finished c) finish


4. Our distributor called while I........to Jim.

a) was talking b) have been talking c) would be talking


5. We....... her at the sales conference last week.

a) have met b) met c) have meet


6. I........my new job next week.

a) will start b) am starting c) start


7. The number of employees cycling to work.........

a) increased b) have increased c) has increased


8. We........ to an agreement on the terms of payment before you arrived.

a) have come b) had come c) came



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