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Merger is an integration between two or more firms in order to expand the business operations. Takeover means the acquiring of a company in order to increase the market share of the business.

• Mergers are primarily practiced by the companies to reduce the risk of entering into a new market place.

• Takeover is a strategy used to expand the market share of the company and most often large companies acquire small companies.

5. Mergers and takeovers have been a part of the business world for centuries. In today's dynamic economic environment, companies are often faced with decisions concerning these actions. Through mergers and acquisitions, a company can develop a competitive advantage and ultimately increase shareholder value.


B. Mark the sentences a) T (True)

B) F (False)

C) NG (Not Given)


1.There are many disadvantages that the companies get through mergers.

2. Mergers give the companies the opportunity to share the resources and to increase the level of their strength.

3. Companies are encouraged to takeover other companies by an investment






Variant № 9

I. Match the words with the definitions.

1) packaging a) the most important place of work of a company


2) competitor b) the box or bag that you sell a product

3) marketing c) a date or time when you must finish something

4) promotion d) finding the best way to make customers buy products

5) salary e) a design that is the official sign of a company, used

on products or in advertising

6) logo f) a better job in the same company

7) deadline g) money that you get for working

8) headquarters h) a company that sells products or services in the

same market as your company



II. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.

invoice population supplier research profit pension advice budget  

1. Do you think that the......... will increase in the next ten years?

2. We didn't sell many products. So it's unlikely that we will make a...........this year.

3. The........has the correct goods but the wrong prices.

4. The department has a.......of $35,000 for corporate events this year.

5. Our scientists do a lot of...........for our new products.

6. This company gives its employees a good....... when they retire.

7. We buy office equipment from a......... in Scotland.

8. Fiona had a problem with her manager, but the HR department gave her

some good........ and everything is OK now.


III. These are confused pairs of words. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.


a) We will increase pay if the employees raise their …………

b) If we don't get another order soon, we'll have to cut ………… and maybe

close a factory.


a) She resigned from her job for........reasons.

b) Smith’s company has a ………… problem: their employees want a 20% pay




a) Supermarkets use a variety of tactics to attract and retain ……..


b) She advises ……. on their investments.




a) The government has promised to boost the flagging ……


b) Supply and demand is perhaps one of the most fundamental concepts of........


IV. a) КОПР №3,4.

B) Choose the correct option a-c to complete the sentences.

1. I.......emails all day. I'm exhausted.

a) have written b) have been writing c) am writing


2. The company is huge. It.........a thousand new jobs since the beginning of last year.

a) created b) is creating c) has created


3. She....... at that company for 3 years when it went out of business.

a) has been working b) had been working c) was working


4. I......... to call you all day. Why didn't you answer the phone?

a) have been trying b) am trying c) was trying


5. They felt bad about selling the house because they....... it for more than forty years.

a) have owned b) had owned c) owned


6. We....... this product since the beginning of the year.

a) have been producing b) produce c) are producing


7. I........ twenty emails so far today.

a) wrote b) have written c) had written


8. By the end of the month I.........this project.

a) will finish b) will have finished c) finish





V. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.


1. Sales representatives from all the regions attended the meeting.
The meeting....... by sales representatives from all the regions.

a) is attended b) was attended


2. The management will discuss the problem next week.

The problem......... by the management next week.

a) will discuss b) will be discussed


3. My assistant sent you the invoice last Monday.

The invoice....... to you by my assistant last Monday.

a) was sent b) is sent


4. You can find the order form on the last page of the catalogue.

The order form....... on the last page of the catalogue.

a) could be found b) can be found


5. The employees are improving the situation.

The situation.........by the employees.

a) is improving b) is being improved




VI. a) КОПР № 1

b) Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form, - ing or to...

1. They guarantee........ the work before 5 o'clock.

a) finishing b) to finish


2. I have lost my job so I 'll have to get used....... much less.

a) to spending b) to spend


3. Julia is interested in........ her own business.

a) starting b) to start


4. Could you continue......on the report while I make some phone calls?

a) to work b) working


5. He managed........the job on time.

a) finishing b) to finish


6. I like..........colleagues if they come to me with a problem.

a) helping b) to help





VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. An exchange rate is the price of a currency. Like any price it is decided by

supply and demand in the market.


2. The rate of exchange is the equilibrium between demand for the currency

and its supply.


3. A change in the exchange rate of the currency always has an impact on the

country economy. For example, if the rate of exchange rises, the country's goods

get more expensive and demand for them abroad falls. As a result the country's

exports may decrease.




A. Read this text.

The Factors of Production

1. The factors of production are resources that are the building blocks of the

economy; they are what people use to produce goods and services. Economists

divide the factors of production into four categories: land, labor, capital, and


2. The first factor of production is land, but this includes any natural resource used

to produce goods and services. This includes not just land, but anything that comes

from the land. The second factor of production is labor. Labor is the effort that

people contribute to the production of goods and services. If you have ever been paid

for a job, you have contributed labor resources to the production of goods or

services. The income earned by labor resources is called wages.

3. The third factor of production is capital. Think of capital as the machinery, tools

and buildings humans use to produce goods and services. Some common examples

of capital include hammers, forklifts, conveyer belts, computers, and delivery vans.

Capital differs based on the worker and the type of work being done.

4. The fourth factor of production is entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur is a person

who combines the other factors of production - land, labor, and capital - to earn a

profit. The most successful entrepreneurs are innovators who find new ways produce

goods and services or who develop new goods and services to bring to market.

Without the entrepreneur combining land, labor, and capital in new ways, many of the

innovations we see around us would not exist. Think of the entrepreneurship of

Henry Ford or Bill Gates. Entrepreneurs are a vital engine of economic growth.

Entrepreneurs thrive in economies where they have the freedom to start businesses

and buy resources freely. The payment to entrepreneurship is profit.


B. Mark the sentences a) T (True)

B) F (False)

C) NG (Not Given)


1. Economists divide the factors of production into land, labor and capital.


2. Entrepreneurs have the freedom to start businesses and buy resources freely.

3. Division of labor make the production process more efficient.






Variant № 10

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