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VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. All through world history people and countries have been trading with each

other. In the modern world an economy is considered open when it imports and

exports goods and services.


2. Export and import of goods is defined as 'visible' in contrast to the

'invisible' export and import of services.


3. The balance of trade is an integral part of the balance of payment. If imports

exceed exports, a country has a trade deficit, if the situation is the opposite,

a country achieves a trade surplus.



A. Read this text.

Money – Functions, History, Value

1. People in various cultures think of money in different ways. A London banker and an African tribesman have different ideas of what money is. Many people think of money as a currency - metal coins and paper bill. We need it to buy the things we want. We also get money for the work that we do. So, money is a way of exchanging goods and services. In the course of time people searched for better ways of trading goods. They found out that metal, especially gold and silver, was very valuable. Some historians believe that the first coins were made at around 700 B.C. by the Lydians. But it was not until the late Middle Ages that coins became common throughout Europe. Metals were stamped and coins had to have a certain weight. People knew how many coins they needed to buy something because they had a fixed value.

2. Paper money came into use about 300 years ago. The idea came from goldsmiths who gave people pieces of paper in exchange for their gold. These bills could be exchanged for their gold later on. Until the middle of the 20th century governments all over the world had deposits of gold that was worth as much as the money they gave to their people. Paper money had many advantages. It was cheaper to make and easier to carry around.

3. But there were also dangers. Governments could produce as much paper money as they wanted. If they produced too many banknotes and gave them to the people, they would have too much money to spend. If there were not enough goods to buy, prices would go up. The money then would lose its value. We call this inflation.

Today, the amount of money in circulation is controlled by central banks. They make sure that paper money has a constant value. More and more people use credit cards to buy things. You don’t have to take real money with you.


B. Mark the sentences a) T (True)

B) F (False)

C) NG (Not Given)

1. People knew how many coins they needed to buy something because they

had a great value.

2. Paper money had many benefits.

3. Before money was invented people use a system called bartering.






Variant № 8

I. Match the words with the definitions.

1) retail a) a customer, often one that buys a service

2) client b) sales to customers in shops

3) discount c) an amount of money that is available

4) goods d) a lower price than usual

5) invoice e) a company that sells goods to shops and businesses

6) price f) things that are made for people to buy

7) supplier g) a document that a supplier give to a customer, with

information about what the customer is buying and

how much it costs

8) budget h) how much money something costs




II. Complete each sentence with a word from the box.

colleagues supplier research directors flexible promotion manager staff  

1. My company has.......hours, so I can choose when I start and finish work.

2. We buy office equipment from a.........in Wales.

3. You have worked hard on this project and we want to give you a.........

4. We are a small company with good managers and.........

5. We did a lot of market..........before we designed the new product.

6. I enjoy my job because I like the people I work with. They are great..........

7. We are pleased to welcome two new.........to the board.

8. She's a good sales........ She's in charge of sales teams in France and Belgium.


III. These are confused pairs of words. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.


a) The building company gets 15% commission on each house.........

b) I don't think dealers........ these cars at much of a profit.


a) An anonymous businessmen.......... one million dollars to the charity.

b) Understanding how to....... money wisely for the development of your business is vital to the success of your company.


a) My....... is too stressful so I'm looking for another one.

b) I have a lot of........ to do tomorrow.


a) Working at the mall was really difficult because I had to deal with rude.......

b) When he started his job selling insurance, it was difficult to find.......

IV. a) КОПР №3,4.

B) Choose the correct option a-c to complete the sentences.

1. Experts........ of the bankruptcy since the company was founded.

a) have been warning b) warned c) have warned


2. It was a relief to find documents I.......for them all afternoon.

a) had looked b) have been working c) had been working


3. We already........the goods when your telegram arrived.

a) have shipped b) had shipped c) shipped


4. I........your proposal, and I'm quite impressed.

a) reviewed b) review c) have reviewed


5. The company........in car sales for many years.

a) has been dealing b) was dealing c) is dealing


6. By the end of the month I.........this project.

a) will finish b) will have finished c) finish


7. I........the approval of three committee members before Bob signed off on the


a) had already got b) did already get c) have already got

8. How long.......in sales?

a) have you worked b) have you been working c) were you working




V. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.


1. They sell the gold on international markets.

The gold........on international markets.

a) is sold b) sells


2. I have invested my money in real estate.

My money........ in real estate.

a) has been invested b) has invested



3. The employees are improving the situation.

The situation.........by the employees.

a) is improving b) is being improved


4. Henry Ford invented the assembly line.

The assembly line.......by Henry Ford.

a) is invented b) was invented


5. You can find the order form on the last page of the catalogue.
The order form....... on the last page of the catalogue.

a) can be found b) can found





VI. a) КОПР № 1

b) Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form, - ing or to...

1. Don't forget.......a letter with your CV.

a) to include b) including


2. After hours of negotiating, we managed........an agreement.

a) to reach b) reaching


3. Julia is interested in........ her own business.

a) starting b) to start


4. We determined.......... the project by the end of the next year.

a) finishing b) to finish

5. I like........colleagues if they come to me with a problem.

a) helping b) to help


6. The buyers want....... our terms of payment.

a) knowing b) to know




VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. Almost every country in the world has its national currency. Some

countries share a common currency, for example, the 13 European Union

member countries.


2. An exchange rate is the price of a currency. Like any price it is decided by

supply and demand in the market.


3. The rate of exchange is the equilibrium between demand for the currency

and its supply.




A. Read this text.

What are Mergers and Takeovers?

Merger is the combination of two or more companies into a single corporate entity that often takes on a new name. Mergers enable the companies to share the resources and to increase the level of their strength. In some instances, mergers take place in order to expand the business operations towards a different region.

There are many advantages that the companies gain through mergers such as increase in the sales revenue and market share in the industry, increase in tax efficiency. Further, mergers reduce the cost, increase the profits and increase the shareholder’s value in both merged companies.

3. Takeover or acquisition is a combination in which one firm, the acquirer, purchases and absorbs the operation of another firm, the acquired. Usually in a takeover, a larger company is acquiring a smaller company. The acquisition takes place with the motive of increasing the market share and to increase the level of company performance with the acquired resources to the company.

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